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Full text of "A Greek-English lexicon of the New Testament, being Grimm's Wilke's Clavis Novi Testamenti, tr., rev. and enl. by Joseph Henry Thayer"

GREEK-ENGLISH LEXICON 



OF THE 



NEW TESTAMENT 



Epictetus, Diss. L 17, iz 

maius quiddam atque divinius est sermo humanus quam quod rotum mutis 

litterarum figuris comprehendi queat 

Hermann, Opuscc. iii. 253. 

TA PHMATA A Effi AEAAAHKA YMIN HNEYMA KTIN KAI ZflH EETJH 












GEEEK-ENGLISH LEXICON 



OF THE 



NEW TESTAMENT 



BEING 



(Grimm's ItJilkc's Claois No»i ®c0tamenti 



TRANSLATED REVISED AND ENLARGED 

BY 

JOSEPH HENRY THAYER, D.D. 

HOK. LITT.D. DUBLIN 

BD6BBT PROFESSOR OF NEW TESTAMENT CRITICISM AND INTERPRETATION XS 

THE DITINITT SCHOOL OF HARVARD DNIVERSITT 



CORRECTED EDITION 

\5 



NEW YORK . CINCINNATI • CHICAGO 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 



Cq)yright, 1886, by Harphi & Br0THIE8. 

All rights reserved. 



Cl^yright, 1889, by Harper & BROTHEEg, 
All rights reserved. 



E P 10 



PA 

»**"£ IN U. 3. H. (? <^ 



r ., 



f 



. f 



PREFACE. 



'T"X>WARDS the close of the year 1862, the "Amoldische Buchhandlung** in Leipzig 
A published the First Part of a Greek-Latin Lexicon of the New Testament, prepared, 
upon the basis of the " Clavis Novi Testament! Philologica " of C. G. Wilke (second edition, 
2 vols. 1851), by Professor C. L. Wilibald Grimm of Jena. In his Prospectus Professor 
Grimm announced it as his purpose not only (in accordance with the improvements in classical 
lexicography embodied in the Paris edition of Stephen's Thesaurus and in the fifth edition of 
Passow's Dictionary edited by Rost and his coadjutors) to exhibit the historical growth of a 
word's significations and accordingly in selecting his vouchers for New Testament usage to 
show at what time and in what class of writers a given word became current, but also duly 
to notice the usage of the Septuagint and of the Old Testament Apocrypha, and especially to 
produce a Lexicon which should correspond to the present condition of textual criticism, of 
exegesis, and of biblical theology. He devoted more than seven years to his task. The 
successive Parts of his work received, as they appeared, the outspoken commendation of 
scholars diverging as widely in their views as Hupfeld and Hengstenberg ; and since its 
completion in 1868 it has been generally acknowledged to be by far the best Lexicon of the 
New Testament extant. 

An arrangement was early made with Professor Grimm and his publisher to reproduce 
the book in English, and an announcement of the same was given in the Bibliotheca Sacra for 
October 1864 (p. 886). The work of translating was promptly begun ; but it was protracted by 
engrossing professional duties, and in particular by the necessity — as it seemed — of preparing 
the authorized translation of Liinemann's edition of Winer's New Testament Grammar, which 
was followed by a translation of the New Testament Grammar of Alexander Buttmann. 
Meantime a new edition of Professor Grimm's work was called for.. To the typographical 
accuracy of this edition liberal contributions were made from this side the water. It appeared 
in its completed form in 1879. "Admirable", "unequalled", "invaluable", are some of the 
epithets it elicited from eminent judges in England; while as representing the estimate of 
the book by competent critics in Germany a few sentences may be quoted from Professor 
Schiirer's review of it in the Theologische Literaturzeitung for January 5, 1878 : " The use of 
Professor Grimm's book for years has convinced me that it is not only unquestionably the 
best among existing New Testament Lexicons, but that, apart from all comparisons, it is a work 



VI PREFACE. 

of the highest intrinsic merit, and one which is admirably adapted to initiate a learner into an 

acquaintance with the language of the New Testament. It ought to be regarded by every 
student as one of the first and most necessary requisites for the study of the New Testament, 
and consequently for the study of Theology in general." 

Both Professor Grimm and his publisher courteously gave me permission to make such 
changes in his work as might in my judgment the better adapt it to the needs of English- 
speaking students. But the emphatic commendation it called out from all quarters, in a 
strain similar to the specimens just given, determined me to dismiss the thought of issuing 
a new book prepared on my predecessor's as a basis, and — alike in justice to him and for 
the satisfaction of students — to reproduce his second edition in its integrity (with only the 
silent correction of obvious oversights), and to introduce my additions in such a form as should 
render them distinguishable at once from Professor Grimm's work. (See [] in the list of 
** Explanations and Abbreviations " given below.) This decision has occasionally imposed on 
me some reserve and entailed some embarrassments. But notwithstanding all minor draw- 
backs the procedure will, I am sure, commend itself in the end, not only on the score of 
justice to the independent claims and responsibility of both authors, but also on account of 
the increased assurance (or, at least, the broader outlook) thus afforded the student respect- 
ing debatable matters, — whether of philology, of criticism, or of interpretation. 

Some of the leading objects with the editor in his work of revision were stated in 
connection with a few specimen pages privately printed and circulated in 1881, and may here 
be repeated in substance as follows : to verify all references (biblical, classical, and — so far 
as practicable — modern) ; to note more generally the extra-biblical usage of words ; to give 
the derivation of words in cases where it is agreed upon by the best etymologists and is of 
interest to the general student ; to render complete the enumeration of (representative) verbal 
forms actually found in the New Testament (and exclude all others) ; to append to every verb 
a list of those of its compounds which occur in the Greek Testament ; to supply the New 
Testament passages accidentally omitted in words marked at the end with an asterisk ; to note 
more fully the variations in the Greek text of current editions ; to introduce brief discussions 
of New Testament synonyms ; to give the more noteworthy renderings not only of the 
*' Authorized Version " but also of the Kevised New Testament ; to multiply cross references ; 
references to grammatical works, both sacred (Winer, Buttmann, Green, etc.) and classical 
(Kiihner, Kriiger, Jelf, Donaldson, Goodwin, etc.) ; also to the best English and American 
Commentaries (Lightfoot, Ellicott, Westcott, Alford, Morison, Beet, Hackett, Alexander, The 
Speaker's Commentary, The New Testament Commentary, etc.), as well as to the latest 
exegetical works that have appeared on the Continent (Weiss, Heinrici, Keil, Godet, Oltramare, 
etc.) ; and to the recent Bible Dictionaries and Cyclopaedias (Smith, Alexander's Kitto, 
McClintock and Strong, the completed Riehm, the new Herzog, etc.), besides the various 
Lives of Christ and of the Apostle Paul. 

Respecting a few of these specifications an additional remark or two may be in place : 

One of the most prominent and persistent embarrassments encountered by the New 
Testament lexicographer is occasioned by the diversity of readings in the current editions of 
the Greek text. A slight change in the form or even in the punctuation of a passj^ may 



PREFACE. VII 

entail a change in its construction, and consequently in its classification in the Lexicon. In 
the absence of an acknowledged consensus of scholars in favor of any one of the extant 
printed texts to the exclusion of its rivals, it is incumbent on any Lexicon which aspires after 
general currency to reckon alike with them all. Professor Grimm originally took account of 
the text of the ' Receptus ', together with that of Griesbach, of Lachmann, and of Tischendorf. 
In his second edition, he made occasional reference also to the readings of Tregelles. In the 
present work not only have the textual statements of Grimm's second edition undergone 
thorough revision (see, for example, " Griesbach " in the list of " Explanations and Abbrevia- 
tions "), but the readings (whether in the text or the margin) of the editions of Tregelles and 
of Westcott and Hort have also been carefully noted. 

Again : the frequent reference, in the discussion of synonymous terms, to the distinctions 
holding in classic usage (as they are laid down by Schmidt in his voluminous work) must not 
be regarded as designed to modify the definitions given in the severaJ articles. On the 
contrary, the exposition of classic usage is often intended merely to serve as a standard of 
comparison by which the direction and degree of a word's change in meaning can be measured. 
When so employed, the information given will often start suggestions alike interesting and 
instructive. 

On points of etymology the statements of Professor Grimm have been allowed to stand, 
although, in form at least, they often fail to accord with modern philological methods. But 
they have been supplemented by references to the works of Curtius and Pick, or even more 
frequently, perhaps, to the Etymological Dictiouary of Vanicek, as the most compendious 
digest of the views of specialists. The meaning of radical words and of the component parts 
of compounds is added, except when it is indubitably suggested by the derivative, or when 
such words may be found in their proper place in the Lexicon. 

The nature and use of the New Testament writings require that the lexicographer should 
not be hampered by a too rigid adherence to the rules of scientific lexicography. A student 
often wants to know not so much the inherent meaning of a word as the particular sense it 
bears in a given context or discussion : — or, to state the same truth from another point of 
view, the lexicographer often cannot assign a particular New Testament reference to one or 
another of the acknowledged significations of a word without indicating his expgsitiou of the 
passage in which the reference occurs. In such a case he is compelled to assume, at least to 
some extent, the functions of the exegete, although he can and should refrain from rehearsing 
the general arguments which support the interpretation adopted, as well as from arraying the 
objections to opposing interpretations. 

Professor Grimm, in his Preface, with reason calls attention to the Kabor he has expended 
upon the explanation of doctrinal terms, while yet guarding himself against encroaching upon 
the province of the dogmatic theologian. In this particular the editor has endeavored to enter 
into his labors. Any one who consults such articles as aliov, atwvios, /Saa-iXcia rov 6eov etc., 
Bucttuy; and its cognates, Sd^a, eXTri's, ^w?;, 6a.vaT0<;, ^cds, Koa-fios, Kvpios> ttio-ti?, TrvevfiOf <rdpi, crot^ia, o"oi5^a) 

and its cognates, vJo? rov dvOpwrov, vJo? tow Oeov, XptoTo's, and the like, will find, it is believed, all 
the materials needed for a complete exposition of the biblical contents of those terms. On the 
comparatively few points respecting which doctrinal opinions still differ, references have been 



viu PREFACE. 

added to representative disonssions on both sides, or to anthors whose views may be regarded 
as supplementing or correcting those of Professor Grimm. 

Convenience often prescribes that the archaeological or historical facts requisite to the 
understanding of a passage be given the student on the spot, even though he be referred for 
fuller information to the works specially devoted to such topics. In this particular, too, the 
editor has been guided by the example of his predecessor ; yet with the constant exercise of 
self-restraint lest the book be encumbered with unnecessary material, and be robbed of that 
succinctness which is one of the distinctive excellences of the original. 

In making his supplementary references and remarks the editor has been governed at 
different times by different considerations, corresponding to the different classes for whose 
use the Lexicon is designed. Primarily, indeed, it is intended to satisfy the needs and to 
guide the researches of the average student; although the specialist will often find it 
serviceable, and on the other hand the beginner will find that he has not been forgotten. 
Accordingly, a caveat must be entered against the hasty inference that the mention of a 
different interpretation from that given by Professor Grimm always and of necessity implies 
dissent from him. It may be intended merely to inform the student that the meaning of the 
passage is still in debate. And the particular works selected for reference have been chosen — 
now because they seem best suited to supplement the statements or references of the origi- 
nal ; now because they furnish the most copious references to other discussions of the same 
topic ; now because they are familiar works or those to which a student can readily get access ; 
now, again, because unfamiliar and likely otherwise to escape him altogether. 

It is in deference, also, to the wants of the ordinary student that the references to 
grammatical works — particularly Winer and Buttmann — have been greatly multiplied. The 
expert can easily train his eye to run over them ; and yet even for him they may have their 
use, not only as giving him the opinion of eminent philologists on a passage in question, but 
also as continually recalling his attention to those philological considerations on which the 
decision of exegetical questions must mainly rest. 

Moreover, in the case of a literature so limited in compass as the Kew Testament, it 
seems undesirable that even a beginner should be subjected to the inconvenience, expense, and 
especially the loss of facility, incident to a change of text-books. He will accordingly find 
that not only have his wants been heeded in the body of the Lexicon, but that at the close of 
the Appendix a list of verbal forms has been added especially for his benefit. The other 
portions of the Appendix will furnish students interested in the history of the New Testament 
vocabulary, or investigating questions — whether of criticism, authorship, or biblical theology 
— which involve its word-lists, with fuller and more trustworthy collections than can be found 
elsewhere. 

Should I attempt, in conclusion, to record the names of all those who during the many 
years in which this work has been preparing have encouraged or assisted me by word or pen, 
by counsel or book, the list would be a long one. Express acknowledgments, however, must be 
made to George B. Jewett, D.D., of Salem and to Professor W. W. Eaton now of Middlebury 
College, Vermont. The former has verified and re-verified all the biblical and classical 



PREFACE. IX 

references, besides noting in the main the various readings of the critical texts, and rendering 
valuable aid in correcting many of the proofs ; the latter has gathered the passages omitted 
from words marked with a final asterisk, completed and corrected the enumeration of verbal 
forms, catalogued the compound verbs, had an eye to matters of etymology and accentuation, 
and in many other particulars given the work the benefit of his conscientious and scholarly 
labor. To these names one other would be added were it longer written on earth. Had the 
lamented Dr. Abbot been spared to make good his generous offer to read the final proofs, every 
user of the book would doubtless have had occasion to thank him. He did, however, go 
through the manuscript and add with his own hand the variant verse-notation, in accordance 
with the results of investigation subsequently given to the learned world in his Excursus on 
the subject published in the First Part of the Prolegomena to Tischendorf's Editio Octava 
Critica Major. * 

To Dr. Caspar Ren^ Gregory of Leipzig (now Professor-elect at Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore) my thanks are due for the privilege of using the sheets of the Prolegomena 
just named in advance of their publication; and to the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, 
Oxford, for a similar courtesy in the case of the Seventh Edition of Liddell and Scott's 
Lexicon. 

No one can have a keener sense than the editor has of the shortcomings of the present 
volume. But he is convinced that whatever supersedes it must be the joint product of several 
laborers, having at their command larger resources than he has enjoyed, and ampler leisure 
than falls to the lot of the average teacher. Meantime, may the present work so approve itself 
to students of the Sacred Volume as to enlist their co-operation with him in ridding it of every 
remaining blemish 

— iva 6 Xoyog tov KvpCov TpixQ '^^'- So^a^grot. 

J. H. THAYER. 
Cahbbidge, Massachusetts. 

Dec. 25, 18S5. 



In issuing this " Corrected Edition " opportunity has been taken not only to revise the 
supplementary pages (725 sq.), but to add in the body of the work (as circumstances per- 
mitted) an occasional reference to special monographs on Biblical topics which have been 
published during the last three years, as well as to the Fourth Volume of Schmidt's Synonymik 
(1886), and also to works which (like Meisterhans) have appeared in an improved edition. 
The Third edition (1888) of Grimm, however, has yielded little new material ; and Dr. Hatch's 
" Essays in Biblical Greek " comes to hand too late to permit references to its valuable dis- 
cussions of words to be inserted. 

To the correspondents, both in England and this country, who have called my attention to 
errata, I beg to express my thanks ; and I would earnestly ask all who use the book to send 
me similar favors in time to come : — drcXes ovSev ouStvos fxerpov. 

April 10, 1889. 



LIST OF ANCIENT AUTHORS 



QUOTED OR REFERRED TO IN THE LEXICON. 



N. B. In the preparation of this list, free use has been made of the lists in the Lexicons of Liddell and Scott and of Sophocles, alao 
«f Freund's Triennium Philologicum (1874) vols. i. and ii., of Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography, of Smith and Wace's 
Dictionary of Christian Biography, of Engelmann's Bibliotheca Scriptorum Classicorum (8th ed. 1880), and of other current work* of 
reference. An asterisk (*) before a date denotes birth, an obelisk (t) death. 



A.D. 

500? 



2d cent, on 
c. 180 



c. 500 



200? 

200 

374 

t c. 400 
390 



B.C 

Achilles Tatius 

Acts of Paul and Thecla, of Pilate, of 
Thomas, of Peter and Paul, of Barna- 
bas, etc., at the earliest from . . . 

Aeliax 

Aeschines 345 

Aeschylus *525, t456 

Aesop ^ 570 

Aetius . . 

Agatharchides 117? 

Alcaeus Mytilenaeus 610 

Alciphron 

Alcman 610 

Alexander Aphrodisiensis . . . 

Alexis 350 

Ambrose, Bp. of Milan 

Ammianus Marcellinus .... 
Ammonius, the grammarian .... 

Anacreon^ 530 

Anaxandrides 350 

Anaximander 580 

Andocides 405 

Antiphanes 380 

Antiphon . . 412 

Antoninus, M. Aurelics .... 

Apollodorus of Athens 140 

Apollonius Dyscolus 

Apollonius Rhodius 200 

Appian 

Appuleius 

Aquila (translator of the 0. T.) . . 

Aratus 270 

Archilochus 700 

Archimedes, the mathematician . . 250 
Archytas c. 400 



' But the current Fables are not his; on the History of Greek 
Fable, see Rutherford, Babrius, Introd. ch. ii. 

* Only a few fragments of the odes ascribed to him are genuine. 



tl80 

140 

150 
160 

I 2d cent, (under 
Hadrian.) 



B.O. 

Aretaeus 

Aristaenetus 

AristeasI 270 

Aristides, p. Aelius 

Aristophanes *444, t380 

Aristophanes, the grammarian . . . 200 

Aristotle *384, t322 

Arrian (pupil and friend of Epictetus) 
Artemidorus Daldianus (oneiro- 

critica) 

Athanasius 

Athenaeus, the grammarian . . . 

Athenagoras of Athens 

Augustine, Bp. of Hippo 

AusoNius, Decimus Magnus . . 
Babrius (see Rutherford, Babrius, Intr. 

ch. i.) (some say 501) 

Barnabas, Epistle written .... 
Baruch, Apocryphal Book of ... , 

Basilica, the ^ 

Basil the Great, Bp. of Caesarea . 

Basil of Seleucia 

Bel and the Dragon 2d cent. ? 

Bion 200 

Caesar, Gaius Julius . . tMarch 15, 44 

Callimachus 260 

Canons and Constitutions, Apostolic . . 
Capitolinus, Juli us ( one of the " Hist. 

August, scriptores sex ") .... 

Cebes 399 

Cedrenus 



A.D. 

80? 
450? 

160 



•c. 100 

160 

1373 
228 
177? 
t430 
tc. 390 

0.225 
c. 100? 
c. 75? 
c. 900 
t379 
450 



8dud 4<h I 

c. 310 

1050 



1 But his letter is spurious; see Hody, De Bibl. text. orig. L i.; 
A. Kurz, Arist. ep. etc (Bern 1872). 

2 The law-book of the Byzantine Empire, founded upon the work 
of Justinian and consisting of sixty books. It was begun under 
the emperor Basil of Macedonia (tf'Se), completed under his son 
Leo. and revised in 945 under Constantine Porphyrogenitus ; (ed. 
Heimbach, 6 vols. 1833-70). 



AwciEKT Authors. 



XII 



AmCIENT AUTHOl 



B.O. 

Celsds, a. Cornelius, the medical 

writer 

Chares 320 

Chariton 

CHRT8IPPD8 of Tyana (in Athenaeus) 
Chrtsostom, Dio, the orator, see Die Chrys. 
Chrysostom, John, Bp. of Constan- 
tinople 

Cicero tDec. 7,43 

Clemens Alexandrinus 

Clemens Romancs, Epistle written . 

Cleomedes * 

Columella 

constantincs pokphtrooenitus, 

emperor from 

Constitutiones apostoUcae 

Cbatincs t423 

Cbitias 411 

Ctesias 401 

CCRTIUS 

Cyprian 

Cyril of Alexandria 

Cyril of Jerusalem 

Democritus 430 

Demosthenes *385, t322 

Dexippus, the historian .... 

DiDYMUS of Alexandria 

Dio Cassius 

Dio Chrysostom 

Diocles 470 

DiODORUS SiCULUS 40 

Diogenes Laertius 

Diognetus, Epistle to 

DiONYsius Pseudo-Areopagita . . 
DiONYSins of Halicarnassus .... 30 

DiONYSiDS Periegetes 

DiOSCORIDES 

DiPHiLUS 300 

Ecclesiasticus (Wisdom of Jesus the 

Son of Sirach ; Grk. trans.) . . . c. 132 ? 

Ennius tl69 

Enoch, Book of 2d cent, on 

Ephrem Syrus . . 

Epicharmus 480 

Epictetcs 

Epicurus *342, t270 

Epimenides 600 

Epiphanius, Bp. of Salamis . . . 

Eratosthenes t c. 196 

Esdras, First Book of (Ynigate Third) Istcent.? 
Esdras, Second Book of( Vulgate Fourth) 

Esther, Additions to 2d cent. ? 

Etymologicum Magnum 

Eubulus 350 

Euclid 300 

EuPOLis 429 

Euripides •480, t406 

EuBEBiUs, Bp. of Csesarea^ .... 
EuslATHius of Constantinople, gram- 

marian 



A.D. 



450? 
1 



t407 

200 
93-97 

too? 

50 
911-959 

3d ud 4tb e»t. 



50 
t257 
t444 
t386 



C.270 
c. 395 
200' 
100 



c. 200 

2d or 3d cent 

500? 

300? 
100? 



C.375 
100 

t403 

Istcent ? 
1000? 



tc.340 
1160 



Callef' Pamphill (as friend of the martyr Pamphilos). 



B.O. ▲.& 

Euthymius Zioabenus or Zigadenns 

(Zygadenus) 1100 

Florus, Julius c. 125 

Galen •131, to. 197 

Gellius, Aulus (author of Noctes 

Atticae) 150 

Genesius 950 

Geoponica (20 bks. on agricoltaie com- 
piled by Cassianus Bassus) .... c 985 
Germanus of Constantinople, the 

younger c. 1280 

GoRGiAS of Leontini 430 

Gregory of Nazianzus t390 

Gregory of Nyssa t395 

Habpocration (lexicon to the Ten 

Attic Orators) S501 

Hecataeus 510 

Hegesippus (quoted in Eusebios) . . c. 175 

Heliodorus, Bp. of Tricca in Thessaly 390 1 

Heraclides Ponticus (but the Alleg. 

Homer, are spurious) 390 

Hebaclitus 500 

Hermas 1401 

Hermippus 432 

Hermogenes 170 

Hero Alexandrinus 250 

Herodian, the grammarian .... 160 

Herodian, the historian .... t240 

Herodotus *484, t408 

Hesiod 850? 

Hesychius of Alexandria, the lexicog- 

rapher 6001 

Hierocles 450 

Hieronymus, see Jerome. 

HlMEKIUS 360 

Hippocrates 430 

hippolytus 225 

Hipponax 540 

HiRTius (the continuator of Caesar's 

Commentaries) t43 

Homer 900? 

Horapollo, grammarian . ... 400 f 

Horace t8 

Hyperides t322 

Ignatius c. 110 

Irenaeus, Bp. of Lyons 178 

ISAEUS 370 

IsiDORUS HisPALENSis, Bp. of Seville t636 

IsocRATES *436, t338 

Jamblichus 300 

Jeremiah, Ep. o/ (6th ch. of Baruch) Ist cent 1 
Jerome (Sophronius (?) Eusebins Hie- 
ronymus) 1420 

Joannes Damascenus 730 

Joannes Moschus t620 

Josephus 75 

Judith 175-100 

Julian, Roman emperor from . . . 361-363 

Justinian, Roman emperor from . . 527-665 

Justin, the historian 150? 

Justin Martyr 150 

Juvenal 100 



Anciknt Authors. 



XIII 



Ancient Acthobs. 



B.O. A.D. 

Lactantius 310 

Lampkidi us, the historian. .... 310 

Lko ' Philosophus ', emperor .... 886 

LiBAMiDS, the rhetorician 350 

Livr *5^ m 

LONGINDS 250 

LONGCS 400? 

LucAN, the epic poet t65 

LuciAN of Samosata, the satirist . . 160? 

LuciLius, the Roman satirist . . . flOS 
Lucretius, the Roman poet .... t55 

Lycophron c. 270 

Lycurgus of Athens, the orator . . t329 

Lynceus 300 

Lysias, the Athenian orator, opened 

his school 410 

Lysippus 434 

Macarius C.350 

Maccabees, First Book of . . . 105-63 ? 

Maccabees, Second Book of C- 75 ? 

Maccabees, Third Book of C 40 ? 

Maccabees, Fourth Book of ... , Ist. cent ? 

Machon 280 

Macrobius 420 

Malalas, John, the annalist . . . 600 ? 

Manasses, Prayer of 1st cent. ? 

Manetho, the Egyptian priest . . . 300 

Marcion 140 

Maximus Tyrius 150 

Mela, Pomponius, the Roman geog- 
rapher 45 

Meleager, the founder of the epi- 
gram, anthologies 60 

Melito, Bp. of Sardis c. 175 

Menander, the poet 325 

Menander, the Byzantine historian . 583 

MiMNERMUS, the poet c. 600 

Moeris, the "Atticist" and lexicog- 
rapher 2d cent. 

MOSCHION 110? 

MoscHus 200 

MusoNius RuFus 66 

Nemesius 400? 

Nepos *90, t24 

NiCANDER 160? 

NicEPHORUs, patriarch of Constanti- 
nople f828 

NicEPHORUS Bryennius, the histo- 
rian tll37 

Nicephorcs Gregoras, Byzantine his- 
torian 11359 

NicETAs AcoMiNATus (also Choniatcs), 

Byzantine historian 1200 

Nicodemus, Gospel of, see Acts of Pilate 

NiCOLAUS Damascenus 14 

NicoMACHus Gerasenus 50 

NiLus, the pupil and friend of John 

Chrysostom 420 

NONNUS of Panopolis in Upper Egypt, 

the poet 500 ? 

NuMENius of Apameia, the philoso- 
pher (as quoted by Origen) .... C. 150 



B.C. A.D. 

NuMENius (as quoted by Athen.) . . c. 350 

Ocellus Lucanus 400? 

Oecumenius, Bp. of Tricca .... 950? 
Olympiodorus, the Neo-Platonic phi- 
losopher 525 

Oppian of Anazarbus in Cilicia (auth. 

of the aA»6UT«/c(£) 180? 

Oppian of Apameia in Syria (aath. of 

the KvvnyeTiKd) 210? 

Origen t c. 254 

Orosius Paulus 415 

Orphica, the 1 

Ovid tl7 

Palaephatus 1 

Papias, Bp. of Hierapolis, first half of 2d cent. 

Pausanias 160 

Petrus Alexandrinus t311 

Phalaris, spurious epistles of . . . ? 

Phavorinus, Varinus^ 

Philemon, Comicus 330 

Philo 39 

Philodemus 50 

Philostratus . . 237 

Phocylides 540 

Pseudo-Phocylides (in the Sibyl. 

Orac., q.y.) 1st cent. 1 

Photius (Patriarch of Constantinople) 850 

Phrynichus, the grammarian . . . 180 

Phylarchus 210 

Pindar . . *521 (4 yrs. after Aeschylus), t44l 
Plato, Comicus, contemporary of Ari- 
stophanes 427 

Plato, the philosopher *427, t347 

Plautus tl84 

Pliny the elder, the naturalist . . . t79 

Pliny the younger, the nephew and 

adopted son of the preceding ... tll3 

Plotinus, the philosopher .... t270 

Plutarch tl20 

Pollux, author of the hvoiiaariKov . . 180 

PoLYAENUS, author of the arpariiylt- 

fiara 163 

POLYBIUS tl22 

PoLYCARP tl55,Feb.23 

Porphyry, pupil of Plotinus .... 270 

PosiDippus 280 

PosiDONius, philosopher (teacher of 

Cicero and Pompey) 78 

Proclus, philosopher 450 

Propertius *48, tl6 

Protevangelium Jacobi 2d cent. 

Psalter of Solomon 63-48? 

PsELLus the younger, philosopher . . 1050 

Ptolemy, the geographer 160 

Pythagoras 531 

QuiNTiLiAN, rhetorician, teacher of 

Pliny the younger t95 

QuiNTUS Smyrnaeus 380? 

' The Latin name of the Italian Guarino Pavorlno, who died 
A. D. 1537, and was the author of a Greek Lexicon compiled mainly 
from SuVdas, Hesychius, Harpocration, Eustathius, and Phryni- 
chus. 1st ed. Eome, 1523, and often elsewhere since. 



Ancient Authors. 



XIV. 



Ancient Authors. 



B.C. A.D. 

Salldbt *86, t35 

Sapitntia (Sal.), see Wisdom of Solomon. 

Sappho 610 

Skneca, L. Annaecs, the philosopher 

(son of the rhetorician) t65 

Septuagint, Greek translation of O.T. c. 280-150 

Sextus Empiricus 225? 

Sibylline Oracles, of various dates, rang- 
ing perhaps from 170 to th« 4th e«nt. 

SiLius Italicds, poet tlOl 

Simon IDES of Amorgos, " lambo- 
graphus" . 693 

SiMONiDES of Ceos (author of the epi- 
taph on the Spartans that fell at 
Thermopylae) 525 

SiMPLicius, the commentator on Aris- 
totle and Epictetus 500 

Sirach, see Ecclesiasticus. 

Socrates ' Scholasticus ', of Constan- 
tinople, historian 489 

Socrates (in Stobaeus) 

SoLiNus, sumamed Polyhistor . . 3001 

Solomon, Psalms of, see Psalter etc. 

Solomon, Wisdom of, see Wisdom etc. 

SoLON, the lawgiver and poet .... 594 

Song of the Three Children .... 2d cent. ? 

Sophocles '496, t406 

SoPHRONius of Damascus 638 

SOTADES 1 

SozoMEN, historian 450 

Statics, the Roman poet t96 

Stobaeds, i. e. John of Stobi in Mace- 
donia (compiler of Anthol.) . . . 500? 

Strabo, the geographer *66 t24 

Straton, epigrammatist 150? 

Strattis, comic poet 407 

Suetonius, the historian, friend of 
Pliny the younger tl60 

SuTdas, the lexicographer . ... 1100? 

Susanna 1st cent.? 

Symmachus (translator of the O. T. 
into Greek) 200? 

Synesius, pagan philosopher and 
bishop of Ptolemais 410 

Tacitus tc. 117 

Tatian c 160 

Teaching of tht Twelve ApottleM ... 2d cent. ? 

Tebencb tlS9 



Tertullian t220? 

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarch* . . c. 125? 

Theages ? 

Themistius 355 

Theocritus 280 

Theodoret 420 

Theodorus Metochita 1300 

Theodotion (translator of O. T. into 
Greek) before 160 

Theoonis 540 

Theophilus, Bp. of Antioch .... 180 

Theophrastus, pupil and successor of 
Aristotle 323 

Theophylact, Abp. of Bulgaria . . 1078 

Theophylact Simocatta .... 610 

Thomas Magister, lexicographer and 
grammarian ISIO 

Thucydides 423 

TiBULLUS tl8 

Timaeus, the historian of Sicily . . 260 

TiMAEUs the Sophist, author of Lexicon 
to Plato 250 « 

TiMAEUS of Locri, Pythagorean phi- 
losopher 375? 

TiMOV, the " Sillographus " or satirist . c. 279 

TiMOCLES 350 

Tobit c. 200 ? 

Tryphiodorus, a versifier .... 400 ? 

TzETZES, Byzantine grammarian and 
poet 1150 

Valerius Maximus 30 

Varro, " vir Romanorum eruditissi- 
mus" (Quintil.) t26 

Vegetius, on the art of war . . . . 420? 

Vergil tl9 

ViTRUvius, the only Roman writer on 
architecture 30 

Vopiscus, historian (cf. Capitolinus) . C.810 

Wisdom of Solomon (abbr. Sap.) . . c. 100? 

Xenophanes, founder of the Eleatic 

philosophy 540 

Xenophon (Anabasis) 401 

Xenophon of Ephesus, romancer . . 400? 

Zend of Citium 290 

Zenodotus, first librarian at Alexan- 
dria 280 

ZoNARAS, the chronicler HIS 

ZosiMUS, Roman historian .... 480 



LIST OF BOOKS 

REFERRED TO MERELY BY THEIR AUTHOR'S NAME OR BY SOME EXTREME 

ABRIDGMENT OF THE TITLE. 



Albert! = Joannes Alherti, Observationes Philologicae in 
sacros Novi Foederis Libros. Lugd. Bat., 1725. 

Aristotle: when pages are cited, the reference is to the 
edition of the Berlin Academy (edited by Bekker and 
Brandis ; index by Bonitz) 5 vols. 4to, 1831-1870. Of the 
Rhetoric, Sandys's edition of Cope (3 vols., Cambridge, 
1877) has been used. 

Baumlein= W. Bdumlein, Untersuchungen iiber griechi- 
sche Partikeln. Stuttgart, 1861. 

B.D. = Dr. William Smith's Dictionary of the Bible, 3 vols. 
London, 1860-64. The American.edition (4vols., N.Y. 
1868-1870), revised and edited by Professors Hackett and 
Abbot, has been the edition used, and is occasionally 
referred to by the abbreviation " Am. ed." 

BB. DD. = Bible Dictionaries : — comprising especially the 
work just named, and the third edition of Kitto's Cyclo- 
paedia of Biblical Literature, edited by Dr. W. L. Alex- 
ander: 3 vols., Edinburgh, 1870. 

Bnhdy. = G. Bernhardi/, Wissenschaftliche Syntax der 
Griechischen Sprache. Berlin, 1829. 

B. = Alexander Buttmann, Grammar of the New Testament 
Greek. (Authorized Translation with numerous Addi- 
tions and Corrections by the Author: Andover, 1873.) 
Unless otherwise indicated, the reference is to the page 
of the translation, with the corresponding T)age of the 
German original added in a parenthesis. 

Bttm. Ausf. Spr. or Sprchl. = Philipp Buttmann, Ausfiihr- 
liche Griechische Sprachlehre. (2d ed., 1st vol. 1830, 2d 
vol. 1839.) 

Bttm. Gram. = Philipp Buttmann's Griechische Gram- 
matik. The edition used (though not the latest) is the 
twenty-first (edited by Alexander Buttmann: Berlin, 
1863). Its sections agree with those of the eighteenth 
edition, translated by Dr. Robinson and published by 
Harper & Brothers, 18.51. When the page is given, the 
translation is referred to. 

Bttm. Lexil. = Philipp Buttmann's Lexilogus u. s. w. (1st 
vol. 2d ed. and 2d vol. Berlin, 1825.) The work was 
translated and edited by J. R. Fishlake, and issued in one 
volume by John Murray, London, 1836. 

"Bible Educator" = a collection (with the preceding name) 
of miscellaneous papers on biblical topics by various 
writers under the editorship of Rev. Professor E. H. 



Plumptre, and published in 4 vols, (without date) by 
Cassell, Petter, and Galpin. 

Chandler = Henry W. Chandler, A Practical Introduction to 
Greek Accentuation. Second edition, revised : Oxford, 
1881. 

Cremer = Hermann Cremer, Biblisch-theologisches Worter- 
buch der Neutestamentlichen Gracitat. * Third greatly 
enlarged and improved Edition': Gotha, 1883. Of the 
' Fourth enlarged and improved Edition ' nine parts 
(comprising nearly two thirds of the work) have come to 
hand, and are occasionally referred to. A translation 
of the second German edition was published in 1878 
by the Messrs. Clark. 

Curtlus = Georg Curtius, Grundziige der Griechischen Ety- 
mologie. Fifth edition, with the co-operation of Ernst 
Windisch: Leipzig, 1879. 

Diet, of Antiq. = Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiqui- 
ties. Edited by Dr. William Smith. Second edition: 
Boston and London, 1869, also 1873. 

Diet, of Biog. = Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography 
and Mythology. Edited by Dr. William Smith. 3 vols. 
Boston and London, 1 849. 

Diet, of Chris. Antiq. = A Dictionary of Christian Antiqui- 
ties, being a Continuation of the Dictionary of the Bible. 
Edited by Dr. William Smith and Professor Samuel 
Cheetham. 2 vols. 1875-1880. 

Diet, of Chris. Biog. = A Dictionary of Christian Biogra- 
phy, Literature, Sects and Doctrines; etc. Edited by 
Dr. William Smith and Professor Henry Wace: vol. 
i. 1877; vol. ii. 1880; vol. iii. 1882; (not yet complete). 

Diet, of Geogr. = Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geogra- 
phy. Edited by Dr. William Smith. 2 vols. 1854-1857. 

Edersheim = Alfred Edershrim, The Life and Times of 
Jesus the Messiah. 2 vols. Second edition, stereotyped. 
London and New York, 1884. 

Eisner = J. Eisner, Observationes sacrae in Novi Foederi* 
libros etc. 2 vols., Traj. ad Rhen. 1720, 1728. 

Etym. Magn.=the Etymologicum Magnum (see List ol 
Ancient Authors, etc.) Gaisford's edition (I vol. folio, 
Oxford, 1848) has been used. 

Fick = August Fick, Vergleichendes Worterbneh der In- 
dogermanischen Sprachen. Third edition. 4 vols. G6t> 
tingen, 1874-1876. 



List of Books. 



XVI 



List of BookSi. 



Gottling = Car/ Goettling, Allgemeine Lehre vom Accent 
der griechischen Sprache. Jena, 1835. 

Goodwin = W. W. Goodwin, Syntax of the Moods and 
Tenses of the Greek Verb. 4th edition revised. Boston 
and Cambridge, 1871. 

Graecns Venetus = the Greek version of the Pentateuch, 
Prov., Ruth, Canticles, p]ccl., Lam., Dan., according to a 
unique MS. in the Library of St. Mark's, Venice ; edited 
by O. V. Gebhardt. Lips. 1875, 8vo pp. 592. 

Green =Thomas Sheldon Green, A Treatise on the Grammar 
of the New Testament etc. etc. A new Edition. Lon- 
don, Samuel Bagster and Sons, 1862. 

Also, by the same author " Critical Notes on the New 
Testament, supplementary to his Treatise on the Gram- 
mar of the New Testament Dialect." London, Samuel 
Bagster and Sons, 1867. 

Hamburger=y. Hamburger, Real-Encyclopadie f iir Bibel nnd 
Talmud. Strelitz. First Part 1870; Second Part 1883. 

Herm. ad Vig., see Vig. ed. Herm. 

Herzog = Real-Encyklopadie fUr Protestantische Theologie 
und Kirche. Edited by Herzog. 21 vols, with index, 
1854-1868. 

Herzog 2 or ed. 2 = a second edition of the above (edited by 
Herzog t, Plitt t, and Hauck), begun in 1877 and not yet 
complete. 

Hesych. = Hesychius (see List of Ancient Authors, etc.) 
The edition used is that of M. Schmidt (5 vols. Jena, 
1858-1868) 

Jelf = W. E. J elf, A Grammar of the Greek Language. 
Third edition. Oxford and London, 2 vols. 1861. (Sub- 
sequent editions have been issued, but without, it is 
believed, material alteration.) 

Kautzsch = E. Kautzsch, Grammatik des Biblisch-Arama- 
ischen. Leipzig, 1884. 

Keim = Theodor Keim, Geschichte Jesu von Nazara u. s. w. 
3 vols. Ziirich, 1867-1872. 

Klotz ad Devar. = Matthaeus Devarius, Liber de Graecae 
Linguae Particulis, ed. R. Klotz, Lips., vol. i. 1835, vol. 
ii. sect. 1, 1840, vol. ii. sect. 2, 1842. 

Krebs, Observv. = J. T. Krebsii Observationes in Nov. Test, 
e Flavio Josepho Lips. 1755. 

Kruger = K. W. Kriiger, Griechische Sprachlehre f iir Schu- 
len. Fourth improved and enlarged edition, 1861 sq. 

Kypke, Observv% = G. D. Kypke, Observationes sacrae in 
Novi Foederis libros ex auctoribus potissimum Graecis et 
antiquitatibus. 2 vols. Wratisl. 1755. 

L. and S. = Liddell and Scott, Greek-English Lexicon etc. 
Seventh edition, 1883. 

Lob. ad Phryn., see Phryn. ed. Lob. 

Loesner = C F. Loesneri Observationes ad Novum Test, e 
PhUone Alexandrine. Lips. 1777. 

Lghtft. = Dr. John Lightfoot, the learned Hebraist of the 
17th century. 

Bp. Lghtft. = J. B. Lightfoot, D.D., Bishop of Durham ; tne 
8th edition of his commentary on the Epistle to the Gala 
tians is the one referred to, the 7th edition of his com- 
mentary on Philippians, the 7th edition of his commen 
tary on Colossians and Philemon. 

Lipsius = K. H. A. Li/>sius, Graramatische Untersuchungen 
iiber die Biblische Griicitat (edited by Prof. R. A. Lip- 
sins, the author's son). Leipzig, 1863. 

Matthiae = August Matthid, Ausfiihrlich Griechische Gram- 
matik. Third edition, 3 Pts., Leipz. 1835. 



McC. and S. = McClintock and Strong's Cyclopaedia of 
Biblical, Theological, and P^cclesiastical Literature. 10 
vols. 1867-1881 ; with Supplement, vol. i. (1885), vol. ii. 
with Addenda (1887). New York : Harper and Brothers. 

Meisterhans = K. Meisterhans, Grammatik der Attischen 
Inschriften. Berlin, 1885. (2d edition, 1888.) 

MuUach = F. W. A. Mullach, Grammatik der Griechischen 
Vulgarsprache u. s. w. Berlin, 1856. 

Munthe = C. F. Munthe, Observationes philolog. in sacros 
Nov. Test, libros ex Diod. Sic. collectae etc. (Hafn. et 
Lips. 1755.) 

Palairet = E. Palairet, Observationes philol.-crit. in sacros 
Novi Foederis libros etc. Lugd. Bat. 1752. 

Pape = W Pape, Griechisch-Deutsches Handworterbnch. 
Second edition. 2 vols. Brunswick, 1866. A continuation 
of the preceding work is the " Worterbuch der Griechi- 
schen Eigennamen." Third edition, edited by G. E. Ben- 
seler. 1863-1870. 

Passow = Franz Passow's Handworterbnch der Griechischen 
Sprache as re-edited by Rost, Palm, and others. Leipz. 
1841-1857. 

Phryn. ed. Lob. = Phrynichi Eclogae Nominum et Verbo- 
rum Atticorum etc. as edited by C. A. Lobeck. Leipzig, 
1820. (Cf. Rutherford.) 

Poll. = Pollux (see List of Ancient Authors, etc.) The 
edition used is that published at Amsterdam, 1 vol. folio, 
1706. (The most serviceable is that of William Dindorf, 
5 vols. 8vo, Leipzig, 1824.) 

Pss. of Sol. = Psalter of Solomon ; see List of Ancient 
Authors, etc. 

Raphel = G. Raphelii annotationes in Sacram Scriptnram 
... ex Xen., Polyb., Arrian., et Herodoto collectae. 2 
vols. Lugd. Bat. 1747. 

Riddell, Platonic Idioms = A Digest of Idioms given as an 
Appendix to " The Apology of Plato " as edited by the 
Rev. James Riddell, M. A. ; Oxford, 1867. 

Riehm (or Riehm, HWB.) = Handworterbuch des Biblischen 
Altertums u. s. w. edited by Professor Edward C. A. 
Riehm in nineteen parts (2 vols.) 1875-1884. 

Rutherford, New Phryn. = The New Phrynichus, being a 
revised text of the Ecloga of the Grammarian Phryni- 
chus, etc., by W. Gunion Rutherford. London, 1881. 

Schaff-Herzog = A Religious Encyclopaedia etc. by Philip 
Schaff and associates. 3 vols. 1882-1884. Funk and 
Wagnalls, New York. Revised edition, 1887. 

Schenkel (or Schenkel, BL.) = Bibel-Lexikon u. s. w. edited 
by Professor Daniel Schenkel. 5 vols. Leipz. 1869-1875. 

Schmidt = J. H. Heinrich Schmidt, Synonymik der Griechi- 
schen Sprache. 4 vols. Leipz. 1876, 1878, 1879, 1886. 

Schottgen = Christiani Schoettgenii Horae Hebraicae et Tal- 
mudicae etc. 2 vols. Dresden and Leipzig, 1733, 1742. 

Schiirer = JEJm;7 Schiirer, Lehrbuch der Neutestamentlichen 
Zeitgeschichte. Leipzig, 1874. The " Second Part " of a 
new and revised edition has already appeared under the 
title of Geschichte des Jiidischen Volkes im Zeitalter 
Jesu Christi, and to this new edition (for the portion of 
the original work which it covers) the references have 
been made, although for convenience the title of the 
first edition has been retained. An English translation 
is appearing at Edinburgh (T. and T. Clark). 

Scrivener, F. H. A. : — A Plain Introduction to the Criticism 
of the New Testament etc. Third Edition. Cambridge 
and London, 1883. 



l4ST OF Books. 



XVII 



List of Books. 



Bezae Codex Cantabrigiensis etc. Cambridge and 
London, 1864. 

A Full Collation of the Codex Sinaiticns with the 
Received Text of the New Testament etc. Second 
Edition, Revised. Cambridge and London, 1867. 

Six Lectures on the Text of the New Testament etc. 
Cambridge and London, 1875. 

Sept. = the translation of the Old Testament into Greek 
known as the Septuagint. Unless otherwise stated, the 
sixth edition of Tischendorf's text (edited by Nestle) is 
referred to ; 2 vols, (with supplement), Leipzig, 1880. The 
double verse-notation occasionally given in the Apocry- 
phal books has reference to the edition of the Apocrypha 
and select Pseudepigrapha by O. F. Fritzsche ; Leipzig, 
1871. Readings peculiar to the Complutensian, Aldine, 
Vatican, or Alexandrian form of the text are marked 
respectively by an appended Comp., Aid., Vat., Alex. 
For the first two the testimony of the edition of Lam- 
bert Bos, Franck. 1 709, has been relied on. 

The abbreviations Aq., Symm., Theod. or Theodot., 
appended to a reference to the O. T. denote respectively 
the Greek versions ascribed to Aquila, Symmachus, and 
Theodotion ; see List of Ancient Authors, etc. 

" Lag." designates the text as edited by Panl Lagarde, 
of which the first half appeared at Gottingen in 1883. 

Soph. :^ E. A. Sophocles, Greek Lexicon of the Roman and 
Byzantine Periods (from B.C. 146 to a.d. 1100.) Bos- 
ton: Little, Brown & Co. 1870. The forerunner (once 
or twice referred to) of the above work bears the title 
" A Glossary of Later and Byzantine Greek. Forming 
Tol. vii. (new series) of the Memoirs of the American 
Academy." Cambridge, 1860. 

Steph. Thes. = the " Thesaurus Graecae Linguae " of Henry 
Stephen as edited by Hase and the Dindorfs. 8 vols. 
Paris, 1831-1865. Occasionally the London (Valpy's) 
edition (1816-1826) of the same work has been referred 
to. 

Suxd. = Snidas (see List of Ancient Authors, etc.) Gaisford's 
edition (2 vols, folio, Oxford, 1834) has been followed. 

• Teaching ' = The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles (At- 
iax^ r&p SdSeKa ixoarSAuv.) The edition of Hamack 



(in Gebhardt and Hamack's Texte und Untersuchungen 
n.s. w. Second vol., Pts. i. and ii., Leipzig 1884) has 
been followed, together with his division of the chapters 
into verses. 

Thiersch = Friedrich Thiersch, Griechische Grammatik a. s. w. 
Third edition. Leipzig, 1826. 

Trench = Abp. R. C. Trench's Synonyms of the New Testa- 
ment. Ninth edition, improved. London, 1880. 

Vanicek = Alois Vanicek, Griechisch-Lateinisches Etymolo- 
gisches Worterbuch. 2 vols. Leipz. 1877. 

By the same author is " Fremdworter im GriechischeD 
und Lateinischen." Leipzig, 1878. 

Veitch= William Veitch, Greek Verbs irregnlar and de- 
fective, etc. New Edition. Oxford, 1879. 

Vig. ed. Herm. = Vigeri de praecipuis Graecae dictionia 
Idiotismis. Edited by G. Hermann. Fourth edition. 
Leipzig, 1834. A meagre abridgment and translation by 
Rev. John Seager was published at London in 1828. 

Vnlg. = the translation into Latin known as the Vulgate. 
Professor Tischendorf's edition (Leipzig, 1864) has been 
followed. 

Wetst. or Wetstein = J. J. "Wetstein's Novum Testamen- 
tum Graecum etc. 2 vols, folio. Amsterdam, 1751, 1752. 

W. = G. B. Winer, Grammar of the Idiom of the New Testa- 
ment etc. Revised and Authorized Translation of the 
seventh (Grerman) edition of the original, edited by Liine- 
mann ; Andover, 1883. Unless otherwise indicated, it is 
referred to by pages, the corresponding page of the orig- 
inal being added in a parenthesis. When Dr. Monlton's 
translation of the sixth German edition is referred to, 
that fact is stated. 

Win. RWB. = G. B. Winer, Biblisches Realworterbuch 
u. 8. w. Third edition. 2 vols., Leipzig and New York, 
1849. 

Win. De verb. Comp. etc. = G. B. Winer, De verborom 
com praeposicionibus compositorum in Novo Testamento 
USD. Five academic programs; Leipzig, 1843. 

Other titles, it is believed, ate so fully given as to be easity 
verifiable. 



EXPLANATIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS. 



\ 



As respects Pcnctuation — it should be noticed, that 
eince only those verbal forms (or their representatives) are 
given in the Lexicon which actually occur in the Greek 
Testament, it becomes necessary to distinguish between a 
form of the Present Tense which is in use, and one which 
is given merely to secure for a verb its place in the alphabet. 
This is done by putting a semi-colon after a Present which 
actually occurs, and a colon after a Present which is a 
mere alphabetic locum tenens. 

Further : a punctuation-mark inserted before a classic 
voucher or a reference to the Old Testament (whether such 
voucher or reference be included in a parenthesis or not) 
indicates that said voucher or reference applies to o t h e r 
passages, definitions, etc., besides the one which it imme- 
diately follows. The same principle governs the insertion 
or the omission of a comma after such abbreviations as 
"absol.", "pass.", etc. 

A hyphen has been placed between the component parts 
of Greek compounds only in case each separate part is in 
actual use ; otherwise the hyphen is omitted. 

[ ] Brackets have been used to mark additions by the Amer- 
ican editor. To avoid, however, a complexity which 
might prove to the reader confusing, they have been 
occasionally dispensed with when the editorial additions 
serve only to complete a statement already made in part 
by Professor Grimm (as, in enumerating the forms of 
verbs, the readings of the critical editors, the verbs com- 
pounded with <jvv which observe assimilation, etc. etc.) ; 
but in no instance have they been intentionally omitted 
where the omission might seem to attribute to Professor 
Grimm an opinion for which he is not responsible. 

* An asterisk at the close of an article indicates that all the 
instances of the word's occurrence in the New Testament 
are noticed in the article. Of the 6594 words composing 
the vocabulary of the New Testament 5300 are marked 
with an asterisk. To this extent, therefore, the present 
work may serve as a concordance as well as a lexicon 

A superior " or '' or • etc. appended to a verse-numeral 
designates the first, second, third, etc., occurrence of a given 
word or con.struction in tliat verse. The same letters ap- 
pended to a page-numeral designate respectively the first, 
second, third, columns of that page. A small a. b. c. etc. 
after a page-numeral designates the subdivision of the page. 



The various forms of the Greek Text referred to are 

represented by the following abbreviations : 
R or Rec. = what is commonly known as the Textns Recep- 
tus. Dr. F. H. A. Scrivener's last edition (Cambridge 
and London 1877) has been taken as the standard.^ To 
designate a particular form of this " Protean text " an 
abbreviation has been appended in superior type ; as, ••• 
for Elzevir, " for Stephen, ''•• for Beza, «"» for Erasmus. 
G or Grsb. = the Greek text of Griesbach as given in hi» 
manual edition, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1805. Owing to a dis- 
regard of the signs by which Griesbach indicated his 
judgment respecting the various degrees of probability 
belonging to different readings, he is cited not infre- 
quently, even m critical works, as supporting readings 
which he expressly questioned, but was not quite ready 
to expel from the text. 
L or Lchm. = Lachmann's Greek text as given in his larger 
edition, 2 vols., Berlin, 1842 and 1850. When the text 
of his smaller or stereotyped edition (Berlin, 1831,) is re- 
ferred to, the abbreviation " min." or " ster." is added to 
his initial. 
T or Tdf. = the text of Tischendorf's " Editio Octava 

Critica Major " (Leipzig, 1869-1872). 
Tr or Treg. = " The Greek New Testament " etc. by S. P. 

Tregelles (London, 1857-1879). 
WH = " The New Testament in the Original Greek. The 
Text Revised by Brooke Foss Westcott D.D. and Fen- 
ton John Anthony Ilort D.D. Cambridge and London, 
Macmillan and Co. 1881." 
KC = " Novum Testamentum ad Fidem Codicis Vaticani " 
as edited by Professors Kuenen and Cobet (Leyden, 
1860). 
The textual variations noticed are of course mainly those 
which affect the individual word or construction under dis- 
cussion. Where an extended passage or entire section is 
textually debatable (as, for example, Mk. xvi. 9-20; Jn. v. 
3 fin.-4; vii. 53 fin. — viii. 11), that fact is assumed to be 
known, or at least it is not stated under every word contained 
in the passage. 

As respects the numbering of the verses — the edition 
of Robert Stephen, in 2 vols. 16°, Geneva I. "15 1, has been 

» Respecting the edition issued by the Bible Society, which wa* 
followed by Professor Grimm, see Carl Bertheau In the Tbeolo> 
gische Literaturzeltung for 1877, No. 5, pp. 103-106. 



Explanations and 



XIX 



ABBRKVIAZKUm. 



followed as the standard (as it is in the critical editions of 
Tregelles, Westcott and Hort, etc.). Variations from this 
standard are indicated by subjoining the variant verse-nu- 
meral within marks of parenthesis. The similar addition 
in the case of references to the Old Testament indicates the 
variation between the Hebrew notation and the Greek. 

In quotations from the English Bible — 
^ V. = the current or so-called " Authorized Version " ; 
R. V. = the Revised New Testament of 1881. But when a 
rendering is ascribed to the former version it may be 
assumed to be retained also in the latter, unless the con- 
trary be expressly stated. A translation preceded by 
R. V. is found in the Revision only. 

A. S. = Anglo-Saxon. 
Abp. = Archbishop. 
absoL = absolutely. 

ace. or accus. = accusative. 

ace to = according to. 

ad L or ad loc. = at or on the passage. 

al. = others or elsewhere. 

al. al. = others otherwise. 

Aid. = the Aldine text of the Septuagint (see Sept in list 

of Books). 
Alex. = the Alexandrian text of the Septuagint (see Sept. 

in List of Books), 
ap. = (quoted) in 
App. = Appendix, 
appos. = apposition. 

Aq. = Aquila (see Sept. in List of Books), 
art. ^= article, 
augm. = augment, 
auth. or author. = author or authorities. 

B. or Bttm. see List of Books. 

B. D. or BB. DD. see List of Books, 
betw. = between. 
Bibl. = Biblical. 
Bp.= Bishop. 

br. = brackets or enclose in brackets, 
c. before a date = about. 
Cantabr. = Cambridge, 
cf . = compare. 
ch. = chapter. 
el. =^ clause. 

cod., codd. = manuscript, manuscripts. 
Com., Comm. = commentary, commentaries. 
comp. = compound, compounded, etc. 
compar. = comparative. 

Comp. or Compl = the Complutensian text of the Septua- 
gint (see Sept. in List of Books), 
coutr. = contracted, contract, 
dim. or diniin. = diminutive, 
dir. disc. = direct discourse, 
e. g. ^ for example, 
esp. = especially. 



ex., exx. = example, examples. 

exc. = except. 

excrpt. = an excerpt or extract. 

fin. or ad fin. = at or near the end. 

G or Grsb. = Griesbach's Greek text (see above). 

Graec. Ven. = Graecns Venetus (see List of Books). 

i. e. = that is. 

ib. or ibid.=in the same place. 

indir. disc. = indirect discourse. 

init. or ad init. = at or near the beginning. 

in 1. or in loc. = in or on the passage. 

i. q. = the same as, or equivalent to. 

KC = Kuenen and Cobet's edition of the Vatican text (sett 

above). 
L or Lchm. = Lachmann's Greek text (see above). 
L. and S. = Liddell and Scott (see List of Books). 
1. or lib. = book. 

L c, 11. cc. =passage cited, passages cited. 
Lag. = Lagarde's edition of the Septuagint (see Sept, in 

List of Books), 
mrg. = the marginal reading (of a critical edition of the 

Greek Testament). 
0pp. = Works, 
opp. to = opposed to. 

paral. = the parallel accounts (in the Synoptic Gospels). 
Pt. or pt. = part, 
q. V. = which see. 

R or Rec. = the common Greek text (see above), 
r. = root. 

rel. or relat. = relative, 
sc. = namely, to wit. 
Skr. = Sanskrit, 
sq., sqq. = following. 

Staph. = Stephanus's Thesaurus (see List of Books). 
Stud. u. Krit. = the Studien und Kritiken, a leading Ger» 

man Theological Quarterly. 
s. v.= under the word. 
Symm. = Symmachus, translator of the Old Testament into 

Greek (see Sept. in the List of Books). 
T or Tdf. = Tischendorf's Greek text (see above). 
Theod. or Theodot. = Theodotion (see Sept. in the List of 

Books). 
Tr or Treg. = TregeUes's Greek text (see above), 
u. i. = as below. 
u. s. = as above. 
V. = see. 

var. = variant or variants (various readings). 
Vat. = the Vatican Greek text (see above, and Sept. in the 

List of Books). 
Vulg. = the Vulgate (see List of Books). 
w. = with (especially before abbreviated names of cases). 
writ. = writer, writers, writings. 
WH = Westcott and Hort's Greek text (see above). 

Other abbreviations ^ill, it is hoped, explain themselves. 



NEW TESTAMENT LEXICON. 



A. a, aX(f)a 

A, a, a\(j>a, to, the first letter of the Greek alphabet, 
opening the series which the letter a closes. Hence the 
expression eyw flfxi t6 A [L T Tr WH uXcjia'] km t6 Q, 
"Q L WH], Rev. i. 8, 11 Rec., wliich is explained by the 
appended words t] dpx^ xai to tsXos, xxi. 6, and by the 
further addition 6 TrpcoTos koL 6 i'lrxoTos, xxii. 13. On 
the meaning of the phrase cf. Rev. xi. 17; Is. xli. 4; 
xliv. 6; xlviii. 12; [esp. B. D. Am. ed. p. 73]. A, 

when prefixed to words as an inseparable syllable, is 

1. privative (o-rfpjjTtKdi/), like the Lat. in-, the Eng. 
un-, giving a negative sense to the word to which it is 
prefixed, as dlBaprjs ; or signifpng what is contrary to it, 
as aTifios, aTip-ooo ; before vowels generally dv-, as dvaiTios. 

2. copulative (ddpoia-TiKov), akin to the particle a/xa 
[cf. Curtius § 598], indicating community and fellow- 
ship, as in d8e\(f)6s, dKoXovdos. Hence it is 3. in- 
tensive (eVtTari/fdj'), strengthening the force of terms, 
like the Lat. con in composition ; as dTfvi(<o fr. drevris 
[yet cf. W. 100 (95)]. This use, however, is doubted or 
denied now by many [e. g. Lob. Path. Element, i. 34 
sq.]. Cf. Kuhner i. 741, § 339 Anm. 5 ; [Jelf § 342 S] ; 
Bum. Gram. § 120 Anm. 11 ; \_Donaldson, Gram. p. 334; 
New Crat. §§ 185, 213; L. and S. s. v.].* 

'Aapuv, indecl. prop, name (6 'A.apa>v, -avos in Joseph.), 

Pl?** (fr. the unused Hebr. radical inx, — Syr. jj.Afflj 

libidinosus, lascivus, — [enlightened, Fiirst; ace. to Die- 
trich wealthy, or fluent, like "'^ix], ace. to Philo, de 
ebriet. § 32, fr. in mountain and equiv. to dpeivoi), Aaron, 
the brother of Moses, the first high-priest of the Israel- 
ites and the head of the whole sacerdotal order : Lk. i. 5 ; 
Acts vii. 40; Heb. v. 4; vii. 11 ; ix. 4.* 

'A^aSSuv, indecl., jllDX, 1. ruin, destruction, (fr. 
n3K to perish), Job xxxi. 12. 2. the place of destruc- 
tion i. q. Orcus, joined with SiKK', Job xxvi. 6 ; Prov. 
XV. 11, 3. as a proper name it is given to the an- 
gel-prince of the infernal regions, the minister of death 
and author of havoc on earth, and is rendered in Greek 
by 'AttoXXvwi' Destroyer, Rev. ix. 11.* 



^A^id6ap 

oPaprfs, -e'f, (jSapo? weight), without weight, light; trop. 
not burdensome: d^aprj vp.lv ipavrhv eTTjprja-a I have 
avoided burdening you with expense on my account, 
2 Co. xi. 9 ; see 1 Th. ii. 9, cf. 6. (Fr. Aristot. down.)* 

•Appd [WH .^d}, Hebr. 2H father, in the Chald. em- 
phatic state, X|X i. e. 6 rrar^p, a customary title of God in 
prayer. Whenever it occurs in the N. T. (Mk. xiv. 36 ; 
Ro. viii. 15; Gal. iv. 6) it has the Greek interpretation 
subjoined to it ; this is apparently to be explained by 
the fact that the Chaldee X3N, through frequent use in 
prayer, gradually acquired the nature of a most sacred 
proper name, to which the Greek-speaking Jews added 
the appellative from their own tongue.* 

"ApcX [WH "A^. (see their Intr. § 408)], indecl. prop, 
name (in Joseph, [e. g. antt. 1, 2, 1] "A^eXos, -ov), h^T} 
(breath, vanity), Abel, the second son born to Adam 
(Gen. iv. 2 sqq.), so caUed from his short life and sudden 
death [cf. B. D. Am. ed. p. 5], (Job vii. 16; Ps. xxxix. 
6) : Mt. xxiii. 35 ; Lk. xi. 51 ; Heb. xi. 4 ; xii. 24.* 

'Apia, indecl. prop, name (Joseph, antt. 7, 10, 3 ; 8, 
10, 1 6'A/3ia? [AV. § 6, 1 m.], -a), npK and !in;qx (my 
father is Jehovah), Abia [or Abijah, cf. B. D. s. v.], 
1. a king of Judah, son of Rehoboam : Mt. i. 7 (1 K. xiv. 
31; XV. 1). 2. a priest, the head of a sacerdotal 
family, from whom, when David divided the priests into 
twenty-four classes (1 Chr. xxiv. 10), the class Abia, 
the eighth in order, took its name : Lk. i. 5.* 

'APiodap, indecl. prop, name (though in Joseph, antt. 
6, 14, 6 *A^iddapos, -ov), "^ri'^X (father of abundance), 
Abiathar, a certain Hebrew high-priest: Mk. ii. 26, — 
where he is by mistake confounded with Ahimelech his 
father (1 S. xxi. 1 sqq.) ; [yet cf. 1 S. xxii. 20 with 1 
Chr. xviii. 16 ; xxiv. 6, 31 ; also 2 S. xv. 24-29 ; 1 K. ii. 
26, 27 with 2 S. viii. 17; 1 Chr. xxiv. 6, 31. It would 
seem that double names were esp. common in the case 
of priests (cf. 1 Mace. ii. 1-5; Joseph, vit. §§ 1, 2) 
and that father and son often bore the same name (cf 
Lk. i. 5, 59 ; Joseph. 1. c. and antt. 20, 9, 1). See Mo 
CleUan ad loc. and B. D. Am. ed. p. 7].* 



*A^iXr]ur] 



dyaOo^ 



'A^\Xr\rq [WH 'AjSciX. (see s. v. ft )], -tjs, q, (sc. x<"Po» 
the district belonging to the city Abila), Abilene, tlie 
name of a region lying between Lebanon and Hermon 
towards Phoenicia, 18 miles distant from Damascus and 
37 [ace. to the Itin. Anton. 38] from Heliopolis : Lk. iii. 
1. Cf. Ava-avias [and B. D. s. v.].* 

'A^iovS, o, indecl. prop, name, l^nOX (father of the 
Jews [al. of glory]), Abiud, son of Zorobabel or Zerub- 
babel: Mt. i. 13.* 

•Appo&n [Rec" 'A^. ; cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. LOG] (Joseph. 
^A^pafios, -ov), Drills (father of a multitude, cf. Gen. 
xvii. 5), Abraham, the renowned founder of tl)e Jewish 
nation: Mt. i. 1 sq.; xxii. 32; Lk. xix. 9; Jn. viii. 33; 
Acts iii. 25 ; Heb. vii. 1 sqq., and elsewhere. He is ex- 
tolled by the apostle Paul as a pattern of faith, Ro. iv. 1 
sqq. 1 7 sqq. ; Gal. iii. 6 (cf. Heb. xi. 8), on which account 
all believers in Christ have a claim to the title sons or 
posterity of Abraham, Gal. iii. 7, 29; cf. Ro. iv. 11. 

a-pv(ro-os, in classic Greek an adj., -or, -ov, (fr. 6 jBuaaos 
i. q. ^vdoi), bottomless (so perhaps in Sap. x. 19), un- 
bounded (nXovTos ajSvaaos, Aeschyl. Sept. (931) 950). 
In the Scriptures fj a^vaaos (Sept. for Dinri) sc. x^^pa, the 
pit, the immeasurable depth, the abyss. Hence of 'the 
deep ' sea : Gen. i. 2 ; vii. 1 1 ; Deut. viii. 7 ; Sir. i. 3 ; 
xvi. 18, etc. ; of Orcus (a very deep gulf or chasm in the 
lowest parts of the earth : Ps. Ixx. (Ixxi.) 21 e/c twv d^va- 
<r(ov TTJi yiis, Eur. Phoen. 1632 (1605) raprapov a^vaaa 
\a(rp.aTa, Clem. Rom. 1 Cor. 20, 5 a^Cua-uiv dve^ixviacrra 
K\inaTa, ibid. 59, 3 6 eni^Xinoiv ev rais d^va-a-ois, of God; 
[Act. Thorn. 32 6 ttjv ajSva-a-ov tov raprapov oIkcov, of the 
dragon]), both as the common receptacle of the dead, 
Ro. X. 7, and especially as the abode of demons, Lk. viii. 
3 1 ; Rev. ix. 1 sq. 11 ; xi. 7 ; xvii. 8 ; xx. 1 , 3. Among prof, 
auth. used as a snbst. only by Diog. Laert. 4, (5,) 27 Kar^X- 
6fs (Is fjifXaivav YlXovreoos a^v(T(Tov. Cf. Knapp, Scripta 
var. Arg. p. 554 S(j. ; [/. G. MiXller, Philo's Lehre von der 
Weltschopfung, p. 173 sq.; B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Deep].* 

''A-yaPos[on the breathing see WH. Intr. § 408], -ov, 6, 
the name of a Christian prophet, Agabus: Acts xi. 28 ; 
xxi. 10. (Perhaps from 3J_^^ to love [cf. B. D. s. v.].)* 

dYaOocp7€w, -St ; (fr. the unused EPr£2 — equiv. to 
e/jSw, f'pyafo/xat — and dyaOov) ; to be dyadoepyos, benefi- 
cent (towards the poor, the needy) : 1 Tim. vi. 18 [A. V. 
do good"]. Cf. dyadovpyeco. Found besides only in eccl. 
writ., but in the sense to do tvell, act rightly.* 

d-yaOo-iroicu, -ti ; 1 aor. inf. dyadoTroirja-ai ; (fr. dyaffo- 
iroiof) ; 1. to do good, do something which profits 
others : Mk. iii. 4 [Tdf. dyaddu TroiTJa-ai ; Lk. vi. 9] ; to 
show one's self beneficent, Acts xiv. 1 7 Rec. ; rivd, to do 
tome one a favor, .o benefit, Lk. vi. 33, 35, (equiv. to 
a'P'H, Zeph. i. 12; Num. x. 32; Tob. xii. 13, etc.). 2. 
to do well, do right: 1 Pet. ii. 15, 20 (opp. to d/uiprai/a>) ; 
iii. 6, 17 ; 3 Jn. 11. (Not found in secular authors, ex- 
cept in a few of the later in an astrological sense, to 
furnish a good omen.)* 

d-yaOoiroita [WH -ttoiio (see 1, t)], -as, f}, a course of 
right action, well-doing: (v dyadonoita, 1 Pet. iv. 19 i. q. 
oyadonoiovvres acting uprightly [cf. xii. Patr. Jos. § 18]; 



if we read here with L Tr mrg. cV dyaOoiroitais we must 
understand it of single acts of rectitude [cf. W. § 27, 3; 
B. § 123, 2]. (In eccl. writ, dyadon. denotes benefi- 
cence.)* 

d-yaGoiroids, -6v, acting rightly, doing well: 1 Pet. ii. 14. 
[Sir. xlii. 14 ; Plut. de Is. et Osir. § 42.]* 

d^aOos, -T], -ov, (akin to ayap.ai to wonder at, think 
highly of, dyaaros admirable, as explained by Plato, 
Crat. p. 412 c. [al. al.; cf. Donaldson, New Crat. § 323]), 
in general denotes " perfectus, . . . qui habet in se ac 
facit omnia quae habere et facere debet pro notione 
nominis, officio ac lege" (Irmisch ad Hdian. 1, 4, p. 
134), excelling in any respect, distinguished, good. It 
can be predicated of persons, things, conditions, quali- 
ties and affections of the soul, deeds, times and sea-, 
sons. To this general signif. can be traced back all 
those senses which the word gathers fr. the connec- 
tion in which it stands; 1. ofia good constitution or 
nature: yrj, Lk. viii. 8; ScVSpov, Mt. vii. 18, in sense 
equiv. to 'fertile soil,* 'a fruitful tree,' (Xen. oec. 16, 7 
yrj dyadf], . . . yrj KaKT], an. 2, 4, 22 x^pc^^ TroXXTJs k- dyadrjs 
ov(TTjs). In Lk. viii. 15 dyaOr} Kap8ia corresponds to the 
fig. expression " good ground ", and denotes a soul in- 
clined to goodness, and accordingly eager to learn sav- 
ing truth and ready to bear the fruits (fcapTrov? dyadovs, 
Jas. iii. 1 7) of a Christian life. 2. useful, salutary : 
Soo-ty dyadf) (joined to dmprjfia reXfiov) a gift which is 
truly a gift, salutary, Jas. i. 1 7 ; Sonara dyaBd, Mt. vii. 
11 ; (VToXri dy. a commandment profitable to those who 
keep it, Ro. vii. 12, ace. to a Grk. scholium equiv. to ets 
ro avficfiepov fla-rjyovpfvr}, hence the question in vs. 13: to 
ovv dyaOov ipo\ ytyovf dduaros ; dy- fie pis the 'good 
part,' which insures salvation to him who chooses it, 
Lk. X. 42 ; fpyov dy. (differently in Ro. ii. 7, etc.) the 
saving work of Grod, i. e. substantially, the Christian 
life, due to divine efficiency, Phil. i. 6 [cf. the Comm. 
ad loc] ; els dyadov for good, to advantage, Ro. viii. 28 
(Sir. vii. 13 ; irdvra rols euo-e/3e'cri eij dyaOd, . . . toIs dpap- 
ruiXols els KaKa, Sir. xxxix. 2 7 ; to kukov . . . yiyverai els 
dya66v, Theognis 162) ; good for, suited to something: 
npos olKoboiiiiv, Eph. iv. 29 [cf. W. 363 (340)] (Xen. 
mem. 4, 6, 10). 3. of the feeling awakened by what is 
^ood, pleasant, agreeable, joyful, happy: fjfifpaidy- 1 Pet. 
iii. 10 (Ps. xxxiii. (xxxiv.) 13; Sir. xiv. 14; 1 Mace. 
X. 55); c'Xm's, 2 Th. ii. 16 (fxaKapia eXirtf,Tit. ii. 13); 
avveibrjcns, a peaceful conscience, i. q. consciousness of 
rectitude, Acts xxiii. 1 ; 1 Tim. i. 5, 19; 1 Pet. iii. IS; 
reconciled to Giod, vs. 21 . 4. excellent, distinguished : 

so r\ dya66v, Jn. i. 46 (47). 5. upright, honorable: 

Mt. xii. 34 ; xix. 16 ; Lk. vi. 45 ; Acts xi. 24 ; 1 Pet. iii. 
II, etc.; novtjpol k. dyadot, Mt. v. 45; -xxii. 10; dyad. kuX 
SiKaios, Lk. xxiii. 50 ; Kap8ia dyad^ k. koXti, Lk. viii. 15 
(see KuXos, b.); fulfilling the duty or service demanded, 
8ovXe dyadi k. mart, Mt. xxv. 21, 23; upright, free 
from guile, particularly from a desire to corrupt the 
people, Jn. vii. 12; pre-eminently of God, as consum* 
mately and essentially good, Mt. xix. 17 (Mk. x. 18; 
Lk. xviii. 1 9) ; dy. Orjaavpos in Mt. xii. 35 ; Lk. vi 4ft 



arfadovpyeo) 



8 



arfairaoi 



denotes the soul considered as the repository of pure 
thoughts which are brought forth in speech ; nia-ris ay. 
the fidelity due from a servant to his master, Tit. ii. 10 
[WH mrg. om.] ; on dyad- tpyov, ay. tpya, see tpyov. 
In a narrower sense, benevolent, kind, generous : Mt. 
XX. 15; 1 Pet. ii. 18; /xma, 1 Th. iii. 6 (of. 2 Mace. vii. 
20) ; benejicent (Xen. Cyr. 3, 3, 4; 2)13, Jer. xxxiii. 11 ; 
Ps. xxxiv. 9 ; Cic. nat. deor. 2, 25, 64 " optimus i. e. 
beneficentissimus "), Ro. v. 7, where the meaning is, 
Hardly for an innocent man does one encounter death ; 
for if he even dares hazard his life for another, he does 
so for a benefactor (one from whom he has received 
favors); of. W. 117 (111); [Gifford in the Speaker's 
Com. p. 123]. The neuter used substantively de- 
notes 1. a good thing, convenience, advantage, and 
in partic. a. in the plur., external goods, riches : Lk. i. 
33; xii. 18 sq. (Sir. xiv. 4 ; Sap. vii. 11) ; ra dyadd aov 
comforts and delights which thy wealth procured for 
thee in abundance, Lk. xvi. 25 (opp. to Raxd, as in Sir. 
xi. 14) ; outward and inward good things. Gal. vi. 6, cf. 
Wieseler ad loc. b. the benefits of the Messianic king- 
dom: Ro. X. 15; TO /xeXXowady. Heb. ix. 11 ; x. 1. 2. 
what is upright, honorable, and acceptable to God: Ro. 
xii. 2 ; fpydCfo-dai to ay. Ro. ii. 10 ; Eph. iv. 28 ; Trpda-creiv, 
Ro. ix. 11; [2 Co. v. 10]; BiaKfiv, 1 Th. v. 15; fjufxel- 
adai, 3 Jn. 1 1 ; KoXKdadai ra ay. Ro. xii. 9 ; ri fie ipatras 
nepl ToU dyadoO, Mt. xix. 1 7 G L T Tr WH, where the 
word expresses the general idea of right. Spec, what 
is salutary, suited to the course of human affairs : in the 
phrase 8idKovos els to ay. Ro. xiii. 4 ; of rendering ser- 
vice. Gal. vi. 10; Ro. xii. 21 ; to ay. aov the favor thou 
conferrest, Philem. 14. 

[" It is to be regarded as a peculiarity in the usage of the 
Sept. that 2^0 good is predominantly [1] rendered by Ka\6s. 
. . . The translator of Gen. uses aya06s only in the neut., 
good, goods, and this has been to a degree the model for the 
other translators. ... In the Greek O. T., where ol SiKaiot is 
the technical designation of the pious, ol ayadot or 6 ayaOSs 
does not occur in so general a sense. The avTip aya06s is 
peculiar only to the Prov. (xiii. 22, 24; xv. 3) ; cf. besides 
the solitary instance in 1 Kings ii. 32. Thus even in the usage 
of the 0. T. we are reminded of Christ's words, Mk. x. 18, 
ovZeh ayaOhs d fj.ii els d deSs. In the O. T. the term ' right- 
eous ' makes reference rather to a covenant and to one's rela- 
tion to a positive standard ; aya96s would express the abso- 
lute idea of moral goodness " (Zezschwitz, Profangraec. u. 
bibl. Sprachgeist, Leipz. 1859, p. 60). Cf. Tittm. p. 19. On 
the comparison of aya06s see B. 27 (24).] 

ayadovpyi^a, -i ; Acts xiv. 1 7 L T Tr WH for R aya^o- 
TToio}. The contracted form is the rarer [cf. WH. App. 
p. 145], see dyadoepyfco ; but cf. KaKovpyos, lepovpyeo).* 

d-yaOwtrvvTi, -rjs, f), [on its formation see W. 95 (90) ; 
WH. App. p. 152], found only in bibl. and eccl. writ., 
uprightness of heart and life, [A. V. goodness'\ ; 2 Th. i. 
11; Gal. V. 22 (unless here it denote kindness, benefi- 
cence) ; Ro. XV. 14 ; Eph. v. 9. [Cf. Trench § Ixiii. ; 
Ellic. and Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. 1. c] * 

d-yoXXidoiiai,, see dyaXXtao). 

d'yaX\Cao-is, -ew?, ff, (dyaXXido)), not used by prof. writ. 
bot often by the Sept. ; exultation, extreme joy : Lk. i. 



14, 44; Acts ii. 46; Jude 24. Heb. i. 9 (fr. Ps. xliv. 
(xiv.) 8) oil of glddness with which persons were 
anointed at feasts (Ps. xxiii. 5), and which the writer, 
alluding to the inaugural ceremony of anointing, uses 
as an emblem of the divine power and majesty to which 
the Son of God has been exalted.* 

d-yaXXidu, -co, and -dopai, (but the act. is not used 
exc. in Lk. i. 47 [^yaXXtao-a], in Rev. xix. 7 [dyaX- 
Xti/ifi/] L T Tr WH [and in 1 Pet. i. 8 WH Tr mrg. 
(dyaXXtdTf), cf. WH. App. p. 169]); 1 aor. i^yaWiaad- 
pjjv, and (with a mid. signif.) riyaX'kiaerjv (Jn. v. 35; 
Rec. fjyaXKida6r}v) ; a word of Hellenistic coinage (fr. 
dydXXo/xat to rejoice, glory [yet cf. B. 51 (45)]), often in 
Sept. (for ^'J, I'S;;, |jn, t^w). to exult, rejoice exceed- 
ingly: Mt. V. 12; Lk. x.'21; Acts ii. 26; xvi. 34; 1 Pet. 
i. 8 ; iv. 13 ; ev tivi, 1 Pet. i. 6, dat. of the thing in 
which the joy originates [cf. W. § 33 a.; B. 185 (160)] ; 
but Jn. V. 35 means, ' to rejoice while his light shone ' 
[i. e. in (the midst of) etc.]. eVt tivi, Lk. i. 47; foil, by 
tva, Jn. viii. 56 that he should see, rejoiced because it 
had been promised him that he should see. This divine 
promise was fulfilled to him at length in paradise ; cf. 
W. 339 (318) ; B. 239 (206). On this word see Gelpke 
in the Stud. u. Krit. for 1849, p. 645 sq.* 

d-'yaii.os, -ov, (yd/xos), unmarried: 1 Co. vii. 8, 32; 
used even of women, 1 Co. vii. 11, 34 (Eur. Hel. G90 [and 
elsewhere]), where the Grks. commonly said avavbpos.* 

aYavaKTtw, -5) ; 1 aor. f]yavaKTr](Ta; (as 7rXfoi»eKr€&) comes 
fr. liKoeviKTrji, and this fr. irXeov and ex(t>, so through a 
conjectural dyavdKTr)i fr. ayai* and axpy^ai to feel paia, 
grieve, [al. al.]) ; to be indignant, moved with indigna- 
tion : Mt. .xxi. 1 5 ; xxvi. 8 ; Mk. x. 14 ; xiv. 4 ; Trcpi rivot 
[cf. W. § 33 a.], Mt. XX. 24; Mk. x. 41 ; foil, by ort, Lk. 
xiii. 14. (From Hdt. down.)* 

d,7avdKTT)(ris, -cus, q, indignation '. 2 Co. vii. 11. [(From 
Plat, on.)] * 

OYavdco, -oi ; [impf . tiydnoiv] ; fut. dya7n](r<o ; 1 aor. rjya- 
nrjcra ; pf. act. [1 pers. plur. ^yair^Kapev 1 Jn. iv. 10 WH 
txt.], ptcp. ^yarrriKais (2 Tim. iv. 8) ; Pass., [pres. aya- 
TTW/Liat] ; pf . ptcp. fiyaTTTjpevof ; 1 fut. dyaiTr)di](Top.ai ; (akin 
to ayapat [Fick, Pt. iv. 12; see dya^ds, init.]) ; to love, 
to be full of good-wiU and exhibit the same : Lk. vii. 47 ; 
1 Jn. iv. 7 sq. ; with ace. of the p e r s o n, ?o have a pre- 
ference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of: Mt. v. 43 
sqq. ; xix. 1 9 ; Lk. vii. 5 ; Jn. xi. 5 ; Ro. xiii. 8 ; 2 Co. xi. 
11; xii. 15 ; Gal. v. 14 ; Eph. v. 25, 28 ; 1 Pet. i. 22, and 
elsewhere ; often in 1 Ep. of Jn. of the love of Chris- 
tians towards one another ; of the benevolence which 
God, in providing salvation for men, has exhibited by 
sending his Son to them and giving him up to death, 
Jn. iii. 16; Ro. viii. 37; 2 Th. ii. 16; 1 Jn. iv. 11, 19; 
[noteworthy is Jude 1 L T Tr WH rots ep 6ea narpi 
Tiyanrjpevois ; see iv, I. 4, and cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Col. iii. 
12] ; of the love which led Christ, in procuring human 
salvation, to undergo sufferings and death. Gal. ii. 20; 
Eph. V. 2 ; of the love with which God regards Christ, 
Jn. iii. 35 ; [v. 20 L mrg.] ; x. 1 7 ; xv. 9 ; Eph. i. 6. 
When used of love to a master, God or Christ, the word 



wyaiTT) 



ayatrriTOi; 



involves the idea of affectionate reverence, prompt obe- 
dience, grateful recognition of benefits received : Mt. vi. 
24; xxii. 37; Ro. viii. 28; iCo. ii. 9; viii. 3; Jas. i. 12; 
1 Pet. i. 8; 1 Jn. iv. 10, 20, and elsewhere. With an 
ace. of the thing dyaird<o denotes to take pleasure in the 
thing, prize it above other things, be unwilling to abandon it 
or do without it : biKaioavvrjv, Ileb. i. 9 (i. e. steadfastly 
to cleave to) ; T-qv do^av, Jn. xii. 43 ; Tf/v npaToKadedpiav, 
Lk. xi. 43 ; to ctkotos and to (j)(os, Jn. iii. 1 9 ; t6v Kocrfiov, 
1 Jn. ii. 15 ; top vvv alaua, 2 Tim. iv. 10, — both which 
last phrases signify to set the heart on eartlily advan- 
tages and joys; i-qv '^vx^jv avToyv, Rev. xii. 11; ^cofjv, 
1 Pet. iii. 10 (to derive pleasure from life, render it 
agreeable to himself) ; to welcome with desire, long for : 
Tfjv enicfxiveiau avTov, 2 Tim. iv. 8 (Sap. i. 1 ; vi. 13; Sir. 
iv. 1 2, etc. ; so of a person : TjyaTr^dr], Sap. iv. 1 0, cf . 
Grimm ad loc). Concerning the unicj^ue proof of love 
which Jesus gave the apostles by washing their feet, it 
is said rjydnrjrrev avTOiis, Jn. xiii. 1, of. LUcke or Meyer 
ad loc. [but al. take rjyaTr. here more comjjrehensively, 
see Weiss's Mey., Godet, Westcott, Keil]. The combi- 
nation dyairr^v dyairdv Tiva occurs, when a relative inter- 
venes, in Jn. xvii. 26 ; Eph. ii. 4, (2 S. xiii. 15 where 
TO /jua-os o €fiiaTj(T€v avTrjv is contrasted ; cf. Gen. xlix. 25 
fvXoyrja-e ae (vXoyiav, Ps. Sal. xvii. 35 [in cod. Pseude- 
pig. Vet. Test. ed. Fabric, i. p. 966 ; Libri Apocr. etc., 
ed. Fritzsche, p. 588] 86^au fjv ibo^aa-ev avTrjv) ; cf. W. 
§ 32, 2; [B. 148 sq. (129)] ; Grimm on 1 Mace. ii. 54. 

On the difference betw. dyaTidco and (piXew, see (piXeco. 
Cf. dydTTTj, 1 fin. 

d-ydirt], -ijy, 17, a purely bibl. and eccl. word (for ^Vyt- 
tenbach, following Reiske's conjecture, long ago re- 
stored dyaTrfj(TQ)v in place of ayoTr/;?, Sjv in Pint, sympos. 
quaestt. 7, 6, 3 [vol. viii. p. 835 ed. Reiske]). Prof, 
auth. fr. [Aristot.], Plut. on used dydinjais. " The Sept. 
use dydirr] for PIDriX, Cant. ii. 4, 5, 7 ; iii. 5, 10; v. 8 ; 
vii. 6; viii. 4, 6, 7; [" It is noticeable that the word first 
makes its appearance as a current term in the Song 
of Sol.; — certainly no undesigned evidence respect- 
ing the idea which the Alex, translators had of the 
love in this Song" {^Zezschwitz, Profangraec. u. bibl. 
Sprachgeist, p. 63)] ; Jer. ii. 2; Eccl. ix. 1, 6; [2 S. xiii. 
15]. It occurs besides in Sap. iii. 9; vi. 19. In Philo 
and Joseph. I do not remember to have met with it. 
Nor is it found in the N. T. in Acts, Mk., or Jas. ; it 
occurs only once in Mt. and Lk., twice in Heb. and 
Rev., but frequently in the writings of Paul, John, Peter, 
Jude" {Bretschn. Lex. s. v.) ; [Philo, deus immut. § 14]. 

In signification it follows the verb dyandoa; conse- 
quently it denotes 1. affection, good-will, love, bene- 
volence: Jn. XV. 13; Ro. xiii. 10; 1 Jn. iv. 18. Of the 
love of men to men ; esp. of that love of Christians 
towards Christians which is enjoined and prompted by 
their rehgion, whether the love be viewed as in the 
soul or as expressed : Mt. xxiv. 1 2 ; 1 Co. xiii. 1-4, 8 ; 
xiv. 1 ; 2 Co. ii. 4 ; Gal. v. 6 ; Philem. 5, 7 ; 1 Tim. i. 
6; Heb. vi. 10; x. 24; Jn. xiii. 35; 1 Jn. iv. 7; Rev. 
LL 4, 19, etc. Of the love of men towards God : 17 dydnr} 



Toi Beov (obj. gen. [W. 185 (175)]), Lk. xi. 42; Jn. v. 
42; 1 Jn. ii. 15 (joi naTpos) ; iii. 17; iv. 12; v. 3. Of 
the love of God towards men : Ro. v. 8 ; viii. 39 ; 2 Co. 
xiii. 13(14). Of the love of God towards Christ : Jn. xv. 
10 ; xvii. 26. Of the love of Christ towards men : 
Jn. XV. 9 sq. ; 2 Co. v. 14 ; Ro. viii. 35 ; Eph. iii. 19. 
In construction : dy. ets riva, 2 Co. ii. 8 [?] ; Eph. i. 
15 [L WH om. Tr mrg. br. ttjv dydTrrju'] ; tjj e| vp-uiv iv 
rjjxiv i. e. love going forth from your soul and taking up 
its abode as it were in ours, i. q. your love to us, 2 Co. 
viii. 7 [W. 193 (181 sq.) ; B. 329 (283)]; i^tff vfiav 
i. e. is present with (embraces) you, 1 Co. xvi. 24 ; fj.(ff 
fjfioiv i. e. seen among us, 1 Jn. iv. 1 7. Phrases : tx^'-^ 
dydrrr^u el's Tim, 2 Co. ii. 4 ; Col. i. 4 [L T Tr, but WII 
br.] ; 1 Pet. iv. 8 ; dydTvrjp 8i86vai to give a proof of 
love, 1 Jn. iii. 1 ; dyandv dydTrrjv rivd, Jn. xvii. 26 ; 
Eph. ii. 4 (v. in dyandco, sub fin.) ; dy. tov Trveviiaros i. e. 
enkindled by the Holy Spirit, Ro. xv. 30; 6 vloi rrjs 
dydTTTjs the Son who is the object of love, i. q. dycmrjTos, 
Col. i. 13 (W. 237 (222) ; [B. 162 (141)]) ; 6 Bfos tPjs 
dy. the author of love, 2 Co. xiii. 11 ; kottos ttjs dy. 
troublesome service, toil, undertaken from love, 1 Th. 
i. 3 ; dy. ttjs dXrjBelas love which embraces the truth, 
2 Th. ii. 10 ; 6 6e6s dydnrj ia-Tiv God is wholly love, liis 
nature is summed up in love, 1 Jn. iv. 8, 16 ; cj^iXrjiia 
dya7rr}s a kiss as a sign among Christians of mutual affec- 
tion, 1 Pet. V. 14 ; 8ia ttjv dy. that love may have oppor- 
tunity of influencing thee (' in order to give scope to the 
power of love' De W., Wies.), Philem. 9, cf. 14; eV 
dydnTj lovingly, in an affectionate spirit, 1 Co. iv. 21 ; 
on love as a basis [al. in love as the sphere or element], 
Eph. iv. 15 (where ev dy. is to be connected not with 
dXifdevovres but with av^fjarcoftfv), vs. 16 ; e^ dydirris influ- 
enced by love, Phil. i. 17 (16) ; Kara dydnrju in a manner 
befitting love, Ro. xiv. 15. Love is mentioned together 
with faith and hope in 1 Co. xiii. 13 ; 1 Th. i. 3; 
V. 8 , Col. i. 4 sq. ; Heb. x. 22-24. On the words 
dydirr], dyandv, cf. Gelj)ke in the Stud. u. Krit. for 1849, 
13. 646 sq. ; on the idea and nature of Christian love 
see Kostlin, Lelirbgr. des Ev. Job. etc. p. 248 sqq., 
332 sqq.; RUckert, Theologie, ii. 452 sqq.; Lipsius, 
Paulin. Rechtfertigungsl. p. 188 sqq. ; \_lleuss, Theol. 
Chrdt. livr. vii. chap. 13]. 2. Plur. dydirai, -S>v, 

agapae, love-feasts, feasts expressing and fostering mu- 
tual love which used to be held by Christians before the 
celebration of the Lord's supper, and at which the 
poorer Christians mingled with the wealthier and par- 
took in common with the rest of food provided at the 
expense of the wealthy: Jude 12 (and in 2 Pet. ii. 13 
L Tr txt. WH mrg.), cf. 1 Co. xi. 17 sqq. ; Acts ii. 42, 
46 ; XX. 7 ; Tcrtull. Apol. c. 39, and ad Martyr, c. 3 ; 
Cypr. ad Quirin. 3, 3 ; Drescher, De vet. christ. Agapis. 
Giess. 1824 ; Mangold in Schenkel i. 53 sq.; [B. D. s. v. 
Love-Feasts; Diet, of Christ. Antiq. s. v. Agapae; more 
fuUy in McC. and S. s. v. Agape]. 

d-yain]T6s, -17, -dv, (dyaTrdo)), beloved, esteemed, dear, 
favorite ; (opp. to ix^pd';, Ro. xi. 28) ; 6 v\6s ftov (tov 
Q(oxi) 6 dyamjTor, of Jesus, the Messiah, Mt. iii. 17 



'A^ap 



ayyeXo<i 



There WH mrg. talce 6 dy. absol., connecting it with 
what follows] ; xii. 18 ; xvii. 5 ; Mk. i. 11 ; ix. 7 ; Lk. 
iii. 22; ix. 35 (where L mrg. T Tr WH 6 eKXeXfy/nei/os) ; 
2 Pet, i. 17, cf. Mk. xii. 6; Lk. xx. 13 ; [cf. Ascensio 
Isa. (ed. Dillmann) vii. 23 sq. ; viii. 18, 25, etc.]. dya- 
jTTjTol GfoC [W. 194 (182 sq.) ; B. 190 (165)] is applied 
to Christians as being reconciled to God and judged by 
him to be worthy of eternal life : Ro. i. 7, cf. xi. 28 ; 
1 Th. i. 4; Col. iii. 12, (Sept., Ps. lix. (Ix.) 7; cvii. 
(cviii.) 7 ; cxxvi. (cxxvii.) 2, dyaTrrjTOL aov and avrov, of 
pious Israelites). But Christians, bound together by 
mutual love, are dyanrjroi also to one another (Philem. 
16 ; 1 Tim. vi. 2) ; hence they are dignified with this 
epithet very often in tender address, both indirect (Ro. 
xvi. 5, 8 ; Col. iv. 14 ; Eph. vi. 21, etc.) and direct 
(Ro. xii. 19 ; 1 Co. iv. 14 ; [Philem. 2 Rec] ; Heb. vi. 
9; Jas. i. 16; 1 Pet. ii. 11; 2 Pet. iii. 1; [1 Jn. ii. 7 
G LT Tr WH], etc.). Generally foil, by the gen. ; once 
by the dat. dyair. ^fx'iv, 1 Th. ii. 8 [yet cf. W. § 31, 2 ; 
B. 190 (165)]. dyanrjTos iv Kvpia beloved in the fel- 
lowship of Christ, equiv. to dear fellow-Christian, Ro. 
xvi. 8. [Not used in the Fourth Gospel or the Rev. In 
class. Grk. fr. Hom. II. 6, 401 on ; cf. Cope on Aristot. 
rhet. 1, 7, 41.] 

"A^ap [WH "Ay. (see their Intr. § 408)], rj, indecl., 
(in Joseph. 'Aydpa, -r)s), "'■JT (flight), Hagar, a bond- 
maid of Abraham, and by him the mother of Ishmael 
(Gen. xvi.) : Gal. iv. 24, [25 L txt. T om. Tr br.]. 
Since the Arabians according to Paul (who had for- 
merly dwelt among them, Gal. i. 17) called the rocky 
Mt. Sinai by a name similar in sound to "^JH (^sV.s» 
i. e. rock), the apostle in the passage referred "to em- 
ploys the name Hagar allegorically to denote the servile 
sense of fear with which the Mosaic economy imbued 
its subjects. [Cf. B. D. Am. ed. pp. 978, 2366 note''; 
Bp. Lghtft.'s remarks appended to his Com. on Gal. 
1. c] * 

d-y^apEvu ; fut. dyyapevaco ; 1 aor. fjyydpevaa ; to em- 
ploy a courier, despatch a mounted messenger. A word 
of Persian origin [used by Menander, Sicyon. 4], but 
adopted also into Lat. (Vulg. angariare'). "Ayyapoi were 
public couriers (tabellarii), stationed by appointment 
of the king of Persia at fixed localities, with horses 
ready for use, in order to transmit royal messages from 
one to another and so convey them the more speedily to 
theu- destination. See Hdt. 8, 98 [and Rawlinson's 
note]; Xen. Cyr. 8, 6, 17 (9); cf. Gesenius, Thesaur. 
s. V. n"^JK ; [B. D. s. V. Angareuo ; VaniHek, Fremd- 
-worter s. v. dyyapos}. These couriers had authority to 
press into their service, in case of need, horses, vessels, 
even men they met, [cf. Joseph, antt. 13, 2, 3]. Hence 
dyyapevfiv rivd denotes to compel one to go a journey, 
to bear a burden, or to perform any other service : 
Mt. V. 41 (ooTiff CTf dyyapevaei piKiov ev i. e. whoever 
shall compel thee to go one mile) ; xxvii. 32 (rjyydpevaav 
Iva &pr] i. e. they forced him to carry), so JVIk. xv. 21.* 

d-yyctov, -ov, TO, (i. q. to dyyos), a vessel, receptacle: 
Mt. xiii. 48 [R G L]; xxv. 4. (From Hdt. down.)* 



&yyi\la, -as, fj, (ayyeXoy), n message, announcement, 
thing announced ; j)recei)t declared, 1 Jn. i. 5 (where 
Rec. has eTrayyeXt'a) [cf. Is. xxviii. 9]; iii. 11. [From 
Horn, down.]* 

d-yyeXXo) ; [1 aor. ^yyfiXa, Jn. iv. 51 T (for oTr^yy. 
R G L Tr br.)] ; (ayyfXor) ; to announce : dyye'XXouo-n, 
Jn. XX. 18 L T Tr WH, for R G ajrayyeXX. [From Iloin. 
down. CoMP. : dv-, drr-, 8i-, e'^-, err-, irpo-fn-, kot-, 
TTpo-Kar-, Trap-ayye'XXo).] * 

d-yyeXos, -ov, 6, 1. a messenger, envoy, one who is 
sent: Mt. xi. 10; Lk. vii. 24, 27; ix. 52; Mk. i. 2; 
Jas. ii. 25. [Fr. Horn, down.] 2. In the Scriptures, 
both of the Old Test, and of the Xew, one of that host 
of heavenly spirits that, according alike to Jewish 
and Christian opinion, wait uijon the monarch of the 
universe, and are sent by him to earth, now to execute 
his purposes (Mt. iv. 6, 11 ; xxviii. 2 ; Mk. i. 13 ; Lk. 
xvi. 22 ; xxii. 43 [L br. WH reject the pass.] ; Acts 
vii. 35; xii. 23; Gal. iii. 19, cf. Pleb. i. 14), now to 
make them known to men (Lk. i. 11, 26, ii. 9 sqq. ; 
Acts X. 3 ; xxvii. 23 ; Mt. i. 20 ; ii. 18 ; xxviii. 5 ; Jn. 
XX. 12 sq.) ; hence the frequent expressions «yyeXos 
(angel, messenger of God, ^n'^O) and dyyikoi Kvpiov or 
(7yy. Tov 6fov. They are subject not only to God but 
also to Christ (Heb. i. 4 sqq. ; 1 Pet. iii. 22, cf. Eph. i. 
21 ; Gal. iv. 14), who is described as hereafter to return 
to judgment surrounded by a multitude of them as ser- 
vants and attendants: Mt. xiii. 41, 49; xvi. 27; xxiv. 
31 ; xxv. 31 ; 2 Th. i. 7, cf. Jude 14. Single angels 
have the charge of separate elements ; as fire, Rev. xiv. 
18; waters. Rev. xvi. 5, cf. vii. 1 sq. ; Jn. v. 4 [R L]. 
Respecting the liyyeXos rrjs d^v(T(Tov, Rev. ix. 11, see 
'A/SaSSwi', 3. Guardian angels of individuals are men- 
tioned in Mt. xviii. 10; Acts xii. 15. ' The angels of the 
churches^ in Rev. i. 20; ii. 1, 8, 12, 18 ; iii. 1, 7, 14 are not 
their presbyters or bishops, but heavenly spirits who exer- 
cise such a superintendence and guardianshijj over them 
that whatever in their assemblies is worthy of praise or 
of censure is counted to the praise or the blame of their 
angels also, as though the latter infused their spirit into 
the assemblies ; cf. De Wette, Ditsterdieck, [ALford,] on 
Rev. i. 20, and Liicke, Einl. in d. Offenb. d. Johan. ii. 
p. 429 sq. ed. 2; [Bp. Lghtft. on Phil'.p. p. 199 sq.]. 
8id. Toiis dyyeXovi that she may show reverence for the 
angels, invisibly present in the religious assemblies of 
Christians, and not displease them, 1 Co. xi. 10. a>(f)6r] 
ayyeXoij in 1 Tim. iii. 16 is probably to be explained 
neither of angels to whom Christ exhibited himself in 
heaven, nor of demons triumphed over by him in the 
nether world, but of the apostles, his messengers, to 
whom he appeared after his resurrection. This appel- 
lation, which is certainly extraordinary, is easily un- 
derstood from the nature of the hymn from which the 
passage f(f>avepudT) . . . eV Bo^rj seems to have been taken ; 
cf. W. 639 sq. (594), [for other interpretations see Ellic. 
ad loc.]. In Jn. i. 51 (52) angels are employed, by a beau- 
tiful image borrowed from Gen. xxviii. 12, to represent 
the divine power that will aid Jesus in the discharge 



ayyo'i 



6 



ay 10^ 



of his Messianic office, and the signal proofs to appear 
in his history of a divine superintendence. Certain of 
the angels have proved faithless to the trust committed 
to them by God, and have given themselves up to sin, 
Jude 6 ; 2 Pet. ii. 4 (Enoch c. vi. etc., cf. Gen. vi. 2), and 
now obey the devil, Mt. xxv. 41 ; Rev. xii. 7, cf. 1 Co. 
vi. 3 [yet on this last passage cf. Meyer ; he and others 
maintain that Syy- without an epithet or limitation never 
in the X. T. signifies other than good angels]. Hence 
ayyeXoff 2aTav is trop. used in 2 Co. xii. 7 to denote 
a grievous bodily malady sent by Satan. See Sai^cov; 
\_Soph. Lex. s. v. ayyeXoj ; and for the literature on the 
whole subject B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Angels, — and to the 
reff. there given add G. L. Hahn, Theol. des N. T., i. 
pp. 260-384; Delitzsch in Riehm s. v. Engel; Kubel 
in Herzog ed. 2, ibid.]. 

07705, -€ov, TO, (plur. ayyr;), i. q. ayyelov q. v. : Mt. 
xiii. 48 T Tr WH. (From Horn, down ; [cf. Rutherford, 
New Phryn. p. 23].) * 

d-y*, (properly impv. of ayo>), come '. come now 1 used, 
as it often is in the classics (W. 516 (481)), even when 
more than one is addressed : Jas. iv. 13 ; v. 1.* 

d-y£'X.Ti, -j;r, r\, (ayo) to drive), a herd: Mt. viii. 30 sqq. ; 
Mk. v. 11. 13 ; Lk. viii. 32 sq. (From Hom. down.) * 

d'y€V6aX6'yT]Tos, -ou, 6, (yei/eaXoye'co), of ivhose descent 
there is no account (in the 0. T.), [R. V. without gene- 
alogyl : Heb. vii. 3 (vs. 6 y.ri yevfaXoyovfifvos). No- 
where found in prof, auth.* 

d-ytvris, -fos (-oOr), 6, r}, (ytvos), opp. to evyevTjs, of no 
family, a man of base birth, a man of no name or repu- 
tation ; often used by prof, writ., also in the secondary 
sense ignoble, cowardly, mean, base.. In the N. T. only 
in 1 Co. i. 28, ra ayevr^ tov Koafiov i. e. those who among 
men are held of no account; on the use of a neut. adj. 
in ref. to persons, see W. 178 (167) ; [B. 122 (107)].* 

d-yidjo); 1 aor. ^yt'ao-a ; Pass., [pres. d-ytd^o/iai] ; pf . ^yt- 
aa-fj.ai ; 1 aor. Tjyiaadrjv, a word for which the Greeks use 
dylCfiv, but very freq. in bibl. (as equiv. to i£''lp, ll/'lpn) 
and eccl. writ. ; to make ayiov, render or declare sacred 
or holy, consecrate. Hence it denotes 1. to render 
or acknowledge to be venerable, to hallow : to ovofia rov 
6eov, Mt. vi. 9 (so of God, Is. xxix. 23 ; Ezek. xx. 41 ; 
xxxviii. 23 ; Sir. xxxiii. (xxxvi.) 4) ; [Lk. xi. 2] ; tov 
XpiaTov, 1 Pet. iii. 15 (R G 6f6v). Since the stamp 

of sacredness passes over from the holiness of (rod to 
whatever has any connection with God, ayid^eiv de- 
notes 2. to sepa}-ate from things profane and dedicate to 
God, to consecrate and so render inviolable ; a. things 
(nav npcoTOTOKov, ret apcrtviKa, Deut. xv. 1 9 ; fjfifpav, Ex. 
XX. 8 ; oIkov, 2 Chr. vii. 16, etc.) : tov ;^pvcrdi', Mt. xxiii. 
17; TO Sipoc, vs. 19; (TiceOoy, 2 Tim. ii. 21. b. persons. 
So Christ is said by undergoing death to consecrate 
himself to God, whose will he in that way fulfils, Jn. 
xvii. 19; God is said dytdo-at Christ, i. e. to have selected 
him for his service (cf. a(f)opi(fiv. Gal. i. 15) by having 
committed to him the office of Messiah, Jn. x. 36, cf. 
Jer. i. 5; Sir. xxxvi. 12 [e^ aiiTcov rjyiatrf, Koi wpos avTov 
Tjyyiatv, of his selection of men for the priesthood] ; xlv. 



4 ; xlix. 7. Since only what is pure and without 

blemish can be devoted and offered to God (Lev. xxii. 
20; Deut. xv. 21; xvii. 1), dytd^ta signifies 3. to 
purify, (airo tcov aKadapaiwv is added in Lev. xvi. 19 ; 
2 S. xi. 4) ; and a. to cleanse externally (npot ttju t^s 
aapKos KadapoTTjTo), to purify levitically : Heb. ix. 13; 
1 Tim. iv. 5. b. to purify by expiation, free from the 
guilt of sin : 1 Co. vi. 1 1 ; Eph. v. 26 ; Heb. x. 1 0, 14, 29 ; 
xiii. 12; ii. 11 (equiv. to -I33, Ex. xxix. 33, 36); cf. 
PJieiderer, Paulinismus, p. 340 sqq., [Eng. trans, ii. 68 
sq.]. c. to purify internally by reformation of soul: Jn. 
xvii. 17, 19 (through knowledge of the truth, cf. Jn. viii. 
32); 1 Th. v. 23; 1 Co. i. 2 (eV Xpiarw 'lijtroC in the 
feUowsliip of Christ, the Holy One) ; Ro. xv. 16 (eV 
iTvfvpaTi dyia imbued with the Holy Spirit, the divine 
source of holiness) ; Jude 1 (L T Tr WH rjyaTnjpfPois 
[q. V.]) ; Rev. xxii. 11. In general. Christians are 
called riytaa-p.€vot [cf. Deut. xxxiii. 3], as those who, 
freed from the impurity of wickedness, have been 
brought near to God by their faith and sanctity. Acts 
xx. 32; xxvi. 18. In 1 Co. vii. 14 dyiA^eadai is used in 
a peculiar sense of those who, although not Christians 
themselves, are yet, by marriage with a Christian, with- 
drawn from the contamination of heathen impiety and 
brought under the saving influence of the Holy Spirit dis- 
playing itself among Christians ; cf . Neander ad loc.* 

d-yioo-pios, -ov, 6, a word used only by bibl. and eccl. 
writ, (for in Diod. 4, 39; Dion. Hal. 1, 21, dyiapos is 
the more correct reading), signifying 1. consecration, 
purification, to dyia(fiv. 2. the effect of consecration : 
sanctijication of heart and life, 1 Co. i. 30 (Christ is he to 
whom we are indebted for sanctification) ; 1 Th. iv. 7 ; 
Eo. vL 19, 22; 1 Tim. ii. 15; Heb. xii. 14; dyiacrp.oi 
nveifJuxTot sanctification wrought by the Holy Spirit, 2 Th. 
ii. 13; 1 Pet. i. 2. It is opposed to lust in 1 Th. iv. 3 sq. 
(It is used in a ritual sense, Judg. xvii. 3 [Alex.] ; Ezek. 
xlv. 4; [Am. ii. 11] ; Sir. vii. 31, etc.) [On its use in 
tlie N. T. cf. Ellic. on 1 Th. iv. 3 ; iii. 13.]* 

<Xyios, -a, -ov, (fr. to ayos religious awe, reverence; 
a^co, a^ofiai, to venerate, revere, esp. the gods, parents, 
[Curtius § 118]), rare in prof, auth.; very frequent in 
the sacred writ. ; in the Sept. for U^'^\p ; 1. properly 
reverend, worthy of veneration : to ovopa tov 6eov, Lk. i. 
49; God, on account of his incomparable majesty. Rev. 
iv. 8 (Is. vi. 3, etc.), i. q. ev8o^os. Hence used a. of 
things which on account of some connection with God 
possess a certain distinction and claim to reverence, as 
places sacred to God which are not to be profaned, 
Acts vii. 33 ; toitos ayios the temple, Mt. xxiv. 15 (on 
which pass, see ^8fXvyp.a, c); Acts vi. 13; xxi. 28; the 
holy land or Palestine, 2 Mace. i. 29 ; ii. 18 ; to ayiov and 
Td uyia [W. 177 (167)] the temple, Heb. ix. 1, 24 (cf. 
Bleek on Heb. vol. ii. 2, p. 477 sq.) ; spec, that part of 
the temple or tabernacle which is called ' the holy- 
place' (V'^DJp, Ezek. xxxvii. 28; xlv. 18), Heb. ix. 2 
[here Rec'' reads dyt'a] ; ayia dyitov [W. 246 (231), cf. Ex. 
xxix. 37; xxx. 10, etc.] the most hallowed portion of 
the temple, ' the holy of holies,' (Ex. xxvi. 33 [cf. Joseph. 



ayco^ 






antt. 3, 6, 4]), Heb. ix. 3, in ref. to which the simple 
ra ayia is also used : Heb. ix. 8, 25 ; x. 19 ; xiii. 11 ; 
fio-. of heaven, Heb. viii. 2 ; ix. 8, 1 2 ; x. 1 9 ; ayia iroKis 
Jerusalem, on account of the temple there, Mt. iv. 5 ; 
xxvii. 53; Rev. xi. 2; xxi. 2; xxii. 19, (Is. xlviii. 2; 
Neh. xi. 1, 18 [CompL], etc.) ; to opos to ciyiov, because 
Christ's transfiguration occurred there, 2 I'et. i. 18 ; 
fj (dfov) ayia 8i.a6T]KT) i. e. which is the more sacred be- 
cause made by God himself, Lk. i. 72 ; to ayiov, that 
worshipful offspring of divine power, Lk. i. 35 ; the 
blessing of the gospel, Mt. vii. 6 ; dyiaTarq niaris, faith 
(quae creditur i.e. the o b j e c t of faith) which came from 
God and is therefore to be heeded most sacredly, Jude 
20 ; in the same sense ayia eWoXij, 2 Pet. ii. 21 ; *fX^a-iy 
dyia, because it is the invitation of God and claims us 
as his, 2 Tim. i. 9 ; ayiai ypacf>ai (to /3ij3X t'a to. ayia, 
1 Mace. xii. 9), which came from God and contain his 
words, Ro. i. 2. b. of persons whose services God 
employs ; as for example, apostles, Eph. iii. 5 ; angels, 
1 Th. iii. 13 ; Mt. xxv. 31 [Rec] ; Rev. xiv. 10 ; Jude 
14 ; prophets, Acts iii. 21 ; Lk. i. 70, (Sap. xi. 1); (of) 
iyioi (tov) deoii avdpamoi, 2 Pet. i. 21 [R G L Tr txt.] ; 
worthies of the O. T. accepted by God for their piety, 
Mt. xxvii. 52 ; 1 Pet. iii. 5. 2. set apart for God, 

to be, as it were, exclusiveJij his ; foil, by a gen. or 
dat. : Tw Kvpico, Lk. ii. 23 ; rou deov (i. q. €k\€kt6s tov 
6eov) of Christ, Mk. i. 24 ; Lk. iv. 34, and ace. to the true 
reading in Jn. vi. 69, cf. x. 36 ; he is called also 6 aytoy 
irais TOV Oeov, Acts iv. 30, and simply 6 ayios, 1 Jn. ii. 
20. Just as the Israelites claimed for themselves the 
title 01 ayioi, because God selected them from the other 
nations to lead a life acceptable to him and rejoice in 
his favor and protection (Dan. vii. 18, 22 ; 2 Esdr. 
viii. 28), so this appellation is very often in the N. T. 
transferred to Christians, as those whom God has se- 
lected fK TOV Koa-fiov (Jn. xvii. 14, 16), that under the 
influence of the Holy Spirit they may be rendered, 
through holiness, partakers of salvation in the kingdom 
of God : 1 Pet. ii. 9 (Ex. xix. 6), cf. vs. 5 ; Acts ix. 13, 
32, 41; xxvi. 10; Ro. i. 7; viii. 27; xii. 13; xvi. 15; 
1 Co. vi. 1, 2 ; Phil. iv. 21 sq. ; Col. i. 12 ; Heb. vi. 10 ; 
Jude 3 ; Rev. v. 8, etc. ; [cf. B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Saints]. 
3. of sacrifices and offerings ; prepared for God ivith 
solemn rite, pure, clean, (opp. to aKadapTos) : 1 Co. vii. 
14, (cf. Eph. V. 3) ; connected with apwpos, Eph. i. 4 ; 
V. 27 ; Coh i. 22; cmapxhi Ro. xi. 16 ; 6vaia, Ro. xii. 1. 
Hence 4. in a moral sense, pure, sinless, upright, 
holy : 1 Pet. i. 16 (Lev. xix. 2 ; xi. 44) ; 1 Co. vii. 34 ; 
SiVatof K. ayios, of John the Baptist, Mk. vi. 20 ; ayios k. 
fiiKotos, of Christ, Acts iii. 14 ; distinctiitely of him. Rev. 
iii. 7; vi. 10; of God pre-eminently, 1 Pet. i. 15; Jn. 
xvii. 11 ; ayiai dvacTTpocpai, 2 Pet. iii. 11 ; vofios and 
fVTo\Tj, i. e. containing nothing exceptionable, Ro. vii. 
12 ; (plXrjfia, such a kiss as is a sign of the purest love, 
1 Th. V. 26 ; 1 Co. xvi. 20 ; 2 Co. xiii. 12 ; Ro. xvi. 16. 
On the phrase to ayiou nvev/xa and to TrvfO/xa to ayiov, 
see wevfia, 4 a. Cf. Diestel, Die Heiligkeit Gottes, 
in Jahrbb. f. deutsch. Theol. iv. p. 1 sqq. ; \_Baudissin, 



Stud. z. Semitisch. Religionsgesch. Heft ii. p. 3 sqq.; 
Delitzsch in Herzog ed. 2, v. 714 sqq. ; esp.] Cremer, 
Worterbuch, 4te Aufl. p. 32 sqq. [trans, of 2d ed. p. 34 
sqq.; Oehler in Herzog xix. 618 sqq. ; Zezschwitz, Pro* 
fangracitiit u. s. w. p. 15 sqq.; Trench § Ixxxviii. ; Camp- 
bell, Dissertations, diss, vi., pt. iv. ; esp. Schmidt ch. 181]. 

d.y{,6TT\%, -rjTos, T], sanctiti/, in a moral sense; holiness: 
2 Co. i. 12 L T Tr WH ; Heb. xii. 10. (Besides only 
in 2 Mace. xv. 2; [cf. W. 25, and on words of thir 
termination Lob. ad Phryn. p. 350].) * 

d7i«o-vvTj [on the <a see reff. in dyadwa-vvrf, init.], -tjs, f), 
a word unknown to prof. auth. [B. 73 (64)] ; 1. (God's 
incomparable) majesty, (joined to fieyaXoirpfirfia, Ps. xcv. 
(xcvi.) 6, cf. cxliv. (cxlv.) 5) : irvfvp.a ayiaxrvurjs a spirit 
to which belongs dytotrvz/j;, not equiv. to ■n-vtvp.a ayiov, 
but the divine [?] spiritual nature in Christ as contrasted 
with his aapl, Ro. i. 4 ; cf. Ruckert ad loc, and Zeller 
in Ills Theol. Jahrbb. for 1842, p. 486 sqq.; [yet cf. 
Mey. ad loc. ; Gifford (in the Speaker's Com.). Most 
commentators (cf. e. g. Ellic. on Thess. as below) regard 
the word as uniformly and only signifying holiness'^. 
2. moral purity : 1 Th. iii. 1 3 ; 2 Co. vii. 1 .* 

d-yKdXi], -jyy, f], (dyKrj, dyKas [fr. r. ak to bend, curve, 
cf. Lat. uncus, angulus, Eng. angle, etc.; cf. Curtius § 1; 
Vanicek p. 2 sq.]), the curve or inner angle of the arm : 
Bf^aadai els tos dyKaXai, Lk. ii. 28. The Greeks also 
said dyKas Xa^dv, iv dyKokais Tvepi(f)fpfiv, etc., see tvcry- 
Ka\i(opai. [(From Aeschyl. and Hdt. down.)] * 

a-yKio-rpov, -ov, to, (fr. an unused dyKi^a to angle [see 
the preceding word]), a fish-hook : Mt. xvii. 27.* 

a-yKvpa, -as, ^, [see dyKaX?;], an anchor — [ancient an- 
chors resembled modern in form : were of iron, provided 
with a stock, and with two teeth-like extremities often 
but by no means always without flukes ; see Roschach in 
Daremberg and Saglio's Diet, des Antiq. (1873) p. 267; 
Guhl and Koner p. 258] ; plimiv to cast (Lat. jacere), 
Acts xxvii. 29 ; eKTfiutw, vs. 30 ; Trtpiaipelv, vs. 40. Fig- 
uratively, any stay or safeguard : as hope, Heb. vi. 19; 
Eur. Hec. 78 (80) ; Heliod. vii. p. 352 (350).* 

a'yva4>os, -ov, 6, 17, (yvaTrra to dress or full cloth, cf. 
appa(pos), unmilled, unfulled, undressed : Mt. ix. 16 ; Mk. 
ii. 21. [Cf. Moeris s. V. aKi/aTTToi' ; Thom. Mag. p. 12, 14.]* 

ttYveCa [WH dyvia (see I, t)], -as, f], {dyvevw), purity, 
sinlessness of life : 1 Tim. iv. 12 ; v. 2. (Of a Nazirite, 
Num. vi. 2, 21.) [From Soph. O. T. 864 down.] • 

d-yvC^w ; 1 aor. rjyviaa ; pf . ptcp. act. i)yviKa)s ; pass. 
fjyvia-ntvos; 1 aor. pass. ^■yi/i'o-^i' [W. 252 (237)] ; (dyvos); 
to purify ; 1. ceremonially : iytavTov, Jo. xi. 55 (to 
cleanse themselves from levitical pollution by means 
of prayers, abstinence, washings, sacrifices) ; the pass, 
has a reflexive force, to take upon one's self a purifica- 
tion. Acts xxi. 24, 26; xxiv. 18 (I'TH, Num. vi. 3), and 
is used of Nazirites or those who had taken upon them- 
selves a temporary or a hfe-long vow to abstain from wine 
and all kinds of intoxicating drink, from every defilement 
and from shaving the head [cf. BB. DD. s. v. Nazarite]. 
2. morally : Tas Kapbias, Jas. iv. 8 ; tos ^vxds, 1 Pet. i« 
22; (avTov, 1 Jn. iii. 3. (Soph., Eur., Plat., al.)* 



wyviafMO'i 



8 



dypavXio) 



d-yvi.<r|i6s, -ov, 6, purification, lustration, [Dion. Hal. 3, 
22. i. p. 469, 13 ; Tlut. de defect, orac. 15] : Acts xxi. 26 
(equiv. to "irj, Num. vi. 5), Xaziritic ; see ayvl^co, 1.* 

iXYVoew (rNO [cf. •ytj/coo-Kw]), -c5, [impv. dyi^oeiVa) 1 Co. 
xiv. 38 li G Tr txt. WH mrg.] ; impf. rjyvoow ; 1 aor. 
f]yv6r](Ta ; [Pass., pres. dyvoovfiac, ptcp. dyvooiifievos ', f r. 
Hum. down]; a. to be iynorant, nut lu Lnuw: absol., 
1 Tim. i. 13; riva, ri. Acts xiii. 27 ; xvii. 23 ; Ro. x. 3 ; 
fv Tivi (as in [Test. Jos. § 14] Fabricii Pseudepigr. ii. 
p. 717 [but the reading fiyvoow eirl nda-i tovtois is now 
given here ; see Test. xii. i'atr. ad lid. cod. Cant, etc., ed. 
Sinker, Cambr. 1869]), 2 Pet. ii. 12, unless one prefer to 
resolve the expression thus : eV tovt'ols, a dyvoova-i t^T^aa- 
077/xoOirrey, W. 629 (584), [cf. B. 287 (246)J ; full, by ciTi, 
lio. ii. 4 ; vi. 3 ; vii. 1 ; 1 Co. xiv. 38 (where the antece- 
dent clause on ktX. is to be supplied again) ; ov 6eX(o 
vfidi dyvoeiv, a j)lirase often used by Paul, [an cniijhatic] 
scitute : foil, by an ace. of the obj., Ro. xi. 25 ; vTrep nvos, 
oTi, 2 Co. i. 8; nepi tivos, 1 Co. xii. 1; 1 Th. iv. 13; foil. 
by oTi, Ro. i. 13; 1 Co. x. 1; in the pass, dyvoelrai 'he 
is not known ' i. e. ace. to the context ' he is disregarded,' 

1 Co. xiv. 38 L T Tr mrg. WH txt. ; dyvoovfievot (ojjp. 
to eniyivaxTKOfjifvoi) men unknown, obscure, 2 Co. vi. 9 ; 
dyvoovpevos tivi unknown to one. Gal. i. 22 ; ovk dyvoeiv 
to know very well, ri, 2 Co. ii. 11 (Sap. xii. 10). b. not 
to understand : ri, Mk. ix. 32 ; Lk. ix. 45. c. to err, sin 
through mistake, spoken mildly of those who are not 
high-handed or wilful transgressors (Sir. v. 15; 2 Mace, 
xi. 31) : Heb. v. 2, on which see DeUtzsch.* 

d-yvoTiiia, tos, to, a sin, (strictly, that committed through 
ignorance or thoughtlessness [A. V. error^) : Heb. ix. 7 
(1 Mace. xiii. 39 ; Tob. iii. 3 ; Sir. xxiii. 2) ; cf. dyvoico, c. 
[and Trench § Ixvi.].* 

a-yvoia, -as, fj, [fr. Aeschyl. down], want of knoioledge, 
ignorance, esp. of divine things: Acts xvii. 30; 1 Pet. 
i. 14 ; such as is inexcusable, Eph. iv. 18 (Sap. xiv. 
22); of moral blindness. Acts iii. 17. [Cf. ayvofw.]* 

avvos, -T], -ov, {d^opai, see ayios) ; 1. exciting recer- 
ence, venerable, sacred : iriip <a\ fj airodos, 2 Mace. xiii. 
8; Eur. El. 812. 2. jnire (Eur. Or. 1C04 ayvos yap 
flpi )(^e'ipas, oAA' ov Tas cppevas, Hipp. 316 si[. uyvas . . . 
Xfipas alparos ({)ep(is, X*'P^^ M^" ayvai, (pprjv 6' i'xei 
piaa-pa) ; a. pure from carnal it g, chaste, modest : Tit. 
ii. 5 ; napdevos an unsullied virgin, 2 Co. xi. 2 (4 Mace, 
xviii. 7). b. j)ure from every fault, immaculute : 2 Co. 
vii. 1 1 ; Phil. iv. 8 ; 1 Tim. v. 22 ; 1 Pet. iii. 2 ; 1 Jn. iii, 
3 (of God [yet cf. tKflvos 1 b.]) ; Jas. iii. 1 7. (From Horn, 
down. j [Cf. reff. s. v. dyios, fin. ; Westc. on 1 Jn. iii. 3.] * 

d-yv6-nis, -tjtos, fj, [dyi/or], purity, uprightness of life : 

2 Co. vi. 6 ; in 2 Co. xi. 3 some critical authorities 
add (cai TTjr dyi/orrjroy after oTTKoTqTos (so L Tr txt., but 
Tr mrg. WH br.), others read r^y ayvoTrjros Koi before 
dTrXdr. Found once in prof, auth., see Boeckh, Corp. 
Inscrr. i. p.583 no. 1133 1. 15: SiKaioavvris evfKtv koi dyvo- 
rqros* 

d-yvcis, adv., purely, with sincerity: Phil. i. 16 (17).* 
dyvtoo-Ca, -as, r). (yvuxris), want of knowledge, igno- 
*-ance: 1 Pet. ii. 15; 1 Co. xv. 34, (Sap. xiii. 1).* 



o-Yvwo-Tos, -ov, [fr. Horn, down], unknown : Acts xvii. 
23 [cf. li. D. Am. ed. s. v. Altar].* 

dYopd, -as, 17, (dyei'pca, pf. f/yopa, to collect), [fr. Horn. 
down] ; 1. any collection of men, congregation, as' 
semhly. 2. j)lace where assemblies are held; in the 
N. T. the forum or public place, — where trials are held, 
Acts xvi. 19; and the citizens resort. Acts xvii. 17; and 
commodities are exposed for sale, Mk. vii. 4 (dn dyopds 
sc. eXdovres on returning from the market if they have 
not icashed themselves they eat not ; W. § 66, 2 d. note) ; 
accordingly, the most frequented part of a city or vil- 
lage: Mt. xi. 16, (Lk. vii. 32) ; Mk. vi. 56 ; Mt. xx. 3; 
xxiii. 7 ; Mk. xii. 38 ; [Lk. xi. 43] ; xx. 46. [See B. D. 
Am. ed. s. v. Market.] * 

dYopd|a> ; [impf. ijyupa^ov ; fut. dyopdcrtu] ; 1 aor. ^yd- 
paaa; Pass., pf. ptcp. fjyopaa-pevos ', 1 sor. fjyopdadrjV, 
(dyopd) ; 1. to frequent the markct-pkice. 2. to buy 
(properly, in the market-place), [Arstph., Xen., al.] ; 
used a. literally: absol., Mt. xxi. 12; Mk. xi. 15; 
Lk. xix. 45 [not G T Tr WH] ; rt, Mt. xiii. 44, 46 ; 
xiv. 15 and parallel pass., Jn. iv. 8 ; vi. 5 ; with napd 
and gen. of the pers. fr. whom. Rev. iii. 18, [Sept., 
Polyb.] ; €K and gen. of price, Mt. xxvii. 7 ; simple gen. 
of jDrice, Mk. vi. 37. b. figuratiA^ely : Christ is said 

to have purchased his disciples i. e. made them, as it 
were, his private property, 1 Co. vi. 20 [this is commonly 
understood of God; but cf. Jn. xvii. 9, 10]; 1 Co. vii. 
23 (with gen. of price added ; see Tipf], 1) ; 2 Pet. ii. 1. 
He is also said to have bought them f r G o d ev tm 
aipuTi avTov, by shedding his blood. Rev. v. 9 ; they, 
too, are spoken of as purchased diro ttjs yrjs. Rev. xiv. 3, 
and dm tuv dvOpancov, vs. 4, so that they are withdrawn 
from the earth (and its miseries) and from (wicked) 
men. But dyopd^M does not mean redeem (e^ayopd^co), 
— as is commonly said. [Comp. : e|-ayopd^a).] 

d-yopaios (rarely -aia), -alov, (dyopd), relating to the 
market-place; 1. frequenting the market-place, (either 
transacting business, as the KaTrrjXoi, or) sauntering idly, 
(Lat. subrostranus, subbasilicanus. Germ. Pfiastertreter, 
our loafer) : Acts xvii. 5, (Plat. Prot. 347 c. dyopa7oi koi 
(^aCXot, Arstph. ran. 1015, al.). 2. of affairs usually 
transacted in the 7narket-place : dyopaioi (sc. fjpepai [W. 
590 (549)] or avvoboi [INIey. et al.]) uyovTai, judicial 
days or assemblies, [A. V. mrg. court-days'], Acts xix. 
38 (rds dyopaiovs TroulaOai, Strabo 13, p. 932), but many 
think we ought to read dyo'paiot here, so G L cf. W. 
53 (52); but see [Alf. and Tdf. ad loc; Lipsius, Gram. 
Untersuch. p. 26 ;] Meyer on Acts xvii. 5 ; Gottling 
p. 297; [Chandler ed. 1 p. 269].* 

d^pa, -as, f], [nyw] ! 1- « catching^ hunting : Lk. v. 4. 
2. the thing caught : f] aypa twv lx6iio>v ' the catch or haul 
of fish ' i. e. the fishes taken [A. V. draught], Lk. v. 9.* 

d-ypdp,|jiaTOs, -01', [ypdppa], illiterate, without learning: 
Acts iv. 13 (i. e. unversed in the learning of the Jewish 
schools ; cf. Jn. vii. 15 ypdppara prj pfpadrjKcos)* 

d7p-avX.6o>, -at ; to be an aypavXos {dypos, avXf}), i. e. 
to lire in the fields, be under the open sky, even by night: 
Lk. ii. 8, (Strabo p. 301 a. ; Plut. Num. 4).* 



wypevoi 



a'y 



00 



dYpevco : 1 aor. rfypevaa ; {ay pa) ; to catch (properly, 
wild animals, fishes) : fig., JVIk. xii. 13 Iva avTov aypexxraiai 
Xoyo) in order to entrap him by some inconsiderate re- 
mark elicited from him in conversation, cf. Lk. xx. 20. 
(In Anthol. it often denotes to ensnare in the toils of 
love, captivate ; cf. TraytSeuo), Mt. xxii. 15 ; (rayriveiui, 
Lcian. Tim. 25.) * 

d-ypi-cXaio$, -ov, (aypios and Tkaios or iXaia, like dypiap- 
TreXoy) ; 1. of or belonging to the oleaster, or tciUl olive, 
(o-kvtoKtjv dypieXaiov, Anthol. 9, 237, 4; [cf. Lob. Para- 
lip, p. 376]); spoken of a scion, E,o. xi. 17. 2. As 
subst. fj dypif\aios the oleaster, the wild olive, (opp. to 
KaXKteXaios [cf. Aristot. plant. 1, 6]), also called by the 
Greeks kotivos, Ro. xi. 24; cf. rritzscheonRom.vol. ii. 
495 sqq. [See B. D. s. v. Olive, and Tristram, Nat. 
Hist, of the Bible, s. v. Olive. The latter says, p. 377, 
' the wild olive must not be confounded with the Oleaster 
or Oil-tree '.]* 

dvpios, -a,-ov, (dypos), [fr. Hom. down] ; 1. living 
or growing in the Jields or the icoods, used of animals in 
a state of nature, and of plants which grow without 
culture : peki aypiou loild honey, either that which is 
deposited by bees in hollow trees, clefts of rocks, on the 
bare ground (1 S. xiv. 25 [cf. vs. 26]), etc., or more cor- 
rectly that which distils from certain trees, and is gath- 
ered when it has become hard, (Diod. Sic. 19, 94 fin. 
speaking of the Nabathaean Arabians says (pveraL irap 
avTois peXi ttoXv to KoKovpevov aypiov, at x^pavrai ttotco 
fuff vbaros; cf. Suid. and esp. Suicer s. v. oKpty) : Mt. iii. 
4 ; Mk. i. 6. 2. fierce, untamed : Kvpara 6a\d(T<Trjs, 

Jude 13 (Sap. xiv. 1).* 

'Aypliriras, -a (respecting this gen. see W. § 8, 1 p. 60 
(59) ; B. 20 (18)), 6, see 'Upadrjs, (3 and) 4. 

dYp6s, -ov, 6, [fr. aya> ; prop, a drove or driving-place, 
then, pasturage; cf. Lat. age?-, Germ. Acker, Eng. acre; 
Fick, Pt. i. p. 8] ; a. a field, the country: Mt. vi. 28; 

xxiv. 18 , Lk. XV. 15 ; [Mk. xi. 8 TTr WH], etc. b. 

i. q. x^pioj', apiece of land, bit of tillage : Acts iv. 37 ; ]\lk. 
X. 29 ; Mt. xiii. 24, 27, etc. c. oJ dypoi the farms, 
country-seats, neighboring hamlets : Mk. v. 14 (opp. to 
TToXtj) ; vi. 36 ; Lk. ix. 12. [(From Hom. on.)] 

d-ypvirvew, -w ; (^dypvirvos equiv. to dvirvoi) ; to be sleep- 
less, keep awake, watch, (i. q. yprjyopea) [see below]) ; 
£fr. Theognis down] ; trop. to be circumspect, attentive, 
ready : Mk. xiii. 33 ; Lk, xxi. 36 ; €is rt, to be intent 
upon a thing, Eph. vi. 18; virep tivos, to exercise con- 
stant vigilance over something (an image drawn from 
shepherds), Heb. xiii. 17. [Syn. dypvirvelv, yprjyo- 
pelv, pfi(p€ip: " dypvTTveiv may be taken to express sim- 
ply . . . absence of sleep, and, pointedly, the absence of 
it when due to nature, and thence a wakeful frame of 
mind as opposed to listlessness ; while ypr^yopdv (the 
offspring of eypfiyopa) represents a waking state as 
the effect of some arousing effort . . o i. e. a more stir- 
ring image than the former. The group of synonyms 
is completed by vfj(f)fiv, which signifies c state untouched 
by any slumberous or beclouding influences, and thence, 
one that is guarded against advances of drowsiness or 



bewilderment. Thus it becomes a term for warines? 
(cf. vd(f>e Koi pepvaa aTncTTflv) against spiritual dangers 
and beguilements, 1 Pet. v. 8, etc." Green, Crit. Notes 
on the N. T. (note on Mk. xiii. 33 sq.).]* 

d-ypvirv£a, -as, r), sleeplessness, watching : 2 Co. vi. 5 ; 
xi. 27. [From Ildt. down.]* 

dvco ; impf. riyov] fut. a^oj ; 2 aor. rjyayov, inf. dyaydv, 
(more rarely 1 aor. r)^a, in eVnyw 2 Pet. ii. 5) ; Pass., 
pres. ayopai; impf. ^yoprjK; 1 aor. rj^Briv; 1 fut. dx^rj- 
cropai ; [fr. Hom. down] ; to drive, lead. 1. properly 
[A. V. ordinarily, to bring'] ; a. to lead by laying 
hold of, and in this way to bring to the point of desti- 
nation : of an animal, Mt. xxi. 7 ; Lk. xix. 35 ; Mk. xi. 
7 (T Tr WH (Pepovaiv) ; [Lk. xix. 30] ; rivd foil, by ds 
with ace. of place, Lk. iv. 9 [al. refer this to 2 c] ; x. 
34 ; (Jjyayov k. ftarjyayov fls, Lk. xxii. 54) ; Jn. xviii. 28 ; 
Acts vi. 12; ix. 2; xvii. 5 [R G] ; xxi. 34 ; xxii. 5, 24 
Rec. ; xxiii. 10, 31 ; eVt with ace. Acts xvii. 19 ; ecos, 
Lk. iv. 29 ; npos nva, to persons, Lk. [iv. 40] ; xviii. 
40 ; Acts ix. 27 ; Jn. viii. 3 [Rec.]. b. to lead by accom- 
panyingto (into) any place: els, Acts xi. 26 (25) ; ecus-. 
Acts xvii. 15 ; wpos tivo, to persons, Jn. i. 42 (43) ; ix. 
13 ; Acts xxiii. 18; foil, by dat. of pers. to whom, Acts 
xxi. 16 on which see W. 214 (201) at length, [cf. B. 
284 (244)], (1 Mace. vii. 2 ayeiv avrovs avru,). C. to 

lend with one's self, attach to one's seK as an attendant : 
TLvd, 2 Tim. iv. 11 ; 1 Th. iv. 14, (Joseph, antt. 10, 9, 6 
d-rrfjpev els ttjv A'iyvivTov dyav kol 'lepepiav). Some refer 
Acts xxi. 16 to this head, resolving it ayovres Mvdacoua 
Trap" J ^eviadccipev, but incorrectly, see W. [and B.] as 
above. d. to conduct, bring: rivd, [Lk. xix. 27]; Jn. 
vii. 45; [xix. 4, 13]; Acts v. 21, 26, [27]; xix. 37; xx. 
12; XXV. 6, 23; naXov, Mk. xi. 2 (where T Tr WH 
(pfpere) ; [Lk. xix. 30, see a. above] ; rua nvi or ri rivi, 
Mt. xxi. 2 ; Acts xiii. 23 G L T Tr WH. e. to lead 
away, to a court of justice, magistrate, etc. : simply, 
Mk. xiii. 11 ; [Acts xxv. 17] ; eVi with ace, Mt. x. 18; 
Lk. xxi. 12 (T Tr WH dirayopivovs) ; [Lk. xxiii. 1]; 
Acts [ix. 21]; xviii. 12; (often in Attic); [irpos with 
ace, Jn. xviii. 13 L T Tr WH] ; to punishment : simply 
(2 Mace. vi. 29; vii. 18, etc.), Jn. xLx. 16 Grsb. (R Ka\ 
aTTTiyayov, which L T Tr WH have expunged) ; with 
telic inf., Lk. xxiii. 32; [foil, by Iva, Mk. xv. 20 Lchm.]; 
im a-(j)ayTju, Acts viii. 32, (eVt Oavdrcp, Xen. mem. 4, 4, 
3; an. 1, 6, 10). 2. tropically; a. to lead, guide, 
direct: Jn. x. 16; els perdvoiav, Ro. ii. 4. b. to lead 
through, conduct, to something, become the author of 
good or of evil to some one : els do^av, Heb. ii. 10, («s 
[al. eVt] KaXoKdyadiav, Xen. mem. 1, 6, 14 ; els dovXeiav, 
Dem. p. 213, 28). c. to move, impel, of forces and 
influences affecting the mind : Lk. iv. 1 (where read ep 
TTj eprjpcp [with L txt. T Tr WH]) ; nvevpari deoii ayeaOai, 
Ro. viii. 14; Gal. v. 18; emdvpiais, 2 Tim. ui. 6; sim- 
ply, urged on by blind impulse, 1 Co. xii. 2 — unless im- 
pelled by Satan's influence be preferable, cf. 1 Co. x. 20 ; 
Eph. ii. 2; [B. 383 (328) sq.]. 3. to pass a day, 
keep or celebrate a feast, etc : Tplrqv fjpepav ayei sc. 6 
^Itjparjk, Lk. xxiv. 21 [others (see Meyer) supply alrds 



a<y<o'yr) 



10 



aheK^o^ 



or o 'lijo-ovf ; still others take Syti as impers., one passes, 
Vijlg. tertia dies est ; see B. 134 (118)] ; yevtviutv ayofii- 
*«v, Mt. xiv. 6 R G ; dyopdioi (q. v. 2), Acts xLx. 38 ; often 
in the O. T. Apocr. (cf. Wahl, Clavis Apocr. s. v. Sya, 
3), in Hdt. and Attic writ. 4. intrans. to go, depart, 
(W. § 38, 1, p. 251 (236) ; [B, 144 (126)]) : ciyafiev let 
us go, Mt. xxvi. 46 ; Mk. xiv. 42 ; Jn. xiv. 31 ; npos 
Tiva, Jn. xi. 15; tts with ace. of place, Mk. i. 38 ; Jn. 
xi. 7, (Epict. diss. 3, 22, 55 ayuifitv tm t6v dvdvrraTov) ; 
[foil, by tva, Jn. xi. 16. Comp. : dv-, tn-av-, an-, avu-arr-, 
it-, eta-, nap- f to-, e^, fir-, kot-, fi(T. Tap-, irtpi-, npo-, itpoa-, 
trvv-, fm-avu-, irr-dya. Syn. cf. Schmidt ch. 105.] * 

i.yo>y(\, -?js, fj, (fr. aya>, like (8a)8f} fr. eSw) ; 1. prop- 
erly, a leading. 2. figuratively, a. trans, a conduct- 
ing, training, education, discipline. b. intrans. the life 
led, icay or course of life (a use which arose from the 
fuller expression dyu>yr) roii ^iov, in Polyb. 4, 74, 1. 4 ; cf. 
Germ. LebensfUhrung) : 2 Tim. iii. 10 [R. V. conduct^, 
(Esth. ii. 20 ; 2 Mace. iv. 16 ; ^ e<f Xpia-rw dycryrj, Clem. 
Rom. 1 Cor. 47, 6; dyi/?) ayo/yjj, ibid. 48, 1). Often in 
prof. auth. in all these senses.* 

d^uv, -a)f OS, 6, (ayw) ; 1. a place of assembly (Hom. 
n. 7, 298 ; 18, 376) ; spec, the place in which the Greeks 
assembled to celebrate solemn games (as the Pythian, 
the Oljinpian) ; hence 2. a contest, of athletes, run- 
ners, charioteers. In a fig. sense, a. in the phrase 
(used by the Greeks, see Tpe)(u>, b.) Tpf;^eii' top dyawa, 
Heb. xii. 1, that is to say 'Amid all hindrances let us 
exert ourselves to the utmost to attain to the goal of 
perfection set before the followers of Christ ' ; any 
struggle with dangers, annoyances, obstacles, standing 
in the way of faith, holiness, and a desire to spread the 
gospel: I'Th. ii. 2; PhH. i. 30; 1 Tim. vl. 12; 2 Tim. 
iv. 7. b. intense solicitude, anxiety : irtpl riuoi, Col. 

ii. 1 [cf. Eur. Ph. 1350 ; Polyb. 4, 56, 4]. On the ethical 
use of figures borrowed from the Greek Games cf. 
Grimm on Sap. iv. 1 ; \_Howson, Metaphors of St. Paul, 
Essay iv. ; Conyb. and Hows. Life and Epp. of St. 
Paul, ch. XX.; Mc. and S. iii. 733" sq. ; BB.DD. s. v. 
Games].* 

d-ywvCa, -as, ff, 1. i- q. dycoy, which see. 2. It is 
often used, from Dem. (on the Crown p. 236, 19 ^i/ 6 
•tiXtTTTTOj (V <^o/3a) Koi TToWfj dycuuia) down, of severe 
mental struggles and emotions, agony, anguish : Lk. 
xxii. 44 [L br. WII reject the pass.] ; (2 Mace. iii. 14, 
16 ; XV. 19 ; Joseph, antt. 11, S, 4 6 dpxiepevi rjv iv dycovla 
Koi Sf'et)- [Cf. Field, Otium Norv. iii. on Lk. 1. c.] * 

d-Y«vi5op.ai ; impi. Tjyovi^oprjv ', fif. fjywviapai; a depon. 
mid. verb [cf. W. 260 (244)] ; (dywv) ; 1. to enter a 
contest; contend in the gymnastic games: 1 Co. ix. 25. 
2. univ. to contend with adversaries, fght : foil, by Iva 
(IT), Jn. xviii. 36. 3. fig. to contend, struggle, with 
difficulties and dangers antagonistic to the gospel : Col. 
i. 20; 1 Tim. iv. 10 (L T Tr txt. WH txt.; for Rec. 
ovfidi^opfda) ; dycovi^opai dydva (often used by the 
Greeks also, esp. the Attic), 1 Tim. vi. 12; 2 Tim. iv. 
7. 4. to endeavor with strenuous zeal, strive, to obtain 
something ; foil, by an inf., Lk. xiii. 24 ; vnep tivos iv rais 



irpoa-evxaU, tva, Col. iv. 12. [CoMP. : dvr-, in-, Kav, 

(TVV-aywviCop^Ji.l * 

'A8d|j., indecl. prop, name (but in Joseph. 'ASa/ior, -ov), 
DHX (i. e. ace. to Philo, de leg. aUeg. i. 29, Opp. i. p. 62 
ed. Mang., y^tvos ; ace. to Euseb. Prep. Ev. vii. 8 yrjytvrit ; 
ace. to Joseph, antt. 1,1,2 nvppos, with which Gesenius 
agrees, see his Thesaur. i. p. 25) ; 1. Adam, the first 
man and the parent of the whole human race : Lk. iii. 38 ; 
Ro. V. 14 ; 1 Co. XV. 22, 45 ; 1 Tim. ii. 13 sq. ; Jude 14. 
In accordance with the Rabbinic distinction between the 
former Adam ( j'lC'K'in □")*<)} the first man, the author 
of ' all our woe,' and the latter Adam (jITriNn DIX), 
the Messiah, the redeemer, in 1 Co. xv. 45 Jesus Christ 
is called 6 fa-xaros ^Abdp (see eaxaTos, 1) and contrasted 
with 6 nparos audpanos', Ro. v. 14 6 /xeXXcoi/ sc. 'Ada/i. 
[2. one of the ancestors of Jesus : Lk. iii. 33 WH mrg. 
(ci.'A8pfiu).y 

dSdiravos, -ov, (Sandvi]'), without expense, requiring no 
outlay : 1 Co. ix. 18 (Iva dbdnavov OrjO'co to (layytKiov 
'that I may make Christian instruction gratuitous').* 

•A88£ or 'ASSet T Tr WH [see WH. App. p. 155, and 
s. v. €t, i],6, the indecl. prop, name of one of the ances- 
tors of Christ : Lk. iii. 28.* 

dScX4>^, -rji, f], (see d8t\(f)6s), [fr. Aeschyl. down], sis- 
ter; 1. a full, otcn sister (i.e. by birth) : Mt. xix. 
29 ; Lk. X. 39 sq. ; Jn. xi. 1, 3, 5 ; xix. 25 ; Ro. xvi. 15, 
etc. ; respecting the sisters of Christ, mentioned in Mt. 
xiii. 56; Mk. vi. 3, see dSeX0of, 1. 2. one connected 
by the tie of the Christian religion: 1 Co. vii. 15; ix. 5 ; 
Philem. 2 LT Tr WH ; Jas. ii. 15 ; with a subj. gen., a 
Christian woman especially dear to one, Ro. xvi. 1. 

d8€X4>6s, -ov, 6, (fr. a copulative and 8('h(})vs, from the 
same ivomh ; cf. dyao-rcop), [fr. Horn, down] ; 1. a 
brother (whether born of the same two parents, or only 
of the same father or the same mother) : Mt. i. 2 ; iv. 1 8, 
and often. That ' the brethren of Jesus' Mt. xii. 46, 47 
[but WH only in mrg.] ; xiii. 55 sq. ; Mk. vi. 3 (in the 
last two passages also sisters'); Lk. viii. 19 sq. ; Jn. ii. 
12; vii. 3; Acts i. 14; Gal. i. 19; 1 Co. ix. 5, are 
neither sons of Joseph by a wife married before Mary 
(which is the account in the Apocryphal Gospels [cf. 
Thilo, Cod. Apocr. N. T. i. 362 sq.]), nor cousins, the 
children of Alplia>us or Cleophas [i. e. Clopas] and Mary 
a sister of the mother of Jesus (the current opinion 
among the doctors of the church since Jerome and Au- 
gustine [cf. Bp. Lghtft. Com. on Gal., diss, ii.]), accord- 
ing to that use of language by which dSeX(^dy like the 
Hebr. nx denotes any blood-relation or kinsman (Gen. 
xiv. 16;'l S. XX. 29; 2 K. x. 13; 1 Chr. xxiii. 22, 
etc.), but own brothers, born after Jesus, is clear prin- 
cipally from Mt. i. 25 [only in R G] ; Lk. ii. 7 — where, 
had Mary borne no other children after Jesus, instead 
of viov npoTOTOKov, the expression vlov povoyevrj would 
have been used, as well as from Acts i. 14, cf. Jn. vii. 5, 
where the Lord's brethren are distinguished from the 
apostles. See further on this point under 'idicco^oy, 3. 
[Cf. B. D. s. V. Brother; Andrews, Life of our Lord, 
pp. 104-116; Bib. Sacr. for 1864, pp. 855-869; for 1869 



aSeX^0T7;9 



11 



aSiKfta 



pp. 745-758; Laurent, N. T. Studien pp. 153-193 ;'iJfc- 
Clellan, note on Mt. xiii. 55.] 2. according to a 
Hebr. use of nx (Ex. ii. 11 ; iv. 18, etc.), hardly to be 
met with in prof, auth., having the same national ances- 
tor, helongivg to the same people, countryman ; so the 
Jews (as the a-nfpfia 'A/3pna^. viol 'ifrpo^X, cf. Acts xiii. 
26; [in Deut. xv. 3 opp. to 6 aWorpios, cf. xvii. 15; 
XV. 12; Philo de septen. § 9 init.]) are called d8(X(fioi: 
Mt. V. 47; Acts iii. 22 (Deut. xviii. 15); vii. 23; xxii. 
5 ; xxviii. 15, 21 ; Ro. ix. 3 ; in address. Acts ii. 29 ; 
iii. 17; xxiii. 1 ; Heb. vii. 5. 3. just as in Lev. xix. 
1 7 the word nX is used interchangeably with ^n (but, 
as vss. 16, 18 show, in speaking of Israelites), so in the 
sayings of Christ, Mt. v. 22, 24 ; vii. 3 sqq., d8t\(f)6s is 
used for 6 irKfjiriov to denote (as appears from Lk. x. 
29 sqq.) any fellow-man, — as having one and the same 
father with others, viz. God (Heb. ii. 11), and as de- 
scended from the same first ancestor (Acts xvii. 26) ; 
cf. Epict. diss. 1, 13, 3. 4. a fellow-believer, united to 
another by the bond of affection ; so most frequently of 
Christians, constituting as it were but a single family : 
Mt. xxiii. 8 ; Jn. xxi. 23 ; Acts vi. 3 [Lchm. om.] ; ix. 
30; xi. 1; Gal. i. 2 ; 1 Co. v. 11 ; Phil. i. 14, etc.; in 
courteous address, Ro. i. 13 ; vii. 1 ; 1 Co. i. 10 ; 1 Jn. 
ii. 7 Rec, and often elsewhere ; yet in the phraseology 
of John it has reference to the new life unto which men 
are begotten again by the efficiency of a common father, 
even God: 1 Jn. ii. 9 sqq.; iii. 10, 14, etc., cf. v. 1. 
5. an associate in employment or office : 1 Co. i. 1 ; 
2Co.i.l;ii. 13(12); Eph.vi. 21; Col. i. 1. 6. brethren 
of Christ is used of, a. his brothers by blood ; see 1 
above, b. all men : Mt. xxv. 40 [Lchm. br.] ; Heb. ii. 
11 sq. [al. refer these exx. to d.] c. apostles: Mt. 
xxviii. 10: Jn. xx. 17. d. Christians, as those who are 
destined to be exalted to the same heavenly bo^a (q. v. 
III. 4 b.) which he enjoys : Ro. viii. 29. 

dSeX(t>6TT]S) -TITOS', fj, brotherhood; the abstract for the 
concrete, a band of brothers i. e. of Christians, Chris- 
tian brethren : 1 Pet. ii. 17 ; v. 9. (1 Mace. xii. 10, 17, 
the connection of alUed nations ; 4 Mace. ix. 23 ; x. 3, 
the connection of brothers ; Dio Chrys. ii. 137 [ed. 
Reiske] ; often in eccl. writ.) * 

a-8T]\os, -ov, (S^Xos), not manifest : Lk. xi. 44 ; indis- 
tinct, uncertain, obscure : cficovr], 1 Co. xiv. 8. (In Grk. 
auth. fr. Has. down.) [Cf. SijXoy.fin.; Schmidt ch. 130.]* 

6.hvi\6Tr]<s, -rjTos, f], uncertainty : 1 Tim. vi. 17 ttXovtov 
ubTJXoTTjTi equiv. to ttAovto) dbrjXco, cf. W. § 34, 3 a. 
[Polyb., Dion. Hal., Philo.]'* 

dS^Xcos, adv., uncertainly : 1 Co. ix. 26 ovra Tpexco, 
as ovK aSijXcos i. e. not uncertain whither; cf. Mey. 
ad loc. [(Thuc, al.)]* 

d8i]jtov€'a), -M ; (fr. the unused dbi^naiv, and this fr. a 
priv. and B^fjios ; accordingly uncomfortable, as not at 
home, cf. Germ, unheimisch, unheimlich; cf. Bttm. Lexil. 
ii. 136 [Fishlake's trans, p. 29 sq. But Lob. (Pathol. 
Proleg. p. 238, cf. p. 160) et al. connect it with ddrnxcov, 
d8fj<Tai; see Bp. Lghtft. on Phil. ii. 26]) ; to be troubled, 
distressed: Mt. xxvi. 37; Mk. xiv. 33; Pliil. ii. 26. 



(Xen. Hell. 4, 4, 3 d8T]p,ovTJ(rai ras ^//■v;(at, and often in 
prof, auth.) * 

"AvBtisi aSjjr, -ov, 6, (for the older 'Atdrjs, which Horn. 
uses, and this fr. a priv. and I8f2v, not to be seen, [cf . Lob. 
Path. Element, ii. 6 sq.]) ; in the classics 1. a prop, 
name, Hades, Pluto, the god of the lower regions ; so in 
Hom. always. 2. an appellative, Orcus, the nether world, 
the realm of the dead [cf. Theocr. idyll. 2, 159 schol. ttjvtov 
abov Kpovti TTvXrji/* Toirr (oriv dnodavdrai]. In the Sept. 
the Hebr. liXC' is almost always rendered by this word 
(once by Odvaros, 2 S. xxii. 6) ; it denotes, therefore, in 
bibl. Grk. Orcus, the infernal regions, a dark (Job x. 
21) and dismal place (but cf. yttwa and irapdbdo-os) in 
the very depths of the earth (Job xi. 8 ; Is. Ivii. 9 ; 
Am. ix. 2, etc. ; see a/3vo-o-of), the common receptacle 
of disembodied spirits : Lk. xvi. 23 ; tls abov sc. bofiov, 
Acts ii. 27, 31, ace. to a very common ellipsis, cf. W. 
592 (550) [B. 171 (149)] ; (but L T Tr WH in vs. 27 
and T WH in both verses read els adr/v ; so Sept. Ps. xv. 
(xvi.) 10) ; TTvXat abov, Mt. xvi. 18 (nvXoipoi abov, Job 
xxxviii. 17; see ttvXt]) ; Kkels toxj abov, Rev. i. 18; 
Hades as a power is personified, 1 Co. xv. 55 (where L 
T Tr WH read edvare for R G abt] [cf. Acts ii. 24 Tr 
mrg.]); Rev. vi. 8; xx. 13 sq. Metaph. (as abov \_Kara- 
^aiveiv or] Kara^i^a^eaBai to [go or] be thrust down 
into the depth of misery and disgrace : Mt. xi. 23 [here 
L Tr WH Kara^aivtiv'] ; Lk. x. 15 [here Tr mrg. WH txt. 
Kara^aivfiv]. [See esp. Boettcher, De Inferis, s. v.''AtSi;f 
in Grk. index. On the existence and locality of Hades 
cf. Greswell on the Parables, App. ch. x. vol. v. pt. ii. 
pp. 261-406 ; on the doctrinal significance of the word 
see the BB.DD. and E. R. Craven in Lange on Rev. 
pp. 364-377.]* 

d-8id-KpiTOS, -01', (biaKpiva to distinguish) ; 1. undis- 
tinguished and undistinguishable: (f)covT], Polyb. 15, 12, 9; 
Xoyof, Lcian. Jup. Trag. 25 ; for in3, Gen. i. 2 Symm. 

2. without dubiousness, ambiguity, or uncertainty (see 
biaKpivoa, Pass, and Mid. 3 [al. without variance, cf. bia- 
Kpiva, 2]) : f} avcodfv a-o(f)ia, Jas. iii. 17 (Ignat. ad Ej)li. 

3, 2 'iTjaoiis XpicTTos to dbidxpiTov r]p.U)V ^rjv [yet al. take 
the word here i. q. inseparable, cf. Zahn in Patr. Apost. 
Opp., ed. Gebh., Ham. and Zahn, fasc. ii. p. 7 ; see also 
in general Zahn, Ignatius, p. 429 note^ ; Bp. Lghtft. on 
Ignat. 1. c. ; Soph. Lex. s. v. Used from Hippocr. down. ]).* 

d^idXeiTTTos, -ov, (biaXfiira to intermit, leave oS),uninter- 
mitted, unceasing : Ro. ix. 2 ; 2 Tim. i. 3. [Tim. Locr. 98 e.]* 

dStaXtiirTws, adv., without intermission, incessantly, as- 
sist unusly : Ro. i. 9 ; 1 Th. i. 2 (3) ; ii. 1 3 ; v. 1 7. [Polyb., 
Diod., Strabo ; 1 Mace. xii. 11.] * 

d-8ia-(j)0opia, -as, fj, (fr. d8id(f)6opos incorrupt, incor- 
ruptible; and this from dbia(j)d(ipai), incorruptibility, 
soundness, integrity : of mind, ev rf) bibaaKoXia, Tit. ii. 
7 (L T Tr Wli d4>6opiav). Not found in the classics." 

dSiKe'co, -w ; [fut. dbiKrjaui^ ; 1 aor. rjbiKrjaa ; Pass., 
[pres. afiiKoO/j-ai] ; 1 aor. rjbiKfjdijv; Uterally to be abiKos. 
1. absolutely ; a. to act unjustly or wickedly, to sin : 
Rev. xxii. 11 ; Col. iii. 25. b. to be a criminal, to have 
violated the laws in some way: Acts xxv. 11, (often so 



ahiKijfjLa 



12 



dhvvaro'i 



in Grk. writ. [cf. W. § 40, 2 c.]). c. to do wrong : 1 Co. 
vi. 8; 2 Co. vii. 12. d. to do hurt: Rev. ix. 19. 2. 
transitively ; a. t/, /o c?o some wrong, sin in some re- 
spect : Col. ill. 25 (6 fiSlKrjaf ' the wrong wliich he hath 
done '). b. nvd, to wrong sorne one, act wicked I g 
towards him : Acts vii. 26 sq. (by blows) ; Mt. xx. 13 
(by fraud) ; 2 Co. vii. 2 ; pass. ddiKeladai to be 
wronged, 2 Co. vii. 12; Acts vii. 24; mid. d8iKo£ifiai 
to suffer one's self to be wronged, take wrong [W. 
§ 38, 3 ; cf. Riddell, Platonic Idioms, § 87 sq.] : 1 Co. 
vi. 7; Tivii oib^v [B. § 131, 10; W. 227 (213)], Acts 
XXV. 10; Gal. iv. 12; rtva ri, Philem. 18; [^dbiKovpLfvoi 
fii,a-66v dSiKtas (R. V. sufering wrong as the hire of 
wrong-doing), 2 Pet. ii. 13 WII Tr mrg.]. c. rivd, 
to hurt, damage, harm (in this sense by Greeks of every 
period): Lk. x. 19; Rev. vi. 6; vii. 2 sq. ; ix. 4, 10; 
xi. 5 ; pass, ov fif) dSiKrjd^ tic tov davdrov shall suffer 
no violence from death, Rev. ii. 11.* 

dSCKTiHia, -Tos, TO, (d8iic((o), [fr. Hdt. on], a misdeed [to 
d8iKov . . . oTov TTpax&jj^ dhiKr]^d eaTiv, Aristot. Eth. Nic. 
5, 7] : Acts wiii. 14 ; xxiv. 20 ; Rev. xviii. 5.* 

d8iK£a, -as, tj, (aSt/coy), [fr. Hdt. down] ; 1. injustice, 
of a judge : Lk. xviii. 6 ; Ro. ix. 14. 2. unrighteous- 
ness of heart and life; a. univ. : Mt. xxiii. 25 Grsb. ; 
Acts viii. 23 (sec avvbea-fios) ; Ro. i. 18, 29; ii. 8; vi. 
13 ; 2 Tim. ii. 19 ; opp. to f] d\^dei.a, 1 Co. xiii. 6 ; 2 Th. 
ii. 12; opp. to f} BiKaioa-wT), Ro. iii. 5; Heb. i. 9 Tdf. ; 
owing to the context, the guilt of unrighteousness, 1 Jn. 
i. 9 ; dndTTj t^? dStKi'a? deceit which unrighteousness 
uses, 2 Th. ii. 10; ^10-665 dSiKias reward (i. e. penalty) 
due to unrighteousness, 2 Pet. ii. 13 [see dbiKeco, 2 b. 
fin.], b. spec, imrighteousness by which others are 
deceived: Jn. vii. 18 (opp. to d\r]6r]s) ; jj-afnovas Trjs 
ddiKias deceitful riches, Lk. xvi. 9 (cf. dTrdrri tov nXovTov, 
]\It. xiii. 22 ; others think ' riches wrongly acquired ' ; 
[others, riches apt to be used unrighteously ;cf. vs. 8 and 
Mey. ad loc.]) ; koct/ios ttjs dbiKias, a phrase having ref- 
erence to sins of the tongue, Jas. iii. 6 (cf. Koayios, 8) ; 
treacherg, Lk. xvi. 8 (otVow/^os Trjs dbiKias, [al. take it 
generally, 'acting unrighteously']). 3. a deed violat- 
ing law and justice, act of unrighteousness : ndcra dbiKia 
dfiapTia iari, 1 Jn. v. 17; epyuTai tjJs ddiKiaSj Lk. xiii. 27 ; 
al dSiKiai iniquities, misdeeds, Heb. viii. 12 (fr. Sept. 
Jer. xxxviii. (xxxi.) 34 ; cf. Dan. iv. 20 (24)) ; fiiados 
dbiKias reward obtained by wrong-doing. Acts i. 18; 
2 Pet. ii. 15 ; spec, the wrong of depriving another 
of what is his, 2 Co. xii. 13 (where a favor is ironically 
called dbiKia).* 

dSiKos, -ov. (8iKr}), [fr. Hes. down] ; descriptive of one 
who violates or has violated justice ; 1. unjust, (of 

God as judge): Ro. iii. 5; Heb. vi. 10. 2. of one 

who breaks God's laws, unrighteous, sinful, (see dSiKia, 
2) : [1 Co. vi. 9]; opp. to biKaios, Mt. v. 45; Acts xxiv. 
15 ; 1 Pet. iii. 18 ; opp. to (l(Tt^r)s, 2 Pet. ii. 9 ; in this 
sense ace. to Jewish speech the Gentiles are called 
ahiKoi, 1 Co. vi, 1 (see ifiapTcdkos, b. /3.). 3. spec, of 
one who deals fraudulently with others, Lk. xviii. 11 ; 
who is false to a trust, Lk. xvi. 10 (opp. to ttio-tos); 



deceitful, fxafitovas, ibid. vs. 1 1 (for other interpretations 
see dSiKia, 2 b.).* 

oSiKws, adv., unjustly, undeservedly, without fault : ird- 
ax^i-v, 1 Pet. ii. 19 [A. V. icrongfully. (Fr. Hdt. on.)] * 

'ASjieCv, 6, Admin, the indecl. prop, name of one of 
the ancestors of Jesus : Lk. iii. 33, where Tdf. reads 
roi; *AS/xel«' tov 'Apvd for Rec. toxj 'Apo/x (q. v.), [and WH 
txt. substitute the same reading for tov 'Aixivabd^ tov 
'Apa'/i of R G, but in their mrg. 'ASa/i (q. v. 2) for 'A8/xeiV ; 
on the spelling of the word see their App. p. 155].* 

d-86Ki|xos, -OP, (SoKt/xoy), [fr. Eur. down], not standing 
the test, not approved ; properly of metals and coin, 
dpyvpiov. Is. i. 22 ; Prov. xxv. 4 ; vofjua-fia, Plat. legg. 
V. p. 742 a., al. ; hence, which does not prove itself to 
be such as it ought : yfj, of sterile soil, Heb. vi. 8 ; in a 
moral sense [A. V. reprobate^, 1 Co. ix. 27 ; 2 Co. xiii. 
5—7 ; vovs, Ro. i. 28 ; Trept ttjv ttlo-tiv, 2 Tim. iii. 8 ; 
hence, unft for something : npos ndv tpyov dyadbv db. 
Tit. i. 16.* 

a-8oXos, -ov, (toXos), [fr. Pind. down], guileless; of 
things, unadulterated, pure : of milk, 1 Pet. ii. 2. [Cf. 
Trench § Ivi.] * 

*A8pa(JivTTT]v6s, -f],-6v, adj., of Adramytlium ('AbpafivT- 
TLOv, ^ AbpafjiVTTdov, ' AbpafifxiiTeiov [also 'ATpa/xvr., etc., cf. 
Poppa, Thuc. pt. i. vol. ii. p. 441 sq. ; Wetst. on Acts, 
as below ; WH ' AbpanwTrjvos, cf. their Intr. § 408 and 
App. p. 160]), a sea-port of Mysia : Acts xxvii. 2, [mod- 
ern Edremit, Ydramit, Adramiti, etc.; cf. Mc. and S. 
s. V. Adramyttium].* 

'A8pCas [WH 'ASp.], -OV, 6, Adrias, the Adriatic Sea 
i. e., in a wide sense, the sea between Greece and Italy : 
Acts xxvii. 27, [cf. B. D. s. v. Adria; Diet, of Grk. & 
Rom. Geog. s. v. Adriaticum Mare].* 

dSpoTTis [Rec?' dbp.], -r]Tos, fj, or better (cf. Bttm. Ausf. 
Spr. ii. 417) dSporjjs-, -^tos, [on the accent cf. Ebeling, 
Lex. Horn. s. v.; Chandler §§ 634, 635], (fr. &8p6s 
thick, stout, full-grown, strong, rich [2 K. x. 6, 11, etc.]), 
in Grk. writ, it follows the signif. of the adj. dbpos; once 
in the N. T. : 2 Co. viii. 20, bountiful collection, great 
liberality, [R. V. boimty^- {ddpoa-vvrj, of an abundant 
harvest, Hes. ipy. 471.)* 

dSvvarcco, -co : fut. dbwaTTja'a) ; (dbvvoTos) ; a. not to 
have strength, to be weak ; always so of persons in classic 
Grk. b. a thing ddvvuTfl, cannot be done, is impos- 

sible ; so only in the Sept. and N. T. : ovk dbwaTTjcrfi 
■jrapa tw ^fw [tov 6eov L mrg. T Tr WH] ndv pijpa, 
Lk. i. 37 (Sept. Gen. xviii. 14) [al. retain the act. sense 
here : from God no word shall be without power, see 
Trapd, I. b. cf. Field, Otium Norv. pars iii. ad loc.]; 
ov8ev dBwaTTjafi vp.lv, Mt. xvii. 20, (Job xHi. 2).* 

d-8vivaTos, -ov, {bvvapai), [fr. Hdt. down] ; 1. without 
strength, impotent : toIs iroa-i, Acts xiv. 8 ; fig. of Chria- 
tians whose faith is not yet quite firm, Ro. xv. 1 (opp. 
to SwoTos). 2. impossible (in contrast with hvvardv) : 
TTopd Tivi, for (with) any one, Mt. xix. 26 ; Mk. x. 27 ; Lk- 
xviii. 2 7 ; TO dbvv. tov v6p.ov ' what the law could not do ' 
(this God effected by, etc.; [al. take to dbvv. here as nom. 
ab.sol., cf. B. 381 (326) ; W. 574 (534) ; IVIcyer or Gif- 



iiS 



aoo) 



13 



d6 



€T€(0 



ford ad loc.]), Ro. viii. 3 ; foil, by ace. with inf., Heb. 
vi. 4, 18 ; X. 4 ; by inf., Heb. xi. 6.* 

(jSw (df/So)) ; common in Grk. of every period ; in 
Sept. for "^W ; to sing, chant ; 1. intrans. : ripi, to the 
praise of any one (Judith xvi. 1 (2)), Eph. v. 19 ; Col. 
iii. 16, (in both passages of the lyrical emotion of a 
devout and grateful soul). 2. trans. : oJSjJi', Rev. v. 
9 ; xiv. 3 ; xv. 3.* 

de(, [see atwi'], adv., [fr. Horn, down], always ; 1. per- 
petually, incessantly : Acts vii. 51 ; 2 Co. iv. 11 ; vi. 10; 
Tit. i. 1 2 ; Heb. iii. 10. 2. invariably, at any and every 
time when according to the circumstances something is 
or ought to be done again : Mk. xv. 8 [T WH om.] (at 
every feast) ; 1 Pet. iii. 15 ; 2 Pet. i. 12.* 

dcTos, -ov, 6, (like Lat. avis, fr. arffxi on account of its 
wind-like flight [cf. Curtius § 596]), [fr. Horn, down], in 
Sept. for ityj, an eagle : Rev. iv. 7 ; viii. 13 (Rec. ayyekov) ; 
xii. 14. In Mt. xxiv. 28 ; Lk. xvii. 37 (as in Job xxxix. 
30 ; Prov. xxx. 1 7) it is better, since eagles are said 
seldom or never to go in quest of carrion, to understand 
with many interpreters either the vultur percnopterus, 
which resembles an eagle (Plin. h. n. 10, 3 "quarti 
generis — viz. aquilarum — est percnopterus "), or the 
vultur harhatus. Cf. IF/??. RWB. s. v. Adler ; \_Tristram, 
Nat. Hist, of the Bible, p. 172 sqq.]. The meaning of 
the proverb [cf. exx. in Wetst. on Mt. 1. c] quoted in 
both passages is, 'where there are sinners (cf. Trrw/ua), 
there judgments from heaven will not be wanting'.* 

ajvjios, -01/, {(vjXT]), Hebr. njfO, unfermented, free from 
leaven ; properly : ciproi, Ex. xxix. 2 ; Joseph, antt. 
3,6,6; hence the neut. plur. to. a^vfia, r\1^0, unleavened 
loaves ; fj eoprf] rav d^vficov, ni2fari jn, the (paschal) 
festival at which for seven days the IsraeUtes were 
accustomed to eat unleavened bread in commemoration 
of their exit from Egypt (Ex. xxiii. 15 ; Lev. xxiii. 6), 
Lk. xxii. 1 ; fj Trpcorrj (sc. fjpepa) rav a^. Mt. xxvi. 17; 
Mk. xiv. 1 2 ; Lk. xxii. 7 ; ai i-jpfpai rav a(. Acts xii. 3 ; 
XX. 6 ; the paschal festival itself is called to. a^vpa, IVIk. 
xiv. l,[cf. 1 Esdr. i. 10, 19; W. 176 (166); B. 23 (21)]. 
Figuratively : Christians, if such as they ought to be, 
are called a^vpoi i. e. devoid of the leaven of iniquity, 
free from faults, 1 Co. v. 7 ; and are admonished 
eopra^fLV ev a^vpois flXiKpivelas, to keep festival with the 
unleavened bread of sincerity and truth, vs. 8. (The 
word occurs tAvice in prof, auth., viz. Athen. 3, 74 
(tiprov) a^vpov. Plat. Tim. p. 74 d. il^vpos (rap^ flesh not 
yet quite formed, [add Galen de alim. fac. 1, 2].) * 

'Ajtop, Azor, the indecl. prop, name of one of the 
ancestors of Christ : Mt. i. 13 sq.* 

"AJwTos, -ov, f], '\')1'\yii, Azotus, Ashdod, one of the five 
chief cities of the Philistines, lying between Ashkelon 
and Jamnia [i. e. Jabneel] and near the Mediterranean : 
Acts viii. 40 ; at present a petty village, £J.srfMc?. A suc- 
cinct history of the city is given by Gesenius, Thesaur. 
iii. p. 1366; Raunier, Palastina, p. 174; [Alex.'s Kitto 
or Mc. and S. s. v. Ashdod].* 

dr]8Ca, -as, fj, (fr. drjSfjs, and this fr. a priv. and ^Sos 
pleasure, delight), [fr. Lysip. down] ; 1. unpleasant- 



ness, annoyance. 2. dislike, hatred : ev aTjbla, cod. 
Cantabr. in Lk. xxiii. 12 for Rec. eV tx^pa* 

ciTip, dfpos, 6, (arjpi, aoo, [cf. avtpos, init.]), the air (par- 
ticularly the lower and denser, as distinguished from the 
higher and rarer 6 aldfjp, cf. Hom. II. 14, 288), the at- 
mospheric region: Acts xxii. 23 ; 1 Th. iv. 17; Rev. ix, 
2 ; xvi. 1 7 ; 6 «p;^(»v ttj<: e^ovaias tov depos in Eph. ii. 2 
signifies ' the ruler of the powers (spirits, see e^ovala 
4 c. ^^.) in the air,' i. e. the devil, the prince of the de- 
mons that according to Jewish opinion fill the realm of 
air (cf. Mey. ad loc. ; [B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Air ; Stuart 
in Bib. Sacr. for 1843, p. 139 sq.]). Sometimes indeed, 
dfjp denotes a hazy, obscure atmosphere (Hom. II. 17, 
644 ; 3, 381 ; 5, 35i!, etc. ; Polyb. 18, 3, 7), but is nowhere 
quite equiv. to (tkotos, — the sense which many injudi- 
ciously assign it in Eph. 1. c. depa 8fpeiv (cf. verberat 
ictibus auras, Verg. Aen. 5, 377, of pugilists who miss 
their aim) i. e. to contend in vain, 1 Co. ix. 26 ; fir 
depa 'KaXelv (verba ventis profundere, Lucr. 4, 929 (932)) 
' to speak into the air ' i. e. without effect, used of 
those who speak what is not understood by the hearers, 
1 Co. xiv. 9.* 

d6ava(r£a, -ay, 17. (dddvaros), immortality : 1 Co. xv. 
53 sq. ; 1 Tim. vi. 16 where God is described as 6 povos 
exoiv ddavaa-iav, because he possesses it essentially — ' 6< 
TTji oiKeias ovaias, ovk pk QiKfjparos aXXov, Kadamp ot XoittoI 
irdvTfs dOavaToi' Justin, quaest. et resp. ad orthod. 61 
p. 84 ed. Otto. (In Grk. writ. fr. Plato down.) * 

d-OsjiiTos, -ov, a later form for the ancient and prefer- 
able dOepLCTTOS, (depiTos, Qepiaros, dept^co, 6epis law, 
right), contrary to law and justice, prohibited by law, 
illicit, criminal: 1 Pet. iv. 3 [here A. V. abominable']; 
dOfpiTop io-Ti Tivi with inf.. Acts x. 28.* 

d-0€os, -ov, (6e6s), [fr. Pind. down], without God, know- 
ing and ivorshipping no God, in which sense Ael. v. h. 
2,31 declares on prj8e\s rmv ^ap^apoiv adeos ] in classic 
auth. generally slighting the gods, impious, repudiating 
the gods recognized by the state, in which sense certain 
Greek philosophers, the Jews (Joseph, c. Ap. 2, 14, 4), 
and subsequently Christians were called aB(oi by the 
heathen (Justin, apol. 1, 13, etc.). In Eph. ii. 12 of 
one who neither knows nor worships the true God; 
so of the heathen (cf. 1 Th. iv. 5 ; Gal. iv. 8) ; Clem. 
Alex, protr. ii. 23 p. 19 Pott. dOiovs • • • 01 rov ovrcos ovra 
dfbv fjyvofjKaa-i, Philo, leg. ad Gai. § 25 alyinmaKr] ddeorrjs, 
Hos. iv. 15 Symm. oIkos dOetas a house in which idols are 
worshipped, Ignat. ad Trail. 10 adeoi TovTeariv airiaroi 
(of the Docetae) ; [al. understand Eph. 1. c. passively 
deserted of God, Vulg. sine Deo ; on the various mean- 
ings of the word see Mey. (or Elhc.)].* 

a-Gco-fios, -ov, (dea-poi), lawless, [A. V. wicked] ; of one 
who breaks through the restraints of law and gratifies 
his lusts : 2 Pet. ii. 7 ; iii. 1 7. [Sept., Diod., Philo, 
Joseph., Plut.]* 

d0€T€'to, -£o ; fut. dderfja-a ; 1 aor. fjOerrjo-a ; a word met 
with first (yet very often) in Sept. and Polyb. ; a. 
properly, to render aOerov ; do away with derov rt i. e. 
something laid down, prescribed, established : tiadfjKrjv, Gal. 



ddeTr]cn<i 



14 



Aldloyjr 



iii. 15, (1 Mace. xi. 36 ; 2 Mace. xiii. 25, etc.) ; ace. to 
the context, ' to act towards anything as though it were 
annulled ' ; hence to deprive a law of force by opinions 
or acts opposed to it, to transgress it, Mk. vii. 9 ; Heb. 
X. 28, (Ezek. xxii. 26) ; ■ni<mv, to break one's promise 
or engagement, 1 Tim. v. 12; (Polyb. 8, 2, 5; 11, 29, 3, 
al. ; Diod. excerpt, [i. e. de virt. et vit.] p. 562, 67). 
Hence b. to thwart the efficacy of anything, nullify, 
make void, frustrate : ttjv ^ovXfjv roii 6(ov, Lk. vii. 30 
(they rendered inefficacious the saving purpose of God) ; 
TTfv avveaiv to render prudent plans of no effect, 1 Co. 
i. 19 (Is. xxix. 14 [where Kpv\j/u>, yet cf. Bos's note]). 
c. to reject, refuse, slight: t^v x^P^^ '''"^ 6fov, Gal. ii. 21 
[al. refer this to b.] ; of persons : Mk. vi. 26 (by break- 
ing the promise given her) ; Lk. x. 16; Jn. xii. 48; 
1 Th. iv. 8 ; Jude 8 (for which KUTacppovdv is used in 
the parallel pass. 2 Pet. ii. 10). [For exx. of the use 
of this word see Soph. Lex. s. v.] * 

deeT-qo-is, -*o)y, ^, (d6fTeo>, q. v. ; like vovderrja-is fr. 
i>ov6fTeiv), abolition: Heb. vii. 18; ix. 26; (found occa- 
sionally in later authors, as Cicero ad Att. 6, 9 ; Diog. 
Laert. 3, 39, 66: in the grammarians rejection; more 
frequently in eccl. writ.).* 

•AOiivai, -av, al, (on the plur. ef. W. 176 (166)), 
Athens, the most celebrated city of Greece : Acts xvii. 
15 sq. ; xviii. 1 ; 1 Th. iii. 1.* 

*A0Tivaios, -aia, -alov, Athenian : Acts xvii. 21 sq.* 

dGXe'u), -at; [1 aor. subjune. 3 pers. sing. ddX^a-Tj'] ; 
{adXos a contest) ; to engage in a contest, contend in 
public games (e. g. Olympian, Pythian, Isthmian), with 
the poniard [?], gauntlet, quoit, in wrestling, running, 
or any other way : 2 Tim. ii. 5 ; (often in classic auth. 
who also use the form a^XfiJo)). [Comp. : avv-a0\fa>.^* 

a8Xri<ris, -f toy, fj, contest, combat, (freq. fr. Polyb. down) ; 
fig. a6\r}(Tis TTadrjfidTuv a struggle with sufferings, trials, 
Heb X. 32 ; [of martyrdom, Ign. mart. 4 ; Clem. mart. 25].* 

aBpoU,<i>: pf. pass. ptcp. rjOpoia-piPos; (fr. dOpoos i. q. 
6p6os [a noisy crowd, noise], with a copulative [see A, 
a, 2]) ; to collect together, assemble; pass, to be assembled, 
to convene : Lk. xxiv. 33 L T Tr WH. ([Soph.,] Xen., 
Plat., Polyb., Plut., al. ; O. T. Apocr. ; sometimes in 
Sept. for ]'2r)-) [Comp. : ctt-, avv-adpoiCu).] * 

d9v|x€'a), -w ; common among the Greeks fr. [Aeschyl.,] 
Thuc. down; to be advpoi {dvfios spirit, courage), to be 
disheartened, dispirited, broken in spirit: Col. iii. 21. 
(Sept. 1 S. i. 6 sq., etc. ; Judith vii. 22 ; 1 Mace. iv. 
27.)* 

deuos [R G Tr], more correctly d6a>os (L WH and T 
[but not in his Sept. There is want of agreement among 
both the ancient gramm. and modern scholars ; cf. Steph. 
Thes. i. col. 875 c. ; Lob. Path. Element, i. 440 sq. (cf. 
ii. 377) ; see I, t]), -oi*, {Oar) [i. e. GaO), cf. Etym. Mag. 
p. 26, 24] punishment), [fr. Plat, down], unpunished, 
innocent : alpa ddcoou, Mt. xxvii. 4 [Tr mrg. WH txt. 
fii/caioi/], (Deut. xxvii. 25; 1 S. xix. 5, etc.; 1 Mace. i. 
37 ; 2 Mace. i. 8) ; dno twos, after the Hebr. |0 'pJ 
([Num. xxxii. 22 ; cf. Gen. xxiv. 41 ; 2 S. iii. 28 ; W. 197 
(185); B. 158 (138)]), ' innocent (and therefore far) 



from,' innocent of, Matt, xxvii. 24 (the guilt of the mur- 
der of this innocent man cannot be laid upon me) ; drro 
TTJs dp.apTias, Clem. Rom. 1 Cor. 59, 2 [cf. Num. v. 31], 
The Greeks say ddtaos nvos [both in the sense of free 
from and unpunished for~\.* 

aC^ytios [WH -yios; see their App. p. 154, and I, t], 
-fla, -fiov, (al^, gen. ^oy goat, male or female), of a goat, 
(cf. KafXT]\fios, iTTTTftor, vdoi, TrpojSaTetof, etc.) : Heb. xi. 
37. [From Ilom. down.]* 

al-yiaXds, -ov, 6, the shore of the sea, beach, [fr. Hom. 
down] : Mt. xiii. 2, 48 ; Jn. xxi. 4 ; Acts xxi. 5 ; xxvii. 
39, 40. (Many derive the word from aywpi and a\s, as 
though equiv. to a/cr^, the place where the sea breaks ; 
others fr. alyfs billows and oKs [Curtius § 140 ; Vanicek p. 
83] ; others fr. diaaa and SXs [Schenkl, L. and S., s. v.], 
the place where the sea rushes forth, bounds forward.) * 

Al-yvirrios, -a, -ov, a gentile adjective, Egyptian: Acts 
vii. 22, 24, 28 ; xxi. 38 ; Heb. xi. 29.* 

AtYvrrros, -ov, fj, [always without the art., B. 87 (76) ; 
W. §18,5 a.], the proper name of a well-known coun- 
try, Egypt : Mt. ii. 13 sq. ; Acts ii. 10 ; Heb. iii. 16, etc. ; 
more fully yfj AiyvnTos, Acts vii. 36 [not L WH Tr txt.], 
40 ; xiii. 17 ; Heb. viii. 9 ; Jude 5, (Ex. v. 12 ; vi. 26, 
etc. ; 1 Mace. i. 19 ; Bar. i. 19 sq., etc.) ; 17 yrj AiyvTrroy, 
Acts vii. 11 ; tv AlyvnTov se. y^, Heb. xi. 26 Lchm., 
but cf. Bleek ad loc. ; B. 171 (149); [W. 384 (359)]. 
In Rev. xi. 8 Al'y. is figuratively used for Jerusalem i. e. 
for the Jewish nation viewed as persecuting Christ and 
his followers, and so to be likened to the Egyptians in 
their ancient hostility to the true God and their endeav- 
ors to crush his people. 

dtSios, -ov, (for ddSios fr. dd), eternal, everlasting : 
(Sap. vii. 26) Ro. i. 20 ; Jude 6. (Hom. hymn. 29, 3 ; 
Hes. scut. 310, and fr. Time, down in prose; [freq. in 
Philo, e. g. de profug. § 18 (fcoi) dtbios), § 31 ; de opif. 
mund. § 2, § 61 ; de cherub. § 1, § 2, § 3 ; de post. 
Cain. § 11 fin. Syn. see mcbi/tof].) * 

alSws, (-60s) -oils, fj; fr. Hom. down; a sense of shame, 
modesty : 1 Tim. ii. 9 ; reverence, Heb. xii. 28 (XaTpfvfiu 
6f6i ptTo. alBovs Koi eiXa^flas, but L T Tr WH evXa^eias 
Ka\ dfovs). [Syn. al8a)s, alax^"^ '• Ammonius distin- 
guishes the words as follows, aldas koi alaxyvrj 8i.a(f)epei, 
OTi T] p.(v al8a)s fCTTiv ivrponf] irpos fKaarov. ws (relSoptvois 
Tis fX^' ' alcr^vvr] 8' e(p ols dcaaros dpaprcou aiaxyverai. cos 
pf] Beov Tt Trpd^as- Koi alSdrai pev tis tov noTepa • altrx^^f 
TM be OS pfdva-KeTai, etc, etc. ; accordingly al8. is promi- 
nently objective in its reference, having regard to 
others; while aiax- is subjective, making reference to 
one's self and one's actions. Cf. Schmidt eh. 140. It is 
often said that ' al8. precedes and prevents the shame- 
ful act, alax- reflects upon its consequences in the shame 
it brings with it' (Cope, Aristot. rhet. 5, 6, 1). al8. 
is the nobler word, alax- the stronger ; while " al8. would 
always restrain a good man from an unworthy act, ala-x- 
would sometimes restrain a bad one." Trench §§ xix. 

XX.] * 

Al6Co4', -OTTOf, 6, (aWd) to burn, and u>yj/^ [o'^l the face ; 
swarthy), Ethiopian (Hebr. ■'K'13) : Acts viii. 27, here 



^•IfUl 



15 



aifioppo€(a 



the reference is to upper Ethiopia, called Habesh or 
Abyssinia, a country of Africa adjoining Egypt and 
including the island Meroe ; [see Dillmann in Schenkel 
i. 285 sqq. ; Alex.'s Kitto or Mc. and S. s. v. Ethiopia. 
Cf. Bib. Sacr. for 1866, p. 515].* 

alp-a, -Tos, TO, blood, whether of men or of animals ; 
1. a. simply and generally : Jn. xix. 34 ; Rev. viii. 7 
sq. ; xi. 6 ; xvi. 3 sq. 6 '' (on which passages cf . Ex. vii. 
20 sqq.) ; xix. 13 ; pvacs alfiaTos, Mk. v. 25, [(tt/;-/^ at/x. 
29)] ; Lk. viii. 43 sq. ; ^po/x/3ot aifiaros, Lk. xxii. 44 
[L br. WH reject the pass.]. So also in passages where 
the eating of blood (and of bloody flesh) is forbidden, 
Acts XV. 20, 29 ; xxi. 25 ; cf. Lev. iii. 17 ; vii. 16 (26) ; 
xvii. 10; see Knobel on Lev. vii. 26 sq. ; [Kalisch on 
Lev., PreUminary Essay § 1] ; Ruckert, Abendmahl, p. 
94. b. As it was anciently believed that the blood is 
the seat of the life (Lev. xvii. 11 ; [cf. Delitzsch, Bibl. 
Psychol, pp. 238-247 (Eng. trans, p. 281 sqq.)]), the 
phrase crap^ k. alfia (D11 "^^2, a common phrase in Rab- 
binical writers), or in inverse order alfia k. aap^, denotes 
man's living body compounded of flesh and blood, 1 Co. 
XV. 50 ; Heb. ii. 14, and so hints at the contrast between 
man and God (or even the more exalted creatures, Eph. 
vi. 12) as to suggest his feebleness, Eph. vi. 12 (Sir. xiv. 
18), which is conspicuous as respects the knowledge of 
divine things, Gal. i. 16 ; Mt. xvi. 17. c. Since the 
first germs of animal life are thought to be in the blood 
(Sap. vii. 2; Eustath. ad H. 6, 21 1 (ii. 104, 2) to 8e alpxiTOi 
aim. Tov (TireppaTos (f)acriv ol aocfiol, ms tov aneppaTOS v\rjv 
TO alpa e^ovTos), the word serves to denote generation 
and origin (in the classics also) : Jn. i. 13 (on the plur. 
cf. W. 177 (166)); Acts xvii. 26 [R G]. d. It is 
used of those things which by their redness resemble 
blood : aX. (TTa(f)v\i]s the juice of the grape [' the blood 
of grapes,' Gen. xlix. 11 ; Deut. xxxii. 14], Sir. xxxix. 
26; 1. 15; 1 Mace. vi. 34, etc.; Achill. Tat. ii. 2; ref- 
erence to this is made in Rev. xiv. 18-20. ety alua, 
of the moon, Acts ii. 20 (Joel ii. 31 (iii. 4)), i. q. as alpa. 
Rev. vi. 12. 2. blood shed or to be shed by violence 

(very often also in the classics) ; a. : Lk. xiii. 1 (the 
meaning is, whom Pilate had ordered to be massacred 
while they were sacrificing, so that their blood mingled 
with the blood [yet cf. W. 623 (579)] of the victims) ; 
aX. aOaov [or bUaiov Tr mrg. WH txt.] the blood of an 
innocent [or righteous] man viz. to be shed, Mt. xxvii. 
4 ; eKxei-v and eKXvveiv aXp,a (DT ^3tJ', Gen. ix. 6 ; Is. lix. 
7, etc.) to shed blood, slay, Mt. xxiii. 35 ; Lk. xi. 50 ; 
Acts xxii. 20 ; Ro. iii. 15 ; Rev. xvi. 6 » [here Tdf. 
aifuzTo] ; hence aXpa is used for the bloody death itself : 
Mt. xxiii. 30, 35; xxvii. 24; Lk. xi. 51; Acts [ii. 19, 
yet cf. 1 d. above ;] xx. 26 ; Rev. xvii. 6 ; fiexpis alpa- 
Tos unto blood i. e. so as to undergo a bloody death, 
Heb. xii. 4, (t6v ainov ttjs • • . nkxpis atparos (TTaaecos, 
Heliod. 7, 8) ; rififj alpaTos ' price of blood ' i. e. price 
received for murder, Mt. xxvii. 6 ; aypos atfiaros field 
bought with the price of blood, Mt. xxvii. 8, i. q. x<^piov 
aiparos. Acts i. 19 — unless in this latter passage we 
prefer the explanation, which agrees better with the 



context, ' the field dyed with the blood of Judas ' ; 
the guilt and punishment of bloodshed, in the following 
Hebraistic expressions : ev aiiTfj alpaTa (Rec aX^ia [so L 
Tr WH]) fvpfBi] i. e. it was discovered that she was 
guilty of murders. Rev. xviii. 24 (cf. TroXtr aip.aTti>v, 
Ezek. xxiv. 6) ; to ai/xa avrov e<|)' f/pas (sc. eX^erw) let 
the penalty of the bloodshed fall on us, Mt. xxvii. 25 ; 
TO aipa vpa>v eiv\ ttjv K((f)a\fjv vp.a>v (sc. eXOerw) let the 
guilt of your destruction be reckoned to your own ac- 
count. Acts xviii. 6 (cf. 2 S. i. 16 ; Josh. ii. 19, etc.) ; 
enaydv to aXfid rivos ini Tiva to cause the punishment of 
a murder to be visited on any one. Acts v. 28 ; eK^r^Ttiv 
TO aXpa Tivos otto twos (^D TD '3 DT C'PS, 2 S. iv. 11 ; 
Ezek. iii. 18, 20 ; xxxiii. 8), to exact of any one the 
penalty for another's death, Lk. xi. 50 ; the same idea 
is expressed by €k8(.k€iv to aXpLo. twos. Rev. vi. 10 ; xix. 
2. b. It is used specially of the blood of sacrificial 
victims having a purifying or expiating power (Lev. 
xvii. 11): Heb. ix. 7, 12 sq. 18-22, 25; x. 4; xi. 28; 
xiii. 11. c. Frequent mention is made in the N. T. 
of the blood of Christ (alfxa tov Xpia-Toii, 1 Co. x. 16 ; 
Toii Kvpiov, xi. 27 ; tov apv'iov, Rev. vii. 14 ; xii. 11, cf. 
xix. 13) shed on the cross (ai. tov aTavpov, Col. i. 20) for 
the salvation of many, Mt. xxvi. 28 ; Mk. xiv. 24, cf. 
Lk. xxii. 20 ; the pledge of redemption, Eph. i. 7 (0770- 
XiiTpcooris 8ia toS at. avTov ; so too in Col. i. 14 Rec.) ; 
1 Pet. i. 19 (see dyopa^w, 2 b.) ; having expiatory effi- 
cacy, Ro. iii. 25; Heb. ix. 12; by which believers are 
purified and are cleansed from the guilt of sin, Heb. ix. 
14 ; xii. 24 ; [xiii. 12] ; 1 Jn. i. 7 (cf. 1 Jn. v. 6, 8) ; Rev. 
i. 5 ; vii. 14 ; 1 Pet. i. 2 ; are rendered acceptable to 
God, Ro. V. 9, and find access into the heavenly sanc- 
tuary, Heb. X. 19 ; by which the Gentiles are brought 
to God and the blessings of his kingdom, Eph. ii. 13, 
and in general all rational beings on earth and in 
heaven are reconciled to God, Col. i. 20; with whicl. 
Christ purchased for himself the church. Acts xx. 28, 
and gathered it for God, Rev. v. 9. Moreover, since 
Christ's dying blood served to establish new religious 
institutions and a new relationship between men and 
God, it is likened also to a federative or covenant sacri- 
fice : TO aXfxa t^s StadrjKrjs the blood by the shedding of 
which the covenant should be ratified, Mt. xxvi. 28 ; 
Mk. xiv. 24, or has been ratified, Heb. x. 29 ; xiii. 20 
(cf. ix. 20) ; add, 1 Co. xi. 25 ; Lk. xxii. 20 [WH reject 
this pass.] (in both which the meaning is, ' this cup con- 
taining wine, an emblem of blood, is rendered by the 
shedding of my blood an emblem of the new covenant'), 
1 Co. xi. 27; (cf. Cic. pro Sestio 10, 24 foedus san- 
guine meo ictum sanciri, Liv. 23, 8 sanguine Hannibalis 
sanciam Romanum foedus). irlveiv to aXfia avTov (i. e. 
of Christ), to appropriate the saving results of Christ's 
death, Jn. vi. 53 sq. 56. [ Weslcott, Epp. of Jn. p. 34 sq.]* 

al|iaT£Kxv(rCa, -as, 17, {aXfia and eKxvvco), shedding of 
blood : Heb. ix. 22. Several times also in eccl. writ.* 

alfioppocu, -a> ', to be alfioppoos (aXpa and pew), to suffe* 
from a flow of blood: Mt. ix. 20. (Sept. Lev. xr. 33* 
where it means menstruous, and in medical writ.^ * 



Alveas 



16 



ai,pto 



Atve'as, -ov, 6, Ae'neas, the prop, name of the para- 
lytic cured by Peter : Acts Lx. 33 sq.* 

atveo-is, -f«y, f), (aiVfo)), praise : dvaia alvfaews (P^J. 
minn, Lev. vU. 13), Heb. xiii. 15 a thank-offering, 
[A. V. ' sacrifice of praise '], presented to God for some 
benefit received ; see dvcria, h. (aiveais often occurs in 
Sept., but not in prof, auth.) * 

atve'w, -tS ; (found in prof. auth. of every age [" only 
twice in good Attic prose " (where enaiv. irapaiv. etc. 
take its place), Veitch], but esp. freq. in Sept. and the 
Apocr. of the O. T.; from alvos); to praise, extol: tov 
Beov, Lk. ii. 13, 20 ; xix. 37; xxiv. 53 [WH om. Tr txt. 
br.]; Acts ii. 47; iii. 8 sq. ; Ro. xv. 11; with dat. of 
person, ra deci, to sing praises in honor of God, Rev. 
xLx. 5 l't Tr WH, as Sept. in 2 Chr. vii. 3 (for 
S min), 1 Chr. xvi. 36 ; xxiii. 5; Jer. xx. 13 etc. (for 
4 S^n) ; [W. § 31, If.; B. 176 (153). Comp. en--, nap- 

allvi-yixa, -roy, to, (common fr. [Find. frag. 165 (190),] 
Aeschyl. down ; fr. alvifTaofiai or alv'iTTOfiai ti to express 
something obscurely, [fr. aluos, q. v.]) ; 1. an obscure 
saying, an enigma, Hebr. HTn (Judg. xiv. 13, Sept. 
Tvpo^Xrjfia). 2. an obscure thing: 1 Co. xiii. 12, where 
ii> aluiyfioTi is not equiv. to atwyjuari/cco? i. e. dpavpms 
obscurely, but denotes the object in the discerning of 
which we are engaged, as ^Xeneiv 'iv rivt, Mt. vi. 4 ; cf. 
De Wette ad loc. ; the apostle has in mind Num. xii. 
8 Sept. : ep el'Set Koi ov 8i alviyfidrav. [Al. take eV lo- 
cally, of the sphere in wliich we are looking ; al. refer 
the pass, to 1. and take ev instrumentally.] * 

atvos, -ov, 6, (often used by the Grk. poets) ; 1. a 
saying, proverb. 2. praise, laudatory discourse : Mt. 
xxi. 16 (Ps. viii. 3) ; Lk. xviii. 43.* 

Alv;ov, T], (either a strengthened form of j;;» and equiv. 
to rrj;^ or a Chaldaic plur. i. q. jir>' springs ; [al. al.]), 
Aenon, indecl. prop, name, either of a place, or of a 
fountain, not far from Salim : Jn. iii. 23, [thought to ba 
Wady Far'ah, running from i\lt. Ebal to the Jordan ; see 
Conder in "Pal. Explor. Fund" for July 1874, p. 191 sq.; 
Tent Work in Palestine, i. 91 sq. ; esp. Stevens in Journ. of 
Exeget.Soc, Dec. 1883, pp. 128-141. Cf. B.D. Am. ed.].* 

a'ipEo-iS) -fws, T] ; 1. (fr. a'lpeco), act of taking, cap- 
ture : TTJi TToXecoy, the storming of a city ; in prof. auth. 
2. (fr. aipiop.ai), choosing, choice, very often in prof. 
writ. : Sept. Lev. xxii. 18 ; 1 Mace. viii. 30. 3. that 
which is chosen, a chosen course of thought and action ; 
hence one's chosen opinion, tenet ; ace. to the context, 
an opinion varying from the true exposition of the 
Christian faith {heresy) : 2 Pet. ii. 1 (cf. De Wette ad 
loc), and in eccl. writ. [cf. Soph. Lex. s. v.]. 4. a 
body of men separating themselves from others and 
following their own tenets [a sect or partyl : as the Sad- 
ducees. Acts v. 1 7 ; the Pharisees, Acts xv. 5 ; xxvi. 5 ; 
the Christians, Acts xxiv. 5, 14 (in both instances with 
a suggestion of reproach) ; xxviii. 22, (in Diog. LaSrt. 
1 (13,) 18 sq., al., u^ed of the schools of philosophy). 
5. dissensions arisin-/ from diversity of ojtinions and 
aims : Gal. v. 2U ; 1 Co. xi. 19. [Cf. Mey. 11. cc. ; B.D. 



Am. ed. s. v. Sects; Burton, Bampt. Lect. for 1829; 
Campbell, Diss, on the Gospels, diss. ix. pt. iv.] * 

aip€Titw : 1 aor. ^phiaa [Treg. fjp., see I, t] ; (fr. alpt- 
Tos, see aipea) ; to choose : Mt. xii. 18. (Often in Sept. in 
O. T. Apocr. and in eccl. writ. ; the mid. is found in 
Ctes. Pers. § 9 [cf. Hdt. ed. Schweig. vi. 2, p. 354]. Cf. 
Sturz, De dial. Maced. etc. p. 144.) * 

alperiKos, -ij, -6v, [see atpeo)] ; 1. fitted or able to 
take or choose a thing ; rare in prof. auth. 2. schis- 
matic, factious, a follower of false doctrine : Tit. iii. 10.* 

atpeo), -(o : [thought by some to be akin to aypa, aypkm, 
Xelp, 'Eng. grip, etc. ; cf. Bifm. Lexil. i. 131 — but see 
Curtius § 117]; to take. Li the N. T. in the mid. 
only : fat. aipi](Top.ai ; 2 aor. f'iKuprjv, but G L T Tr WH 
fikdpLTjv, 2 Th. ii. 13, cf. \_Tdf Proleg. p. 123; WH. 
App. p. 165;] W. § 13, la.; B. 40 (35), see awepxotiai 
init. ; [ptcp. iXofievos, Heb. xi. 25] ; to take for one's self to 
choose, prefer: Phil. i. 22 ; 2 Th. ii. 13; fxaWov foU. 
by inf. with ^ (common in Attic), Heb. xi. 25. [Comp. : 
dv, d(f)-, St-, e^, Kad-, irfpi-, Trpo-atpeto.] * 

al'pw (contr. fr. poet, dflpo)) ; fut. dpco ; 1 aor. rjpa, 
inf. apai, irapv. dpov; pf. rjpKu (Col. ii. 14); Pass., 
[pres. aipop.ai'l ; pf. ^pfiai (Jn. xx. 1) ; 1 aor. I'jpdTju ; 
(on the rejection of iota subscr. in these tenses see 
Bttm. Ausf. Spr. i. pp. 413, 439 ;[W. 47 (46)]); 1 fut. 
apdrjcrofjiai ; [f r. Hom. down] ; in the Sept. generally i. q. 
Xb'J ; to lift up, raise. 1. to raise up; a. to raise 

from the ground, take up : stones, Jn. viii. 59 ; serpents, 
Mk. xvi. 18 ; a dead body. Acts xx. 9. b. to raise up- 
wards, elevate, lift up : the hand, Rev. x. 5 ; the eves, 
Jn. xi. 41 ; the voice, i. e. speak in a loud tone, cry 
out, Lk. xvii. 13; Acts iv. 24, (also in prof, writ.); 
TTiv ylmx^iv, to raise the mind, i. q. excite, aflfect strongly 
(with a sense of fear, hope, joy, grief, etc.) ; in Jn. x. 
24 to hold the mind in suspense between doubt and 
hope, cf. Liicke [or Meyer] ad loc. c. to drair up : 
a fish, Mt. xvii. 27 (dvaairdv, Hab. i. 15); (TKd<pr]p, Acts 
xxvii. 17 ; anchors from the bottom of the sea, Acts xxvii. 
13, where supply rds ayKvpas; cf. Kuinoel ad loc. ; [W. 
594 (552) ; B. 146 (127)]. 2. to take upon one's selj 
and carry ii-hat has been raised, to bear : rivd eVi x^^P^v, 
Mt. iv. 6 ; Lk. iv, 11, (Ps. xc. (xci.) 12) ; a siek man, 
INIk. ii. 3 ; (vyov, Mt. xi. 29 (Lam. iii. 27) ; a bed, JNIt. 
ix. 6; Mk. ii. 9, 11 sq. ; Lk. v. 24 sq. ; Jn. v. 8-12; 
rov aravpov, Mt. [x. 38 Lclim. mrg.]; xvi. 24; xxvii. 32; 
Lk. ix. 23 ; Mk. viii. 34 ; x. 21 [in R Lbr.] ; xv. 21 ; \\i6op,'} 
Rev. xviii. 21 ; to carry with one, [A. V. take"] : Mk. vi. 8;. 
Lk. ix. 3 ; xxii. 36. Both of these ideas are expressed 
in class. Grk. by the mid. a'lpeadai. 3. to bear away 
what has been raised, carry off; a. to move from its 
place : Mt. xxi. 21 ; ISIk. xi. 23, (apdrjTi be thou taken up, 
removed [B. 52 (45)], sc. from thy place); Mt. xxii. 
13 [Rec.]; Jn. ii. 16; xi. 39, 41; xx. 1. b. to take 
off or away what is attached to anything: Jn. xi.\. 31, 
38 sq. ; to tear away, Mt. ix. 16 ; Mk. ii. 21 ; to rend 
away, cut off, Jn. xv. 2. c. to remove : 1 Co. v. 2 
(cast out from the church, where dpBfj should be read 
for Rec. e^apd^); tropically: faults, Eph. iv. 31: mr 



alo'ddvofxai 



17 



atreo) 



a^apriav, Jn. i. 29, [36 Lchm. in br.], to remove the guilt 
and punishment of sin by expiation, or to cause that sin 
be neither imputed nor punished (aipdv afiaprrjfia, 1 S. 
XV. 25 ; apofjLTjfjut, 1 S. XXV. 28, i. e. to grant pardon for 
an offence) ; but in 1 Jn. iii. 5 ras aixaprlas rjfiatu aipeiv 
is to cause our sins to cease, i. e. that we no longer sin, 
while we enter into fellowship with Christ, who is free 
from sin, and abide in that fellowship, cf. vs. 6. d. to 
carry off, carry away vjith one: Mt. xiv. 12, 20 ; xv. 37; 
XX. 14; xxiv. 17 sq. ; Mk. vi. 29,43; viii. 8, 19 sq. ; 
xiii, 15 sq. ; Lk. ix. 17; xvii. 31 ; Jn. xx. 2, 13, 15; 
Acts XX. 9. e. to appropriate what is taken : Lk. 
xix. 21 sq. ; IVIk. xv. 24. f. to take away from another 
what is Jiis or what is committed to him, to take by force : 
Lk. vi. 30 ; xi. 52 ; t\ aTro with gen. of pers., Mt. xiii. 
12; xxi. 43; xxv. 28; Lk. viii. 12, 18; xix. 24, 26; 
[Mt. xxv. 29]; Mk. iv. (15), 25; Jn. x. 18; xvi. 22; 
perhaps also with the mere gen. of the pers. from whom 
anything is taken, Lk. vi. 29 ; xi. 22 ; Jn. xi. 48, unless 
one prefer to regard these as possessive gen. g. to take 
and apply to any use: Acts xxi. 11 ; 1 Co. vi. 15. h. to 
take from among the living, either by a natural death, 
Jn. xvii. 15 (e/c rov Koafxov take away from intercourse 
with the world), or by violence, Mt. xxiv. 39 ; Lk. 
xxiii. 18; Jn. xix. 15; Acts xxi. 36; with the addition 
of ano TTJs yrjs, Acts xxii. 22 ; aiperai otto rrjs yrjs fj ^corj 
avTov, of a bloody death inflicted upon one. Acts viii. 33 
(Is. liii. 8). i. of things ; to take out of the loay, de- 
stroy : x^ipoypacpov, Col. ii. 14; cause to cease: rfjv 
Kpia-iv, Acts viii. 33 (Is. liii. 8). [Comp. : air-, i^, in-, 
fifT-, (Tvv-, vnep-aipco-l * 

aUr6dvo|iai, : 2 aor. ^a66pr]v ; [fr. Aeschyl. down] ; 
depon. mid. to perceive ; 1. by the bodily senses ; 
2. with the mind ; to understand : Lk. ix. 45.* 

al'<r6T)cris, -ewj, 17, (aladavopai), [fr. Eurip. down], per- 
ception, not only by the senses but also by the intellect; 
cognition, discermnent ; (in the Sept., Prov. i. 22; ii. 10, 
etc., i. q. T\]^_'l): Phil. i. 9, of moral discernment, the 
understanding of ethical matters, as is plain from what 
is added in vs. 10.* 

at<r0T]TT|piov, -ov, to, an organ of perception, external 
sense, [Hippoc] ; Plat. Ax. 366 a. ; Aristot. polit. 4, 3, 
9, al. ; faculty of the m i n d for perceiving, understanding, 
judging, Heb. v. 14, (Jer. iv. 19 al(T6rjT. rij? KapBlas, 
4 Mace. ii. 22 [com. text] ra evhov ala-drjrripia).* 

a[<rxpoKepSTJSi -fs, (alcrxpoi and KfpSos ; cf. ala-xponadrjs 
in Philo [de mere, meretr. § 4]), eager for base gain, 
[^greedy of filthy lucre"] : 1 Tim. iii. 3 Rec, 8 ; Tit. i. 7. 
(Hdt. 1, 187; Xen., Plat., al.; [cf. turpilucricupidus. 
Plant. Trin. 1, 2, 63].)* 

al<rxpoK€p8cos, adv., y?-om eagerness for base gain, [for 
filthy lucre}: 1 Pet. v. 2, cf. Tit. i. 11. Not found 
elsewhere.* 

alo-xpoXo'yCa, -as, rj, (fr. aiaxpoKoyos, and this fr. alcrxpos 
and \eya)),foul Speaking (TertuU. turpiloquium), low and 
obscene speech, [R. V. shameful speaking] : Col. iii. 8. 
(Xen., Aristot., Polyb.) [Cf . Bp. Lghtft. ad loc. ; Trench 
§ xxxiv.] * 



aUrxpds, -a, -6v, (fr. auT-^oy baseness, disgrace), base, dis- 
honorable: 1 Co. xi. 6; xiv. 35; Eph. v. 12; Tit. i. 11.* 

oUrxp<STi]s, -TjTos, {}, baseness, dishonor : Eph. v. 4 
[A. V.filthiness]. (Plat. Gorg. 525 a.)* 

aUr\vvr\, -tjs, fj, (alaxos [cf. alaxpos]) ; 1. subjec- 
tively, the confusion of one who is ashamed of anything, 
sense of shame : fifr alvxvvrjs suffused with shame, Lk. 

XIV. 9 ; TO. Kpimra ttjs alaxvvrjs those things which 
shame conceals, opp. to (l)avepa(ns Trjs aXTjdtlas, 2 Co. iv. 
2 (evil arts of which one ought to be ashamed). 2. ob- 
jectively, ignominy : visited on one by the wicked, Heb. 
xii. 2; which ought to arise from guilt, Phil. iii. 19 
(opp. to 86^a). 3. a thing to be ashamed of: 17 atV^vw/ 
TTJs yvfivoTTjTos (gBu. of appos.) nakedness to be ashamed 
of. Rev. iii. 18, cf. xvi. 15 ; plur. [cf. W. 176 (166)] ai 
ala-xvvai basenesses, disgraces, shameful deeds, Jude 13. 
[(Aeschyl., Hdt., al.) Syn. see alBws, fin.] ' 

aUrx^vw : (alaxos [cf. ala-xpoi]) ; 1. to disfigure : 
Trpoaunov, Hom. H. 18, 24, and many others. 2. to 
dishonor: Sept. Prov. xxix. 15. 3. to suffuse toith 
shame, make ashamed: Sir. xiii. 7. In the N. T. only 
pass., at(rxvvofiai; iut. ala-xvvSrjaropxii.', 1 aor. po-;^!;!/^!/; /o 
be suffused toith shame, be made ashamed, be, ashamed : 
2 Co. X. 8 ; Phil. i. 20 ; 1 Pet. iv. 16 ; pfj alaxwdSyfifv 
an avTov that we may not in shame shrink from him, 
1 Jn. 11. 28 (Sir. xxi. 22 alaxwdfjcfrai ano npocranov 
[Is. i. 29; Jer. xii. 13 ; cf. B. § 147, 2]) ; foil, by inf. 
(on which see W. 346 (325)), Lk. xvi. 3. [Comp. : e'jr- 
(-/tiai), KaT-ai(Txvv<o.^* 

alria, -at ; f ut. atTijo-ft) ; 1 aor. ^TTjaa ; pf . ^rrjKa ; Mid., 
pres. alTovp.ai ; impf. ^rovpr^v ; fut. alTf](Top,ai ; 1 aor. 
rjrrjaaprjv ; [fr. Hom. down] ; to ask ; mid. to ask for 
one's self, request for one's self; absol. : Jas. i. 6 ; Mt. 
vii. 7 ; mid., Jas. iv. 3 ; Jn. xvi. 26 ; Mk. xv. 8 ; alre'i- 
a-6ai Ti, Jn. xv. 7 ; Mt. xiv. 7 ; Mk. vi. 24 ; x. 38 ; xi. 24 ; 

XV. 43 ; 1 Jn. v. 14 sq. ; Lk. xxiii. 52 ; Acts xxv. 3, 15, 
etc. ; aiTflv with ace. of the pers. to whom the request 
is made : Mt. v. 42 ; vi. 8 ; Lk. vi. 30 ; alrelaffai with 
ace. of the pers. asked for — whether to be released, 
Mt. xxvii. 20 ; ]VIk. xv. 6 [here T WH Tr mrg. napaiT. 
q. v.] ; Lk. xxiii. 25 ; or bestowed as a gift. Acts xiii. 

21 ; alrtw ri nno tivos, Mt. xx. 20 L Tr txt. WH txt. ; 
[Lk. xii. 20 Tr WH]; 1 Jn. v. 15 L T Tr WH ; (so 
ahfladai in Plut. Galb. 20) [cf. B. 149 (130)] ; rl napd 
Tivos, Acts iii. 2; Mt. xx. 20 R G T Tr mrg. WH mrg. ; 
Jas. i. 5 ; 1 Jn. v. 1 5 R G ; foil, by the inf., Jn. iv. 9 ; 
mid.. Acts ix. 2 ; [alre'iv rt ev r. ovopari Xpiarov, Jn. xiv. 
13 ; xvi. 24 (see opopa, 2 e.) ; t\ iv rfj npoaevxfj, Mt. 
xxi. 22] ; atrf'iv rtva ti, Mt. vii. 9 ; Lk. xi. 1 1 ; i\Ik. vi. 

22 ; Jn. [xiv. 14 T but L AVH Tr mrg. br.] ; xvi. 23 ; 
inip TIVOS foil, by Tm, Col. i. 9 [cf. B. 237 (204)] ; aiTel- 
a-dai with the ace. and inf., Lk. xxiii. 23 ; Acts iii. 14 ; 
with inf. only, Acts vii. 46 (^T^aaro evpetp he asked that 
he /i/?n.«e// might find ; others wrongly translate ^Trja-aTo 
desired) ; Eph. iii. 13. With the idea of demanding 
prominent : aiTeiv ti, Lk. i. 63 ; 1 Co. i. 22 ; Tiva ti, Lk. 
xii. 48 ; 1 Pet. iii. 15. 

[The constructions of this word in the Greek Bible, the 



acTTjfia 



18 



alcov 



Apost. Fathers, etc., are exhibited in detail by Prof. Ezra 
Abbot in the No. Am. Rev. for Jan. 1872, p. 182 sq. He 
there show.s also (in opposition to Trench, § xl., and others) 
that it is not " the constant word for tlie seeking of the infe- 
rior from the superior," and so differing from epoiTooi, which 
has been assumed to imply ' a certain equality or familiarity 
between the parties ' ; that the distinction between the words 
does not turn upon the relative dignity of the person asking 
and the person asked ; but that alrfoi signifies to ask for 
something to be given not done, giving prominence to the 
thing asked for ratlier than the person, and hence is rarely 
used in exhortation. 'Epwrda), on the other hand, is to re- 
quest a person to do (rarely to give) something; referring 
more directly to the person, it is naturall}' used in exhorta- 
tion, etc. The views of Trench are also rejected by Cremer, 
4te Aufl. s. V. The latter distinguishes alreu from similar 
words as follows : " alreu denotes the request of the will, 
iinQvti4o) that of the sensibilities, Seofiai the asking of 
need, while epwrdw marks the form of the request, as does 
evXf(rdai also, whicli in classic Greek is the proper expres- 
sion for a request directed to the gods and embodying itself 
in prayer." 'Epando), alrew and Seofxai are also compared 
briefly by Green, Critical Notes, etc. (on Jn. xiv. 13, 16). 
who concludes of ipwrdu " it cannot serve to indicate directly 
any peculiar position, absolute or relative, of the agent. 
The use of the word may, therefore, be viewed as having 
relation to the manner and cast of the request, namely, when 
carrying a certain freedojn of aim and bearing; a thing 
inseparable from the act of direct interrogation " ; cf . further 
Schmidt ch. 7. Comp. : ott-, e^-, stt-, 7rop-(-/xoj), Trpoer-otTew.] 
atn^iia, -ror, to, (atre'co), [fr. Plato down], ivhat is or 
has been asled for: Lk. xxiii. 24; plur. [A. V. reqnests~\, 
Phil. iv. 6 [cf. Ellic. ad loc] ; things asked for, 1 Jn. v. 
15. [See the preceding word, and Trench § li.] * 

alrCa, -ar, rj ; 1. cause, reason : Acts x. 21 ; xxii. 
24 ; xxviii. 20 ; Kara iraaav alriav for every cause, Mt. 
xix. 3 ; di ^v alriav for which cause, wherefore, Lk. viii. 
47 ; 2 Tim. i. 6, 12 ; Tit. i. 13 ; Heb. ii. 11 ; cf. Grimm 
on 2 Mace. iv. 28. 2. cause for which one is worthy 
of punishment ; crime of which one is accused : Mt. 
xxvii. 37 ; Mk. xv. 26 ; Jn. xviii. 38 ; xix. 4, [6 ; Acts 
xxiii. 28]; alria davdrov [A. V. cause of death'] crime 
deserving the punishment of death, Acts xiii. 28 ; xxviii. 
18. 3. charge of crime, accusation : Acts xxv. 18, 27. 
(All these signif. in prof. writ, also ; [but L. and S. now 
make signif. 3 the primary].) In Mt. xix. 10 the words 
fl ovTa>s iiTTiv f] alria rov dvdpunov fitra Trjs yvvaiKos find a 
simple explanation in a Latinism (causa i. q. res : si ita res 
se habet, etc.) if the case of the man with his wife is so.* 
alrCafia, -ros, to, see alrlujfia. 

[alTido|j.ai, -ufiai : to accuse, bring a charge against ; 
jjriaadfifda is a various reading in Ro. iii. 9 for the 
7rpoTjTuiadn(6a of the printed texts. (Prov. xix. 3 ; Sir. 
zxix. 5 ; freq. in prof, writ.) Syn. see Karrj-yopea*'] 

oItios- -a, -ov, that in which the cause of anything 
resides, causative, .causing. Hence 1. 6 alnos the 
author : aurrjpias, Heb. v. 9 (the same phrase is freq. 
in prof. writ. ; cf. the opp. at. rijf dnaXeias in Bel and 
the Dragon vs. 41 ; rcov KUKav, 2 Mace. xiii. 4 ; Lcian. 
Tim. 36 ed. Lips. ; rmv dyadojv, Isocr. ad Phil. 49 p. 
106 a.; cf. Bleek on Heb. vol. ii. 2. p. 94 sq.). 2. to 



airiov i. q. f} alria ; a. cause : Acts xix. 40 [cf. B. 
400 (342) n.]. b. crime, offence: Lk. xxiii. 4, 14, 22. 
(atVtos culprit.) [See alria, 3.]* 

alTCw|ia, -Tos, to, (atrtao/ioi) ; in Acts xxv. 7 the read- 
ing of the best codd. adopted by G L T Tr WH for Rec. 
alriap-a: accusation, charge of guilt. (A form not found 
in other writ. ; [yet Me}', notes atTtao-is for alrlaais, 
Eustath. p. 1422, 21; see B. 73 ; WH. App. p. 166].)* 
al4>vC8ios, -ov, {a'i(f)VT]s, d(pavr]i, a(pva> q. v.), unexpected, 
sudden, unforeseen : Lk. xxi. 34 [here WH e'^fi'S., see 
their Intr. § 404 and App. p. 151] ; 1 Th. v. 3. (Sap. 
xvii. 14; 2 Mace. xiv. 17; 3 Mace. iii. 24; Aeschyl., 
Time. 2, 61 TO al(pvL8iov Ka\ dirpoaboKTjrov, Polyb., Joseph., 
Pint., Dion. Hal., al.) * 

alxfiaXwo-ia, -as, fj, (alxfidXaros, q. v.), captivity: Rev. 
xiii. 10; abstr. for concr. i. q. alxpd^aroi (cf. d8€\(p6rr}s 
above), Eph. iv. 8 (fr. Ps. Ixvii. (Ixviii.) 19, [cf. B. 148 
(129) ; W. 225 (211)]) ; also e'l ns alxp-a^oocrlav avvdyei 
(ace. to the common but doubtless corrupt text), Rev. 
xiii. 10 (as in Num. xxxi. 12, etc.). [Polyb., Diod., 
Joseph., Plut., al.]* 

aLxp,a\(i>T€VM ; 1 aor. rj^P'Okurexja-a ; a later word (cf . 
Lob. ad Phryn. p. 442; [W. 92 (88)]) ; to make captive, 
take captive : 2 Tim. iii. 6 Rec. ; freq. in the Sept. and 
O. T. Apocr. ; to lead captive : Eph. iv. 8 (Ezek. xii. 3 ; 
[1 Esdr. vi. 15]).* 

alxiiaXwrC^w ; 1 fut. pass. alxpaXa>ri(T6r)(ropai ; a. 
equiv. to alxpdXcorov ttolS), which the earlier Greeks use. 
b. to lead away captive : foil, by els with ace. of place, 
Lk. xxi. 24, (1 Mace. x. 33; Tob. i. 10). c. fig. to .'tub- 
jugate, bring under control : 2 Co. x. 5 (on wliich passage 
see vo-qpa, 2) ; rivd rivi, Ro. vii. 23 [yet T Tr 5< etc. in- 
sert eV before the dat.] ; to take captive one's mind, capti- 
vate : yvvaiKapia, 2 Tim. iii. 6 [not Rec], (Judith xvi. 9 
TO KoXXos avT^i i]XpaXo}ri(T€ \j/vxr)v avroii). The word 
is used also in the Sept., Diod., Joseph., Plut., Arr., 
Heliod.; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 442; [W. 91 (87); EUic. 
on 2 Tim. 1. c.].* 

alxjA-aXwros, -ov, (f r. aixpr) a spear and aXoiroi, verbal 
adj. fr. ahavai, prop, taken by the sjiear), [fr. Aeschyl. 
down], captive: Lk. iv. 18 (19).* 

atiov, -wi/of, 6, (as if alev — poet, for aft — ojv, SO teaches 
Aristot. (le caelo 1, 11, 9, vol. i. p. 279', 27 ; [so Proclus 
lib. iv. in Plat. Timaeo p. 241 ; et al.] ; but more prob- 
able is the conjecture [cf. Etym. Magn. 41, 11] that 
alav is so connected with arjpi to breathe, blow, as to 
denote properly that tchirh causes life, vital force; cf. 
Harless on Eph. ii. 2). [But al^v (z^alF<i>v) is now gen- 
erally connected with aiei, aft, Skr. evas (aivas), Lat. 
aevum, Goth, aivs. Germ, ewig, Eng. aye, ever; cf. Curtius 
§ 585; Fick, Pt. i. p. 27; Vanicek p. 79; Benfey, Wur- 
zellex. i. p. 7 sq. ; Schleicher, Compend. ed. 2, p. 400 ; 
Pott, Etym. Forsch., ed. 2, ii. 2, p. 442 ; Ebeling, Lex. 
Hom. s. v.; L. and S. s. v. dft'; Cremer, edd. 2, 3, 4 (al- 
though in ed. 1 he agreed with Prof. Grimm) ; Pott and 
Fick, however, connect it with Skr. ayus rather than 
evas, althouo-h both these forms are derived from i to 
go (see Pott, Schleicher, Fick, Vani(5ek, u. s.).] In 



aloov 



19 



aicov 



Greek authors 1. age (Lat. aevum, which is almv 
with the Aeolic digamma), a human lifetime (in Hom., 
Hdt., Pind., Tragic poets), life itself (Hom. II. 5, 685 
fie Koi XiTTOialav etc.). 2. an unbroken aye, perpetuity 
of time, eternity, (Plat. Tim. p. 37 d. 38 a. ; Tim. Locr. 
p. 97 d. [quoted below]; Plut., al.). With this signifi- 
cation the Hebrew aad Rabbinic idea of the word dSij; 
(of which in the Sept. alcov is the equiv.) combines in 
the bibl. and eccl. writ. Hence in the N. T. used 
1. a. univ. : in the phrases eU t6v alwva, dSij;^ (Gen. 
vi. B),for ever, Jn. vi. 51, 58 ; xiv. 16 ; Ileb. v. 6 ; vi. 
20, etc.; and strengthened fis rov alava roi, alaivos, Heb. 
i. 8 [£r. Ps. xliv. (xlv.) 7 Alex., cf. W. § 36, 2] (Tob. 
vi. 18; Ps. Ixxxii. (ixxxiii.) 18, etc.); tls alava, Jude 
13 ; fts Tjfxepav alavos unto the day which is eternity 
(gen. of appos.), 2 Pet. iii. 18 [cf. Sir. xviii. 10 (9)]; 
with a negation: vever, Jn. iv. 14 [Lchm. in br.] ; viii. 
51; X. 28; xi. 26; xiii. 8; 1 Co. viii. 13; or not for 
ever, not always, Jn. viii. 35 ; els rovs alavas unto the 
ages, i. e. as long as time shall be (the plur. denotes the 
individual ages whose sum is eternity) : [Lk. i. 33] ; 
Ro. i. 25 ; ix. 5 ; xi. 36 ; [xvi. 27 R G Tr WH] ; 2 Co. 
xi. 31 ; Heb. xiii. 8 ; els iravras r. alapas, Jude 25 ; els 
Tovs alavas twv aloivoyv (in which expression the endless 
future is divided up into various periods, the shorter of 
wliich are comprehended in the longer [cf. W. §36,2; 
among the various phrases to express duration com- 
posed of this word with prep, or adjuncts, (which to the 
number of more than fifteen are to be found in the 
Sept., cf. Vaughan on Ro. i. 25), this combination of 
the double plural seems to be peculiar to the N. T.]) : 
[Ro. xvi. 27 L T] ; Gal. i. 5 : [Phil. iv. 20] ; 1 Tim. i. 
17; [2 Tim. iv. 18; 1 Pet. iv. 11]; Rev. i. 6, 18; iv. 

9 sq. ; V. 13; vii. 12; x. 6; xi. 15; xv. 7; xix. 3; xx. 

10 ; xxii. 5 ; els alavas aluivmv. Rev. xiv. 11 ; 6 aluv rav 
alo)v(ov the (whole) age embracing the (shorter) ages, 
Eph. iii. 21 (cf. Mey. [or Ellic] ad loc.) ; drro rdv alavcov 
from the ages down, from eternity. Col. i. 26 ; Eph. iii. 
9 ; irpo Ta>v alaivcov before time was, before the founda- 
tion of the world, 1 Co. ii. 7 ; npoSea-is ratu alapcou 
eternal purpose, Epli. iii. 11. b. in hyperbolic and 
popular usage : dno mv alutvos (oSliTD, Gen. vi. 4, cf. 
Deut. xxxii. 7) from the most ancient time doum, (within 
the memory of man), from of old, Lk. i. 70; Acts iii. 21 ; 
XV. 18, (Tob. IV. 12 01 naTfpes rjpLuiv otto tov alavos \ 
Longin. 34 tovs an alauos prjTopas) ; also eK tov alavos, 
Jn. ix. 32, (1 Esdr. ii. 19, 22 (23) ; Diod. iv. 83 of the 
temple of Venus riyi/ €$ atoivos dpxn^ Xn^ov, 17, 1 roi/s 
e^ a.tovos ^acTiXels, [excerpt, de legat. xl.] p. 632 ttjv e^ 
aliivos Trapa8e8opein}v eXtvdeplav). 2. by meton. of the 
container for the contained, ol alaues denotes the worlds, 
the universe, i. e. the aggregate of things contained in 
time, [on the plur. cf. W. 176 (166); B. 24 (21)] : Heb. 
i. 2 ; xi. 3 ; and (?) 1 Tim. i. 1 7 ; [Rev. xv. 3 WH 
txt. ; cf. Ps. cxliv. (cxlv.) 13; Tob. xiii. 6, 10; Sir. 
xxxvi. 22; Philo de plant. Noe § 12 bis; de mundo 
§ 7; Joseph, antt. 1, 18, 7; Clem. Rom. 1 Cor. 61, 2; 
35, 3 (-naTrip r. a.) ; 55, 6 {0e6s T. a.) ; Constt. Ap. 7, 34 ; 



see Abbot in Journ. Soc. Bibl. Lit. eic. i. p. 106 n.]. So 
alu)u in Sap. xiii. 9 ; xiv. 6 ; xviii. 4 ; the same use oc- 
curs in the Talmud, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic ; cf. Bleek, 
Hebriierbr. ii. 1, p. 36 sqq. ; Gesenius, Thesaur. ii. p. 
1036; [cf. the use of ot alaves in the Fathers i. q. the 
world of mankind, e. g. Ignat. ad Eph. 19, 2], 3. As 
the Jews distinguished n^TH dS^'H the time before the 
Messiah, and «3n oSi^'n the time after the advent of the 
Messiah (cf. Riehm, Lehrb. d. Hebraerbr. p. 204 sqq. ; 
[Schiirer § 29, 9]), so most of the N. T. writers distin- 
guish 6 aliiov ovTos this ar/e (also simply 6 aicbi/, IVIt. xiii. 22 ; 
Mk. iv. 19 G L T Tr WH ; 6 eveaTo^s aloiv, Gal. i. 4 ; 5 
vvv alwv, 1 Tim. vi. 17 ; [2 Tim. iv. 10] ; Tit. ii. 12), the 
time before the appointed return or truly IMessianic ad- 
vent of Christ (i. e. the napovala, q. v.), the period of insta- 
bility, weakness, impiety, wickedness, calamity, misery, 
— and alwv ptWcov tlie future age (also 6 aliiv eKelvos, Lk. 
XX. 35 ; o alu>v 6 epxap-evos, Lk. xviii. 30 ; Mk. x. 30 ; 
01 alatves ol enepxap-evoi, Eph. ii. 7), i. e. the age after 
the return of Christ in majesty, the period of the con- 
summate establishment of the divine kingdom and all 
its blessings : Mt. xii. 32 ; Eph. i. 21 ; cf. Fritzsche on 
Rom. vol. iii. 22 sq. Hence the things of ' this age ' 
are mentioned in the N. T. with censure : 6 al<i>v ovros, 
by meton. men controlled by the thoughts and pursuits 
of this present time, Ro. xii. 2, the same who are called 
v'loI tov at. TovTov in Lk. xvi. 8 ; xx. 34 ; KaTct rbv alava 
Tov Koapov TOVTOV couformably to the age to wliich this 
(wicked) world belongs, Eph. ii. 2 [cf. Trench § lix. 
sub fin.] ; dyandv tov vvv aiiova, 2 Tim. iv. 10 (see 
dyaTrd(o) ; tip^ovTes tov al. tovtov, 1 Co. ii. 6 (see ap^otv) ; 
6 ^60? tov al. TOVTOV the devil, who rules the thoughts 
and deeds of the men of this age, 2 Co. iv. 4 ; al pipifivai 
TOV alutvos the anxieties for the things of this age, Mk. 
iv. 19; irKoxKnos iv tw vvv aicovt rich in worldly wealth, 
1 Tim. vi. 17; aocpia tov al. tovt. such wisdom as be- 
longs to this age, — full of error, arrogant, hostile to 
the gospel, 1 Co. ii. 6 ; a-v(r]Tr]Ti)s tov al. tovt. disputer, 
sophist, such as we now find him, 1 Co. i. 20 ; avvTeXeia 
TOV al. TOVT. the end, or rather consummation, of the age 
preceding Christ's return, with wliich will be connected 
the resurrection of the dead, the last judgment, the de- 
molition of this world and its restoration to a more ex- 
cellent condition [cf. 4 Esdr. vii. 43], Mt. xiii. 39 sq. 49; 
xxiv. 3 ; xxviii. 20 ; it is called avvTeXeia Tmv al<i)v<ov in 
Heb. ix. 26 [so Test. xii. Patr., test. Levi 1 0, test. Benj. 11 
(cf. Vorstman p. 133)] ; to. reXj; Totv alutvcov the ends (last 
part) of the ages before the return of Christ, 1 Co. x. 11 ; 
dvvdpeis Toii p.tXXovTos alcovos powers which present them- 
selves from the future or divine order of things, i.e. the 
Holy Spirit, Heb.vi. 5 ; roiJ alaivos (Kelvov Tv^flv to partake 
of the blessings of the future age, Lk. xx. 35. Among 
the N. T. writers James does not use the word ala>v. 

[On the word in its relation to KScfios see Trench § lix. 
Its biblical sense and its relation to D7i;? are discussed by 
Stuart, Exeget. Essays on Words relating to Fut. Punish- 
ment, Andover, 1830 (and Preshyt. Publ. Committee, Phil.) ; 
Tayler Lewis in Lange's Com. on Eccl. pp. 44-51 ; J. W. 
Hanson, Aion-Aionios, (pp. 174), Chicaeo, 1880. See esjn 



aldtv 



20 



auovio^ 



E. Abbot, Literature of the Doctriue of a Future Life, etc., 

(New York, 1867), Index of subjects s. v. For its meanings 
in eccl. writ, see Suicer, Thesaur. Eccles. i. col. 140 sqq., cf. 
ii. col. 1609; Hitet, Origeniana (App. to vol. iv. of De la 
Rue's Origen) lib. ii. c. ii. quaest. 11, § 26. Its use in Horn., 
Hes., Find., Aeschyl., Soph., Eur., Aristot., Flato, Tim. 
Locr., is exhibited in detail by E. S. Goodwin in the Christ. 
Exam, for March and May, 1831, March and May, 1832. 
" On alciv as the complete period, either of eacii particular life 
or of all existence, see Arist. cael. 1, 9, 15; on ala>y and 
Xpifos, cf. Philo [quis rer. div. her. § 34] i. 496, 18 sq. ; [de 
mut. nom. §47] i. 619, lOsq." L.andS.ed.6; see also Philo 
de aUeg. leg. iii. 8 ; quod deus immut. § 6 fin. ; de prof. § 11 ; 
de praem. et poen. § 15; and (de muud. opif. § 7) esp. J. G. 
Mvller, Philu's Lehre v. d. Weltschopfung, p. 168 (Berl. 1864). 
Schmidt (ch. 44) gives the distinction, for substance, as fol- 
lows : both words denote the abstract idea of time and with 
special reference to its extent or duration ; XP^'">^ i^ the 
general designation for time, which can be divided up into 
portions, each of which is in its turn a xp^vos ; on the other 
hand, alwv, which in the concrete and simple language of 
Homer (Pindar and the Tragedians) denotes the allotted 
lifetime, even the life, of the individual (11. 4, 478 ntwvedSios 
S( 01 altiv etc.), in Attic prose differs from xpovos by denot- 
ing time imlimited and boundless, which is not conceived of 
as divisible into alwvts (contrast here biblical usage and see 
below), but rather into xp^'">^- In philosophical speech it is 
without beginning also. Cf. Tim. Locr. 97 c. d. xp'^"^ ^e ri 
fiep€a TaffSf ras Trepi6S<i)s XtyovTi, &s fKSfff^riffey 6 Oihs (rii)/ 
K6(T/j.Cfi ■ 01) yap 1\v vph K6a/j.a> dcrrpa • SiSirep oi/S' iviavrhs oi/S' 
iipav irepioSoi, als fierptiTai 6 ytwarhs XP^vos ovros. eiKciov 
S4 iffri rSi aytwaTw xp ^'^ '^> ^^ o.lwva TroTayopfvo/xes ' uis 
yap tot' aiSiou irapaSfiy/jia, rhv ISaviKhv Kofffxav, o5e 6 upavhs 
iyivvaBrj, outojs ws irphs "TrapaZnyiia, rhv alwv a, oSe 6 XP^I'OS 
ffvv Koff/j-Cfj eSaiJ.iovpy7]0Tj — after Flato, Timaeus p. 37 d. 
(where see Stallbaum's note and reff.) ; Isocr. 8, 34 rohs Se 
ufT euaf^eias k. SiKatotrvuris (uvras (dpci) iv Tf to7s ivapoxxn 
Xpiv IS a(T<pa\a)S StdyovTas Kal Trtpl tov crufxTravTos alwvos 
rjSiovs ras iKirtSas exovras. The adj. &xpoyos independent 
of time, above and beyond all time, is syuou. with alduios ; 
where time (with its subdivisions and limitations) ends eter- 
nity begins: Nonnus, metaph. evang. Johan. i. 1, dxpovos ^v, 
b.Kixi)'''os, (V app-fiTO) \6yos apx^- Thorouglily Flatonic in 
cast are the definitions of Gregory of Nazianzus (orat. 
xxxviii. 8) aioov yap odre xp^""^ oUn xP^i'ov ti /xepos • ovSe 
yhp fj.(TpriT6v, aW' 'oirep 7)fxtv 6 xp^fos ■tjXiov <popa /j.fTpovfxd'os, 
TOVTO To7s aiSiois alwv, rh (Tv/xTrapeKTeLvSfjLivov to7s ovcriv oI6v 
Ti xpof'Khv KivriiJ.a Kal Sid(rTri/j.a (Suicer u. s.). So Clem. 
Alex. Strom, i. 13, p. 756 a. ed. Migne, 'O y ovv alwv rov 
Xpivov Th ixfWov Kal rh ivecrrijs, avrap Stj Kal rh -rtapcfiX'^Khs 
aKaptalws <Tvvi(TT7)(n. Instances from extra-biblical writ, of 
the use of alwv in the plural are: rhv dir' aldvwv ixvdov, 
Anthol. vol. iii. pt. ii. p. 55 ed. Jacobs; els alwvas, ibid. vol. 
iv. epigr. 492 ; in TrepiTpoTrvjs aliovwv, Jo.seph. b. j. 3, 8, 5; fls 
alwvas Sta/xevft, Sext. Empir. adv. Phys. i. 62. The dis- 
cussions which have been raised respecting the word may 
give interest to additional reff. to its use l)y Philo and Jo- 
sephus. Philo : 6 iras (d-rras, ffv/xTras) or iras (etc.) 6 altiv: 
de alleg. leg. iii. § 70 ; de cherub. § 1 (a noteworthy pas.sage, 
cf. de congressu erud. § 11 and reff. s. v. OdvaTos) ; de sacrif. 
Ab. et Caini §11; quod det. pot. § 48 ; (juod deus immut. 
§ 1, § 24 ; de plan tat. § 27 ; de sol)rietate § 13 ; de migr. Abr. 
§ 2 ; de prof. § 9 ; de mut. nom. § 34 ; de somn. ii. § 1 5, § 31 , 
§ 38 ; de legat. ad Gaium § 38 ; (&} fxaKphs al. : de sacrif. Ab. 
et Caini § 21 ; de ebrietate § 47 ; de prof. § 20; aj. fi^KtaTos : 



de sobrietate § 5 ; de prof. § 21 ; 6 H-rretpos al. : de legat. ad 
Gaium § 1 1 ; 6 ffxirpoaBtv al. : de praem et. poen. § C ; at 
no\vs : de Abrah. § 46 ; t/j al. : de mere, meretr. § 1 ; 5*' oj. : 
de cherub. § 26 ; de plantat. § 27 ; els rhv al. : de gigant. § 5 ; 
eV (to)) ot. : de mut. nom. § 2 (bis) (note the restriction) J 
quod deus immut. § 6 ; ^| o». : de somn. i. § 3 ; tn al. : de 
plantat. § 12 (bis) ; de mundo § 7 ; irph al. : de mut. nom. 
§ 2 ; irphs al. : de mut. nom. § 11 ; (6) al. : de prof. § 18 ; de 
alleg. leg. iii. § 70 ; de cherub. § 22 ; de migr. Abr. § 22 ; de 
somn. i. § 18, § 22 ; de Josepho § 5 ; de vita Moys. ii. § 3 ; 
de decalogo § 14; de victimis § 3; frag, in Mang. ii. 660 
(Kichter vi. p. 219) ; de plantat. § 12 (bis) ; de mundo § 7. 
Josephus : (6) was alwv : antt. 1, 18, 7 ; 3, 8, 10; c. Ap. 2, 
11,3; 2, 22, 1 ; naKphs al. : antt. 2, 7, 3 ; iroKvs al. : c. Ap. 2, 
31, 1; Toaovros al.: c. Ap. 1, 8, 4; nATJdos alwvos: antt, 
prooem. § 3 ; ctir' al. : b. j. prooem. § 4; Si" al. : antt. 1, 18, 8; 
4, e, 4 ; b. j. 6, 2, 1 ; els {rhv} al. : antt. 4, 8, 18 ; 5, 1, 27 ; 7, 
9, 5; 7, 14, 5; e'l al. : b. j. 5, 10, 5; {6) al.: antt. 19,2,2; 
b. j. 1, 21, 10 ; plur. (see above) 3, 8, 5. See alwvios.] 

aUovios, -ov, and (in 2 Th. ii. 16 ; Heb. ix. 12; Num. 
XXV. 13; Plat. Tim. p. 38 b. [see below]; Diod. i. 1; 
[cf. WH. App. p. 157; W. 69 (67); B. 26 (23)]) -or, 
-a, -OP, (aluv) ; 1. tvitJiout bec/huiinf/ or end, (hat ichich 
always^ Iiuk been and always will he : 6e6s, Ro. xvi. 26, (6 
fxovos aldavios, 2 Macc. i. 25) ; nvevfia, Heb. ix. 14. 2. 
tvithout beginning: xpovon alaviois, Ro. xvi. 25; npo xpo- 
vwv alcoviav, 2 Tim. i. 9 ; Tit. i. 2 ; evayyt^iov a gospel 
whose subject-matter is eternal, i. e. the saving purpose 
of God adopted from eternity, Rev. xiv. 6. 3. ivith- 
out end, never to cease, everlasting: 2 Co. iv. 18 (opp. to 
TTpoaKoipos) ; alcaviov avrov, joined to tliee forever as a 
sharer of the same eternal life, Philem. 15 ; ^dpa 86^t]s, 
2 Co. iv. 17 ; /Sao-iXfi'a, 2 Pet. i. 11 ; 86^a, 2 Tim. ii. 10 ; 
1 Pet. v. 1 ; ^coT] ( see ^cotj, 2 b.) ; Kkrjpovopia, Heb. ix. 
15; Xvrpwo-ts-, Heb. ix. 12; irapciKXrja-Ls, 2 Th. ii. 16; 
a-Krjvai, abodes to be occupied forever, Lk. xvi. 9 (the 
habitations of the blessed in heaven are referred to, cf. 
Jn. xiv. 2, [also, dabo eis tabernacula aeterna, quae 
praeparaveram iUis, 4 Esdr. (Frilzsrhe 5 E.sdr.) ii. 11]; 
similarly Hades is called ulmvios ronos, Tob. iii. 6, cf. 
Eccl. xii. 5) ; aaiTrjpia, Heb. v. 9 ; [so Mk. xvi. WH, in 
the (rejected) 'Shorter Conclusion']. Opposite ideas 
are : KoXaais, Mt. xxv. 46 ; Kplpa, Heb. vi. 2 ; Kpiais, 
Mk. iii. 29 (Rec. [but L T WH Tr txt. apapr^fjtaTOi ; 
in Acta Thom. § 47, p. 227 Tdf., earai aoi rovro elv ("(pecnv 
dpapriuiv koi 'Kvrpov aloiviav TTapaTTToapdruiv, it has been 
plausibly conjectured we should read \vTpov aluiviov (cf. 
Heb. ix. 12)]); oXedpos [Lchm. txt. oXeOpios], 2 Th. i. 
9, (4 Macc. x. 15) ; nvp, Mt. xxv. 41, (4 Macc. xii. 12 
alcoviai TTvpl k. ^aadvois, at els oXov rov alava ovk avrjaovai 
ae). ' 

[Of the examples of aldvios from Philo (with whom it is 
less common than aiStos, q. v., of which there are some fifty 
instances) the following are noteworthy : de mut. nom. § 2 ; 
de caritate § 17; K6\a(ns al. frag, in Mang. ii. 667 fin. 
(Fichter vi. 229 mid.) ; cf. de praem. et poen. § 12. Other 
exx. are de alleg. leg. iii. § 70; de poster. Caini § 35; quod 
deus immut. § 30 ; quis rer. div. her. § 58 ; de congressu 
quaer. erud. § 19 ; de prof. § 38 ; de somn. ii. § 43 ; de Jose- 
plio § 24; quod omn. prob. lib. § 4, § 18; de ebrietate § 32; 
de Abrah. § 10; (wi) al. : de prof. § 15 ; dehs (6) al. : de plan 



aKaOapcria 



21 



> / 

aKaraaraaia 



tat. § 2, § 18 (bis), § 20 (bis) ; de mundo § 2. From Jose- 
phus : antt. 7, 14, 5 ; 12, 7, 3 ; 15, 10, 5 ; b. j. 1, 33, 2 ; 6, 2, 
1 ; KKeos al. : autt. 4, 6, 5 ; b. j. 3, 8, 5 ; nvfinv ai: autt. 1, 
13, 4; 6, 14, 4; 10, 11, 7 ; 15, 11, 1 ; oIkov ix(v aliiviov fx^ts 
(of God), antt. 8, 4, 2; i(pv\axOri 6 '\<i>dvvT)s Sf<Tfxo7s atut/'iois, 
b. j. 6, 9, 4. 

Syn. aiSios, aldyios: atS. covers tlie complete philo- 
Bophic idea — without beginning and without end ; also cither 
without beginning or without end ; as respects the past, it 
is applied to what has existed time out of mind, aldvws (fr. 
Plato on) gives prominence to the immeasurableness of eter- 
nity (while such words as irwex'^s continuous, unintermitted, 
SiaT€\ris perpetual, lasting to the end, are not so applicable 
to an abstract term, like aldi') ; alwvios accordingly is esp. 
adapted to supersensuous things, see the N. T. Cf. Tim. 
Locr. 96 c. 0ehv Si rhv filv aldviov v6os dpi} fxSvos etc. ; Plat. 
Tim. 37 d. (and Stallbaum ad loc.) ; 38 b. c. ; legg. x. p. 
904 a. avwKfOpov 5* hv yfySfievov, aW' ovk aldiuiov. Cf. also 
Plato's niaiiiivios (Tim. 38 b. ; 39 e.). Schmidt ch. 45.] 

dKa6apo-(a, -ay, 17, {aKaQapros), [fr. Hippocr. down], 
uncleanness ; a. physical: Mt. xxiii. 27. b. in a 
moral sense, the impurity of lustful, luxurious, profli- 
gate living: Ro. i. 24; vi. 19; 2 Co. xii. 21; Gal. v. 
1 9 ; Eph. iv. 19; v. 3 ; Col. iii. 5 ; 1 Th. iv. 7 ; used 
of impure motives in 1 Th. ii. 3. (Dem. p. 553, 12.) 
Cf. Tittmann i. p. 1 50 sq.* 

dKaOdpTt^s, -rjTos, fj, impurity: Rev. xvii. 4, — not found 
elsewliere, and the true reading here is to. aKadapra Trjs* 

dKdOapros, -ov, (Kadaipa), [fr. Soph, down], in the Sept. 
i. q. KOCD, not cleansed, unclean; a. inaceremonial 
sense, that which must be abstained from according to 
the levitical law, lest impurity be contracted : Acts x. 
14; xi. 8 (of food); Acts x. 28; 1 Co. vii. 14 (of 
men); 2 Co. vi. 17 (fr. Is. Iii. 11, of things pertain- 
ing to idolatry) ; Rev. xviii. 2 (of birds). b. in a 
moral sense, unclean in thought and life (freq. in Plat.) : 
Eph. V. 5 ; TO aKadapra tJJj nopveias, Rev. xvii. 4 (acc. 
to the true reading) ; nvevp.ara, demons, bad angels, [in 
twenty-three pass, of the Gospels, Acts, Rev.] : Mt. x. 
1; xii. 43; Mk. i. 23, 26; iii. 11, etc.; Lk. iv. 33, 36; vi. 
18, etc.; Acts v. 16; viii. 7; Rev. xvi. 13; xviii. 2, 
{wvfvpaTa TTovrjpd in Mt. xii. 45; Lk. vii. 21 ; viii. 2; 
xi. 26 ; Acts xix. 12 sq. 15 sq.). 

dKaipfOfjiai., -ovfiai : [impf. rjKaipovpriv'\ ; (oKaipos inop- 
portune) ; to lack opportunity, (opp. to fvKaipeo) ) : Pliil. 
iv. 10. (Pilot., Suid., Zonar. ; aKaipe'ip, Died, excerp. 
Vat. ed. Mai p. 30 [frag. 1. x. § 7, ed. Diud.].)* 

oKaipusi (jcatpos), adv., unseasonahly, [A. V. out of 
season'\, (opp. to evKolpas) : 2 Tim. iv. 2 (whether sea- 
sonable for men or not). (Sir. xxxv. 4 ; [Aeschyl. Ag. 
808]; Plat, de rep. x. p. 606 b. ; Tim. 33 a.; 86 c. ; 
Xen. Eph. 5, 7 ; Joseph, antt. 6, 7, 2, al.) * 

d-KUKos, -ov, (KaKos) ; a. without guile or fraud, 

harmless ; free from guilt : Heb. vii. 26 ; [cf. Clement, 
frag. 8 ed. Jacobson, (Bp. Lghtft. S. Clement of Rome 
etc. p. 219) : aKaicos 6 Harrjp ■trvevp.a etoiKfv a/caicoi']. 
b. fearing no evil from others, distrusting no one, [cf. 
Eng. guileless'] : Ro. xvi. 18. ([Aeschyl.,] Plat., Dem., 
Polyb., al. ; Sept.) [Cf. Trench § Ivi. ; Tittmann i. p. 
27 sq.]* 



aKavOa, -^s, f/, (okti a point [but see in oKfir]']) ; a. a 
thorn, In-amhle-bush, hrier: Mt. vii. 16; Lk. vi. 44 ; Heb. 
vi. 8 ; eif ras mavGas i. e. among the seeds of thorns, Mt. 
xiii. 22; Mk. iv. 7 [L mrg. eVt], 18 [Tdf. eVi]; Lk. viii. 
14 (vs. 7 iv fi(<Ta> rcov uKavdav) ; cttI ras (xk- i. e. upon 
ground in which seeds of thorns were lying hidden, 
Mt. xiii. 7. b. a thorny plant : <TTe(f>avov i^ aKavBwv, 
Mt. xxvii. 29 ; Jn. xix. 2, — for bare thorns might have 
caused delirium or even death; what species of plant is 
referred to, is not clear. Some boldly read aKavOaav, 
from aKavdos, acanthus, bea7''s-foot ; but the meaning of 
aKav6a is somewhat comprehensive even in prof. writ. ; 
cf. the class. Grk. Lexx. s. v. [On the "Crown of 
thorns" see BB.DD. s. v., and for reff. Mc. and S.] * 

OKavOivos, -01/, {aKovda', cf. afxapavrivos}, thorny, woven 
out of the ttcigs of a thorny j)lant : Mk. xv. 17; Jn. xix. 
5. (Is. xxxiv. 13.) Cf. the preceding word.* 

d-Kapiros, -ov, (Kapiros), [fr. Aeschyl. down], rcithout 
fruit, barren ; 1. prop. : 8(v8pa, Jude 1 2. 2. metaph. 
not yielding what it ought to yield, [A. V. imfruiful~\ : 
Mt. xiii. 22 ; Mk. iv. 19; destitute of good deeds. Tit. 
iii. 14; 2 Pet. i. 8; contributing nothing to the instruc- 
tion, improvement, comfort, of others, 1 Co. xiv. 14; 
by WtotG?, pernicious, Eph. v. 11, (Sap. xv. 4 ; cf. Grimm 
on Sap. i. 11).* 

d-KaTd--YVwtrTos, -ov, (KaTayivaxTKU)), that cannot be con- 
demned, not to be censured: Tit. ii. 8. (2 Mace. iv. 47, 
and several times in eccl. writ.) * 

d-KaTa-KdXviTTOS, -ov, {KaTaKakimrci), not covered, un- 
veiled: 1 Co.xi. 5, 13. (Polyb. 15, 27, 2; [Sept., Philo].) * 

d-Kard-KpiTOs, -01/, (KaraKpiva), uncondemned; punished 
without being tried: Acts xvi. 37; xxii. 25. (Not 
found in prof, writ.) * 

d-Kard-XvTos, -ov, {KoraKvco), indissoluble ; not subject to 
destructions, [A. V. endless'] : ^afj, Heb. vii. 16. (4 Mace. 
X. 11; Dion. Hal. 10, 81.)* 

oKaTdTrcuTTos, -ov, — found only in 2 Pet. ii. 14 in codd. 
A and B, from wliich L WH Tr mrg. have adopted 
it instead of the Rec. dKaranava-Tovs, q. v. It may be 
derived f r. nareofiai, pf . irinacrpai, to taste, eat ; whence 
dKara.iTa(TTos insatiable. In prof. writ. KardivaaTos [wliich 
Bttm. conjectures may have been the original reading] 
signifies besprinkled, soiled, from Karandcraoi to bespi-in- 
kle. For a fuller discussion of this various reading see 
B. 65 (57), [and WH. App. p. 170].* 

(iKaTdiravo-TOS, -ov, (Koranavco), unable to Stop, unceas- 
ing; passively, not quieted, that cannot be quieted; with 
gen. of thing (on which cf. W. § 30, 4), 2 Pet. ii. 14 
[R G T Tr txt.] (eyes not quieted with sin, sc. which 
they commit with adultei'ous look). (Polyb., Diod., 
Joseph., Phit.) * 

(ucaTao-Tao-ia, -as, tj, (aKaTadTaTos), instability, a state 
of disorder, disturbance, confusion : 1 Co. xiv. 33 ; Jas. 
iii. 16 ; (Clem. Rom. 1 Cor. 14, 1 ; [Prov. xxvi. 28 ; Tob. 
iv. 13]); plur. d'lsturbances, disorders: of dissensions, 
2 Co. xii. 20 ; of seditions, 2 Co. vi. 5 (cf . Mey. ad loc.) ; 
of the tumults or commotions of war; Lk. xxi. 9. (Polyb., 
Dion. Hal.) * 



aKaTaaraTO<i 



oo 



aKOVQ) 



drKaTd-o-TttTos, -Of. (Kadia-TTjfii), unstable, inconstant, 
restless: Jas. i. 8, and L T Tr W'll in iii. 8 also, but less 
fitly ; [cf. Ilerraae Past. 1. ii. mand. 2, 3 irovtfpov Trvevful 
eoTiv T) KoraXaXta, Kai ciKaTacrTaTOV daifioviov, firjSinore 
flprjvevov, dXXa etc.]. ([IIipi)Ocr. et al.] Tolyb. 7, 4, 6, 
al. [Sept. Is. liv. 11].)* 

drKaTd<rx€Tos, -ov, {Karexoi to restrain, control), that 
cannot be restrained: Jas. iii. 8 R G. (Job xxxi. 11; 
3 Mace. vi. 1 7 ; Diod. 1 7, 38 atcar. SaKpva, al.)* 

*AK£X8a|id, or 'AKeXSajxilx (Lehm.). [or 'A/ceXS. WH 
(see their Intr. § 408)], or 'AxeXSa/x^x (T Tr), fr. Cbald. 
Npn Spn (field of blood), Akeldama: Acts i. 19; see 
aip^a. 2 a. [B. D. s. v.; esp. Kautzsch, Gram. pp. 8, 173].* 

ckepaios, -ov, (Ktpdvvvfjit) ] a- iinrnixed, pure, as 

wine, metals. b. of the mind, without admixture of 
evil, free from f/uile, innocent, simple: Mt. .x. 16; Ro. 
xvi. 19; Phil. ii. 15; (and freq. in prof. writ.). [Cf. 
Ellic. on Phil. 1. c; Trench §lvi.; Tittmann i. 27 sq.]* 

icXivT|s, -et, (kXivod), not inclining, firm, unmoved: Ileb. 
X. '2'.i. (Frecp in i)rof. writ.) * 

oKfid^w : 1 aor. rJKp.a(fa ; {aKfir}) ; to flourish, come to 
maturity: Rev. xiv. 18. (Very freq. in prof, writ.)* 

OK}!^, -fjs, f), (cf. aKfj [on the accent cf. Chandler § 116; 
but the word is ' a mere figment of the grammarians,' 
Pape (yet cf. L. and S.) s. v.], alxp-r], Lat. acies, acuo) ; 
among the Greeks a. prop, a point, to prick with (cf. 
[the classic] oIxm). b. extremity, climax, acme, highest 
degree. c. the present point of time. Hence accus. 
[W. 230 (216), 464 (432 sq.) ; B. 153 (134)] a/c/i.?!' with 
adverbial force, i. q. en, even now, even yet: Mt. xv. 16. 
(Theocr. id. 4, 60 ; Polyb. 4, 36, 8 ; Strat. epigr. 3 p. 
101 ed. Lips. ; Strabo 1. i. [c. 3 prol.] p. 56; Plut. de 
glor. Athen. 2, 85, al.) Cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 123.* 

oxo^, -T)i, f), (fr. an assumed pf. form ^Koa, cf. dyopd 
above [but cf. Epic aKovr); Curtius p. 555]); 1. hear- 
ing, by which one perceives sounds ; sense of hearing : 
1 Co. xii. 1 7 ; 2 Pet. ii. 8. Hebraistically, aKofj aKoveiv 
by hearing to hear i. e. to perceive by hearing, Mt. xiii. 
14 ; Acts xxviii. 26, (Is. vi. 9) ; cf. W. § 44, 8 Rem. 3 
p. 339; § 54, 3 p. 466; [B. 183 sq. (159)]. 2. the 
organ of hearing, the ear: Mk. vii. 35 ; Lk. vii. 1 ; 2 Tim. 
iv. 3, 4; Acts xvii. 20; Hel). v. 11. 3. thing heard; 
a. instruction, namely oral; spec, the preaching of the 
gospel, [A. V. txt. report} : Jn. xii. 38 ; Ro. x. 16 sq. (rls 
eniarevae tjj clkotj fjpicov; fr. Is. liii. 1, Hebr. n^'IOtj/, which 
in 2 S. iv. 4, etc., is rendered dyyeXla) ; aKOT] nia-reas 
preaching on the necessity of faith, (Germ. (Jhmbens- 
predigt). Gal. iii. 2, 5 ; \6yos tiKo^j i. q. X. dKovaBeli [cf. 
W. 531 (494 sq.)] : 1 Th. ii. 13 ; Heb. iv. 2. b. hear- 
say, report, rumor; rivoi, concerning any one: Mt. iv. 
24 ; xiv. 1 ; xxiv. 6 ; Mk. i. 28 ; xiii. 7. (Freq. in Grk. 
writ.) * 

oxoXox^Ocw, -<S; fut. dKo\ov6r)a<ii ; impf. t}k6Kov6ovv : 
1 aor. ^KoXoudqaa : pf. rjKoXovdriKa (Mk. x. 28 L T Tr 
VVH) ; (fr. dKoXovdoi, and this fr. a copulative and KtXev- 
dos road, prop, walking the same road) ; 1. to follow 
one who precedes, /oni him as his attendant, accompany 
him: Mt. iv. 25; viii. 19; ix. 19; xxvii. 55; Mk. iii. 7; 



V. 24, [3 7 Lchm.] ; xiv. 51 [R G] ; Lk. xxii. 39, 54 ; xxiii. 
27; Jn. i. 37 sq. 43 (44); vi. 2; xviii. 15; xx. 6, etc.; 
Acts xii. 8 ; xiii. 43; xxi. 36 ; 1 Co. x. 4 ; distinguished 
fr. irpodyeiv in Mt. xxi. 9 ; Mk. xi. 9 ; trop. rd epya 
axjTQyu uKoXovBel. per avruiv, their good deeds will accom- 
j)any them to tlie presence of God the judge to be 
rewarded by him, Rev. xiv. 13; on the other hand, 
rjKoXovdrjaav avTrjs al apapTiai <ixP^ '''^^ ovpavov, Rev. xviii. 
5, but here fur rjKnXovdrja-av G L T Tr WII have re- 
stored fKoXXridrjaav; l^a-rjpfia rois iTC(rT(va'aa'iv dKoXovdi'jaei 
ravra, Mk. xvi. 1 7 Tr WH txt. (where al. TrapaKoX.q. v.)]. 
to follow one in time, succeed one : Rev. xiv. 8 sq. 
(Hdian. 1, 14, 12 (6) rd yovv dKoXovdijaavra, al.) Since 
among the ancients disciples were accustomed to accom- 
pany their masters on their walks and journeys — [al. 
derive the usage that follows from the figurative sense 
of the word directly ; cf. e. g. 2 Mace. viii. 36 to 
nKoXovdflv To7.s vopois ; M. Antonin. 1. ^ii. § 31 aKoXov- 
6r]aov 6fta, and Gataker ad loc], aKoXovderj) denotes 2. 
to Join one as a disciple, become or be his disciple; side 
ivith his party, [A. Y. follow him]: Mt. iv. 20, 22; ix. 9; 
xix. 27 sq. ; Mk. i. 18; viii. 34; Lk. v. 11, 27, etc.; 
Jn. viii. 12 (where Jesus likens himself to a torch which 
the disciple follows) ; ovk aKoXovdei 'jp.'iv he is not of 
our band of thy disciples, Mk. ix. 38. to cleave stead- 
fastly to one, conform icliolly to his example, in living and if 
need he in dying also : Mt. x. 38 ; xvi. 24 ; Jn. xii. 26 ; 
xxi. 22. This verb is not found in the Epp. exc. in 
1 Co. X. 4. As in the classics, it is joined mostly with 
a dat. of the obj. ; sometimes with /xerd twos, Lk. ix. 49 ; 
Rev. vi. 8 [Treg. mrg. dat.] ; xiv. 1 3 ; (so also in Gik. 
writ. ; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 353 sq. ; [Rutherford, 
New Phryn. p. 458 sq.]) ; onia-co tivos, Mt. x. 38 ; Mk. 
viii. 34 (where R L WII Tr mrg. eXdeiv), Hebr. ^Sn 
■'iS? "'■)n«,cf. 1 K. xix. 21 ; see W. 234 (219) ; [B. 172 
(150), cf. aKoX. KOTOTTiv Tivos, Arstph. Plut. 13. CoMP. : 
f^, (n-, KUT-, nap-, aw- a/coXov^f o)]. 

oKovw [on the use of the pres. in a pf. sense cf. W. 
274 sq. (258); B. 203 (176)]; impf. tJkovov; fut. (in 
best Grk. usage) aKovaopai, Jn. v. 25 R f i L, 28 R G L ; 
Acts iii. 22; vii. 37 RG; xvii. 32; [xxi. 22]; x.w. 
22 ; xxviii. 28 ; [Ro. x. 14 Tdf.], and (a later form) 
aKovau), Mt. xii. 19 ; xiii. 14, (both fr. the Sept.) ; [Jn. x. 
16 ; xvi. 13 Tr WH mrg.; Acts xxviii. 26] ; Ro. x. 14 
[R G] ; and T Tr WH in Jn. v. 25, 28, (cf. W. 82 (79) ; B. 
53 (46) [Veitch s. v.]) ; [1 aor. ^Kovaa, Jn. iii. 32, etc.] ; pf. 
aKTjKoa ; Pass., [pres. aKovopai ; 1 fut. dKovaSrjaopai} ; 1 aor. 
^Kovo"^;;!/; [fr. Ilom. down]; /o //ear. I. absol. 1. to be 
endowed with the faculty of hearing (not deaf) : Mk. vii. 
37 ; Lk. vii. 22 ; Mt. xi. 5. 2. to attend to (use the facul- 
ty of hearing), consider what is or has been said. So in 
exhortations : aKoveTe, iMk. iv. 3 ; oKovaaTe, Jas. ii. 5 ; 
6 ex<^v asTa dKovtiv d/coueVa), ^It. xi. 1 5 ; xiii. 9, [in both 
T WH om. Tr Jbr. aKoieiv'] ; Mk. iv. 23 ; Lk. xiv. 35 (34) ; 
6 ex<i>v ovs uKovcniTu), llev. ii. 7, 11, 17, 29; iii. 6, 13, 22, 
etc. 3. trop. to understand, perceive the sense of 

what is said: Mt. .xiii. 15 sq.; Mk. viii. 18; 1 Co. xiv. 
2. II. with an object [B. §132, 17; W. 199 (187 su-)]; 



UKOVQ) 



23 



UKpL^r]^ 



1. d/couo) Tt, to hear something ; a. to perceive by the 
ear what is announced in one's presence, (Jo hear im- 
mediately) : Tr]v (pcovfjv, Mt. xii. 19; Jn. iii. 8 ; Rev. 
iv. 1 ; V. 1 1 ; xviii. 4 ; Acts xxii. 9, etc. ; t6v acnraa-fxiiv, 
Lk. i. 41 (cf. 44) ; TakiXalav, the name ' GaUlee,' Lk. 
xxiii. 6 [T WH om. Tr mrg. br. TaX. ; cf. B. 166 (145)] ; 
dvdaraaiv v€Kpa>v, the phrase ' dvdar. vfKpdtv,' Acts xvii. 
32 ; Tov \6yop, Mk. v. 36 [R G L] (on this pass, see irapa- 
Kova>, 2) ; Mt. xix. 22 ; Jn. v. 24, etc. ; rovs \6yovs, 
Acts ii. 22 ; v. 24 ; Mt. vii. 24 ; p^para, 2 Co. xii. 4 ; 
ti Xeyova-iv, Mt. xxi. 16 ; pass., Mt. ii. 18 ; Rev. xviii. 
22 sq. ; t\ e/c tivos, 2 Co. xii. 6 [R G] ; foU. by on [B. 
300 (257 sq.)], Acts xxii. 2 ; Mk. xvi. 11 ; Jn. iv. 42 ; 
xiv. 28. b. to get by hearing, learn (from the mouth 
of the teacher or narrator) : Acts xv. 1 7 ; Mt. x. 2 7 (6 
(is TO ovs aKovfTf, what is taught you in secret) ; Ro. xv. 
21 ; Eph. i. 13 ; Col. i. 6 ; Jn. xiv. 24 ; 1 Jn. ii. 7, 24 ; 
iii. 1 1 ; Xpiarov i. e. to become acquainted with Christ 
from apostolic teaching, Eph. iv. 21 (cf. fxade'iv rovXpiarov, 
vs. 20 [B. 166 (144) note ; W. 199 (187) note]) ; pass., 
Lk. xii. 3 ; Heb. ii. 1 ; tI with gen. of pers. fr. whom 
one hears. Acts i. 4 ; rl irapd rivos, Jn. viii. 26, 40 ; xv. 
15 ; Acts X. 22 ; xxviii. 22 ; 2 Tim. ii. 2, (Thuc. 6, 93 ; 
Xen. an. 1, 2, 5 [here Dind. om. Trapa] ; Plat. rep. vi. 
p. 506 d., al. ; [B. 166 (145); W. 199 (188)]); [rrapa 
Tivos, without an obj. expressed, Jn. i. 40 (41)] ; « 
Tivos, Jn. xii. 34 (sk tov vopov, from attendance on its 
public reading) ; dno with gen. of pers., 1 Jn. i. 5 ; with 
ire/jt Tivof added, Acts ix. 13; foil, by on, Mt. v. 21, 
27,33,38,43. c. aKovioTi, a thing comes to one's ears, to 
find out (by hearsay), learn, (hear [(o/)] mediately) : 
with ace. of thing, to, epya, Mt. xi. 2 ; oaa enoUi, Mk. 
iii. 8 [Treg. txt. Trout] ; noXipovs, Lk. xxi. 9 ; Mt. xxiv. 
6 ; Mk. xiii. 7 ; to learn, absol. viz. what has just been 
mentioned : Mt. ii. 3 ; xxii. 7 [R L] ; Mk. ii. 17; iii. 
21 ; Gal. i. 13 ; Eph. i. 15 ; Col. i. 4 ; Philem. 5, etc. 
foil, by oTi, Mt. ii. 22; iv. 12; xx. 30; Mk. vi. 55; 
X. 47; Jn. iv. 47; ix. 35; xi. 6; xii. 12; Gal. i. 23; 
Trepi TIVOS, Mk. vii. 25 ; ti irepl tivos, Lk. ix. 9 ; xvi. 2 ; 
xxiii. 8 [R G L] ; foil, by an ace. with ptcp. [B. 303 
(260)] : Lk. iv. 23 ; Acts vii. 12 ; 2 Th. iii. 11 ; 3 Jn. 
4 ; foil, by ace. with inf. in two instances [cf. B. 1. c] : 
Jn. xii. 18; 1 Co. xi. 18. pass. : Acts xi. 22 (TjKova-drj 
6 \6yos fls TO. ci)Ta Trjs eKK\T}<Tias was brought to the ears) ; 
1 Co. V. 1 (aKOVfTaiiTopvda ev vplv) ; Mt. xxviii. 14 
(eav aKOVGOr] tovto fTTi [L Tr WH mrg. vtto] tov rjyepo- 
vos) ; Mk. ii. 1 ; Jn. ix. 32 rjicovadr) oti. d. to give ear 
to teaching or teacher : tovs Xoyovs, Mt. x. 14 ; to follow 
with attentive hearing, t6v \6yov, Jn. viii. 43 ; to. prjpaTa 
TOV 6(ov, 47. e. to comprehend, understand, (like Lat. 
audio) : Mk. iv. 33 ; Gal. iv. 21 [(Lchm. mrg. avayivdi- 
anfTe) yet cf. Mey. ad loc] ; (Gen. xi. 7). 2. oKovfiv is 
not joined with the genitive of the obj. unless one hear 
the person or thing with his own ears [B. 166 (144)] ; 
a. with gen. of a person; simply ; a. to perceive any 
one's voice : ov i. e. of Christ, whose voice is heard in 
the instruction of his messengers (Lk. x. 16), Ro. x. 14, 
^W. 199 (187) note'^j. p. to give ear to one, listen, 



hearken, (Germ, ihm zuhoren, ihn anhoren ) : Mt. ii. 9 ; 
Mk. vii. 14 ; xii. 37 ; Lk. ii. 46 ; x. 16 ; xv. 1 ; xix. 48 ; 
xxi. 38 ; Acts xvii. 32 ; xxiv. 24 (in both these pass. 
TIVOS TTfpi Tivos) ; xxv. 22 ; Jn. vi. 60. 7. to yield to, hear 
and obey, hear to one, (Germ, aufeinen horen) : Mt. xvii. 
5, (Mk. ix. 7 ; Lk. ix. 35) ; Jn. iii. 29 ; x. 8 ; Acts iii. 
22 sq. ; iv. 19 ; vii. 37 [R G] ; 1 Jn. iv. 5 sq. Hence 
8. its use by John in the sense to listen to, have regard 
to, of God answering the prayers of men : Jn. ix. 31 ; xi. 
41 ; 1 Jn. V. 14 sq. (the Sept. render ^••3ty by eio-aKowo)). 
€. with gen. of pers. and ptcp. [B. 301 (259)] : Mk. xiv. 
58; Lk. xviii. 36; Jn. i. 37; vii. 32; Acts ii. 6, 11 ; 
Rev. xvi. 5 ; fJKovaa tov dvaiacrrrjpiov Xtyovros, Rev. xvi. 
7 G L T [Tr WH cod. Sin.], a poetic personification ; 
cf. De Wette ad loc, W. § 30, 11. b. with gen. of a 
thing: t^s ^Xaa-cprjplas, INIk. xiv. 64 (Lchm. ttjv /3Xa- 
a-(p7]piav, as in iSIt. xxvi. 65 ; the ace. merely denotes the 
object ; rijs ^Xaacf). is equiv. in sense to avTov ^Xaa^r)povv- 
Tos, [cf. B. 166 (145)]) ; twj/ Xoyav, Lk. vi. 47, (Mt. vii. 
24 TOVS Xoyovs) ; Jn. vii. 40 (L T Tr WH cod. Sin., but 
R G TOV Xoyov, [cf . B. u. S.]) ; <rvp(pcovLas k. xopa>v, Lk. xv. 
25 ; TOV (TTfvaypov, Acts vii. 34 ; ttjs dnoXoyias, Acts 
xxii. 1. The frequent phrase aKoveiv Tfjs (ficovTJs (i- q- > ^I^ 
Slp3, Ex. xviii. 19) means a. to perceive the distinct 
words of a voice : Jn. v. 25, 28 ; Acts ix. 7 ; xi. 7 ; xxii. 
7 ; Heb. iii. 7, 15 ; iv. 7 ; Rev. xiv. 13 ; xxi. 3. ^. to 
yield obedience to the voice : Jn. v. 25 (ol dtcovaavres so. 
r^? 00)1/7)?) ; X. 16, 27; xviii. 37; Rev. iii. 20. In Jn. 
xii. 47 ; xviii. 37 ; Lk. vi. 47 ; Acts xxii. 1, it is better 
to consider the pron. pov which precedes as a possess, 
gen. rather than, with B. 167 (145 sq.), to assume a 
double gen. of the object, one of the pers. and one of 
the thing. The Johannean phrase oKovfLv irapd Toi 
Beoii, or t\ napd 6(ov, signifies a. to perceive in the soul 
the inward communication of God : Jn. vi. 45. b. to be 
taught by God's inward communication : Jn. viii. 26, 40, 
(so, too, the simple aKovtiv in v. 30) ; to be taught by the 
devil, ace. to the reading of L T Tr AVH, TjKovaaTe 
napd TovrroTpos, in Jn. viii. 38. For the rest cf. B. 165 
(144) sqq. ; 301 (258) sqq. [Comp. : 81-, da-, en-, nap-, 

npo; VTT-a/COVCO.] 

oKpoo-ia, -ar, fj, (aKpnTTjs), tcant of self-control, inconti- 
nence, intemperance : Mt. xxiii. 25 (Grsb. aSi/c/a) ; 1 Co. 
vii. 5. Cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 524 sq. [(Aristot. on.)] * 

oKpaTTis, -€s, gen. -eos, -ovs, (KpdTos), loithout self-con- 
trol, intemperate : 2 Tim. iii. 3. (Freq. in prof. writ. fr. 
Plato and Xen. down.) * 

aKparos, -ov, (Kepdvwpi), unmixed, pure : Rev. xiv. 10 
(of wine undiluted with water, as freq. in prof. writ, 
and Jer. xxxii. 1 (xxv. 15)).* 

aKpCp«ia, -flas, rj, (dKpi^f]s), exactness, exactest care: 
Acts xxii. 3 (KaTd oKpi^tiav tov vopov in accordance 
with the strictness of the Mosaic law, [cf. Isoc. areop. 
p. 147 e.]). [From Thuc. down.] * 

oKpiPif^s, -is, gen. -ovs, exact, careful. The neut. compar. 
is used adverbially in Acts xviii. 26; xxiii. 15, 20; xxiv. 
22 ; rj aKpi^ea-rdTT] alpeais the straitest sect i. e. the most 
precise and rigorous in interpreting the ^losaio law. and 



CLKpi^O 



00} 



24 



aXdjSaaTpov 



in observing even the more minute precepts of the law 
and of tradition, Acts xxvi. 5. [From Hdt. down.]* 

aKpl^<S(>>, -co : 1 aor. fjKpi^axra ; (uKpt^ijs) ; 1. in prof, 
writ, to know accurately, to do exactly. 2. to incestl- 
gate diligently: Mt. ii. 7, 16, (uKpi^ws e^erafttv, vs. 8); 
Aristot. gen. anim. 5, 1 ; Philo, m. opif. § 25 fiera irdarjs 
f^(Ta(T€o)s aKpi^ovvTfs- [Al. to learn exactly, ascertain ; 
cf. Fritz, or Mey. on Mt. u. s.] * 

aKpiPb>s, adv., exactly, accurately, diligently : Mt. ii. 8 ; 
Lk. i. 3 ; Acts xviii. 25 ; 1 Th. v. 2 ; oKpi^us rrf piirarflv 
to live carefully, circumspectly, deviating in no respect 
from the law of duty, Eph. v. 15. [Fr. Aeschyl. down.] * 

oKpCs, -t'Sof, 17, [fr. Hom. down], a locust, particu- 
larly that species which especially infests oriental coun- 
tries, stripping fields and trees. Numberless swarms of 
them almost every spring are carried by the wind from 
Arabia into Palestine, and having devastated that coun- 
try migrate to regions fartlier north, until they perish 
by falling into the sea. The Orientals are accustomed 
to feed upon locusts, either raw or roasted and seasoned 
with salt [or prepared in other ways], and the Israelites 
also (ace. to Lev. xi. 22) were permitted to eat them; 
(cf. Win. RWB. s. v. Heuschrecken ; Furrer in Schen- 
kel iii. p. 78 sq. ; [BB.DD. s. v. ; Tristram, Nat. Hist, of 
the Bible, p. 313 sqq.]) : Mt. iii. 4; Mk. i. 6. A marvel- 
lous and infernal kind of locusts is described in Rev. ix. 
3, 7, cf. 2, 5 sq. 8-12; see Dusterdieck ad loc* 

(ucpoaTTipiov, -ov, TO, (aKpodopai to be a hearer), place 
of assemblage for hearing, auditorium ; like this Lat. 
word in Roman Law, oKpoar. in Acts xxv. 23 denotes a 
place set apart for hearing and deciding cases, [yet cf. 
Mey. ad loc.]. (Several times in Plut. and other later 
writers.) * 

ducpoar/js, -oC, 6, (aKpoaop.ai, [see the preceding word]), 
a hearer: roii vnpov, Uo. ii. 13; rov Xoyou , Jas. i. 22 sq, 
25. (Thuc, Isocr., Plat., Dem., Plut.) * 

oKpoPvo-rCa, -as, 17. (a word unknown to the Greeks, 
who used ij aKpouoadia and to aKponocrdiov, fr. TTocrdTj i. e. 
membrum virile. Accordingly it is likely that ttjv noadjjv 
of the Greeks was pronounced Trjv ^v(ttt}v by the Alex- 
andrians, and aKpo^vdTla said instead of aKponoadla — 
i. e. TO uKpov TTJs noadrjs ', cf. the acute remarks of 
Fritzsche, Com. on Rom. vol. i. 136, together with the 
opinion which Winer prefers 99 (94), [and Cremer, 3te 
Aufl. s. V.]), in the Sept. the equiv. of nS"l^' the prepuce, 
the skin covering the glans penis ; a. prop. : Acts xi. 
3 ; Ro. ii. 25, 26 " ; 1 Co. vii. 19 ; Gal. v. 6 ; vi. 15 ; Col. 
iii. 11; (Judith xi v. 10; 1 Mace. i. 15); e'p oKpo^vaTia 
u>v having the foreskin ( TertuU. praeputiatus), uncir- 
cumcised i. e. Gentile, Ro. iv. 10: eV a/cp. sc. av, 1 Co. 
vii. 18; equiv. to the same is bC oKpo^va-Tias, Ro. iv. 11 ; 
f) (V TTJ uKpo^. TTia-Tis the faith which one has while he is 
uncircumcised, Ro. iv. 1 1 sq. b. by nieton. of the abstr. 
for the concr., having the foreskin is equiv. to a Gentile : 
Ro. ii. 26 ' ; iii. 30 ; iv. 9 ; Eph. ii. 11 ; ^ e « ^vo-ewr oKpolB. 
one uncircumcised by l)irth or a Gentile, opp. to a Jew who 
shows himself aGent lie in character, Ro. ii. 27; €vayyf- 
KiovTrjs d»cpoj3. gospel to be preached to the Gentiles, Gal. 



ii. 7. c. in a transferred sense : fj cxpo^. Tf)s aapKos 
(opp. to the TTfpiTOfjiT] dx^fiporroirjTos or regeneration. Col. 
ii. 11), the condition in which the corrupt desires rooted 
in the crdp^ were not yet extinct. Col. ii. 13 (the expression 
is derived from the circumstance that the foreskin was 
the sign of impurity and alienation from God, [cf. B. D. 
s. V. Circumcision]).* 

axpo-'ywvi.aiosi -ai'a, -alov, a word wholly bibl. and eccl., 
[W. 99 (94); 236 (221)], {SiKpos extreme, and yt^via 
corner, angle), pZacec/ at the extreme corner; \idos cor- 
ner-stone; used of Christ, 1 Pet. ii. 6; Eph. ii. 20; Sept. 
Is. xxviii. 16 for n^p j5K. For as the corner-stone 
holds together two walls, so Christ joins together as 
Christians, into one body dedicated to God, those who 
were formerly Jews and Gentiles, Eph. ii. 20 [yet cf. 
Mey. ad loc] compared with vss. 14, 16-19, 21 sq. 
And as a corner-stone contributes to sustain the edifice, 
but nevertheless some fall in goins around the corner 
carelessly ; so some are built up by the aid of Christ, 
while others stumbling at Christ perish, 1 Pet. ii. 6-8 ; 
see yavia, a.* 

oKpoOiviov, -ou, TO, (fr. oKpoi extreme, and 6is, gen. 
6iv6s, a heap ; extremity, topmost part of a heap), gener- 
ally in plur. TO oKpodivia tJte first-fruits, whether of crops 
or of spoils (among the Greeks customarily selected from 
the topmost part of the heaps and offered to the gods, 
Xen. Cyr. 7, 5, 35) ; in the Bible only once : Heb. vii. 
4, of booty. (Pind., Aeschyl., Hdt., Thuc., Plut., al.) * 

aKpos, -a, -ov, (duT) point [see aKprf]), [fr. Hom. down], 
highest, extreme ; to aKpnv the topmost point, the extremity 
[cf. B. 94 (82)] : Lk. xvi. 24 ; Heb. xi. 21 [see -npoa- 
Kvvfco, a. fin.] ; uKpa, liKpov yfjs, ovpavov, the farthest 
bounds, uttermost parts, end, of the earth, of heaven : 
Mt. xxiv. 31 ; Mk. xiii. 27 ; cf. Deut. iv. 32 ; xxviii. 64 ; 
Is. xiii. 5; Jer. xii. 12.* 

*AKv\as, -ov, [but no gen. seems to be extant, see B. 20 
(18)], 6, Aquila, a Jew of Pontus, a tent-maker, convert 
to Christ, companion and ally of Paul in propagating 
the Christian religion: Acts xviii. 2, 18, 26; Ro. xvi. 
3 ; 1 Co. xvi. 19 ; 2 Tim. iv. 19 ; [see B. D.].* 

oKvpow, -w : 1 aor. fjKvpaaa ; (oKvpos without author- 
ity, not binding, void ; fr. Kiipos force, authority), to 
render void, deprive of force and authority, (opp. to Kvpoa 
to confirm, make valid) : ivTo\r)v, Mt. xv. 6 [R G ; 
vopov, ibid. T WH mrg.] ; \6yov [ibid. L Tr WH txt.] ; 
Mk. vii. 13, (cf. d6€T€(o) ; 8iadl]Kr]f, Gal. iii. 17. ([1 Esdr. 
vi. 31] ; Diod., Dion. Hal., Plut.)* 

oKwXvTws, adv., (kcoKvco), without hindrance : Acts 
xxviii. 31. [Plato, Epict., Ildian.]* 

ciKwv, oKovaa, qkov, (contr. fr. dtKcov, a priv. and (kcov 
willing), not of one's own icill, unwilling: 1 Co. ix. 17. 
(Very freq. among the Greeks.) * 

[aXa, TO, read by Tdf. in Mt. v. 13 ; Mk. ix. 50 ; Lk. 
xiv. 34 : see aXav.] 

dXctPacTTpov, -ov, to, (in the plur. in Theocr. 15, 114; 
Anth. Pal. 9, 153; in other prof. writ. 6 and fj aXd^a- 
(TTpos; [the older and more correct spelling drops the 
p, cf. Steph. Thesaur. s. v. 1385 d. ; L. and S. s. v. d\d- 



aXa^oveia 



26 



d\.eKT0po(f)O}v[a 



^ao-rpos]), a box made of alabaster, in which unguents are 
preserved, (Plin. h. n. 13, 2 (3), [al. 13, 19,] " unguenta 
optime servantur in alabastris ") ; with the addition of 
fiipov (as in Lciau. dial. mer. 14, 2; [Hdt. 3, 20]) : Lk. 
vii. 37 ; Mt. xxvi. 7 ; Mk. xiv. 3 (where L T adopt rov 
dXa/3., Tr WH [Mey.] rrjv dX. ; Mt. and Lk. do not add 
the article, so that it is not clear in what gender they 
Mse the word, [cf. Tdf.'s crit. note ad loc.]). Of. Witi. 
RWB. [or B. D.] s. v. Alabaster.* 

oXo?ov€ia, and dXaCovla (which spelling, not uncommon 
in later Gi'k., T WH adopt [see I, t]), -as, rj, (fr. dXa^o- 
vfCofMi i. e. to act the aKaCoav, q. v.) ; a. in prof. writ, 
[fr. Arstph. down] generally eiyipty, bracjgart talk, some- 
times also empty display in act, swagger. For illustration 
see Xen. Cyr. 2, 2, 12; mem. 1, 7 ; Aristot. eth. Nic. 
4, 13, p. 1127 ed. Bekk. ; [also Trench § xxix.]. b. 
an insolent and empty assurance, ivhich trusts in its own 
power and resources and shamefully despises and violates 
divine laivs and human 7-ights : 2 Mace. ix. 8 ; Sap. v. 8. 
c. an impious and empty presumption lohich trusts in the 
stability of earthly things, [R. V. vaunting'] : Jas. iv. 16 
(where the plur. has reference to the various occasions 
on which this presumption shows itself; [cf. W. § 27, 3; 
B. 77 (67)]); Toii jSt'ov, display in one's style of living, 
[R. V. v(ti)i glory], 1 Jn. ii. 16.* 

dXattov, -ovos, 6, 17, ((iXri wandering), [fr. Arstph. on], 
an empty pretender, a boaster : Ro. i. 30 ; 2 Tim. iii. 2. 
[Trench § xxix.; Tittmanni.p. 73sq.; Schmidt ch. 172,2.]* 

dXoXdtw; [fr. Find, down]; a. prop, to repeat fre- 
queyitly the cry d\a\d, as soldiers used to do on entering 
battle. b. univ. to utter a joyful shout : Fs. xlvi. 

(xlvii.) 2 ; Ixv. (Ixvi.) 2 ; and in prof. writ. c. to 
wail, lament : Mk. v. 38, (VVn Jer. iv. 8 ; xxxii. 20 (xxv. 
34)) ; cf. oXoKvC^, Lat. ululare. [Syn. see K\aiu) fin.] d. 
to ring loudly, to clang : 1 Co. xiii. 1, [cf. eV KVfi^dXois 
d\aXayixov, Ps. cl. .5].* 

drXdXT)TOS, -ov, (KaXrjTOS fr. XaXew ; [cf. W. 23]), not to 
be uttered, not to be expressed in words : a-Tevajfioi mute 
sighs, the expression of which is suppressed by grief, 
Ro. viii. 26, [al. 'which (from their nature) cannot be 
uttered'; cf. Mey. ad loc; W. 97 (92)]. (Anth. Fal. 5, 
4 avvla-Topa dXaXrjTtov i. e. of love-secrets.) * 

d-XaXos, -ov, (\d\oi talking, talkative), [fr. Aeschyl. 
on], speechless, dumb, wanting the facidty of speech : Mk. 
vii. 37; Trveiifia, Mk. ix. 17, 25, because the defects of 
demoniacs were thought to proceed from the nature and 
peculiarities of the demons by which they were pos- 
sessed. (Sept. Fs. xxxvii. (xxxviii.) 14; xxx. (xxxi.) 
19; dXdXov Ka\ kokov iTvevp.aTos nXrjprjs, Flut. de orac. 
def. 51 p. 438 b.)* 

dXas, -aroi, to, (a later form, found in Sept. and N. T. 
[Aristot. de mirab. ausc. § 138 ; Flut. qu. conv. iv. 4, 3, 3], 
cf. Btt7n. Ausf. Spr. i. p. 220 ; dat. akari Col. iv. 6), and 
aXy, aXos, 6, (the classic form [fr. Horn, down] ; Sir. 
xxii. 15 (13) ; xliii. 19; Sap. x. 7 ; 1 Mace. x. 29, etc. ; 
Mk. ix. 49 dX/ dat. [T WII Tr mrg. om. Tr txt. br.], 
and in vs. 50 L T Tr WH a\a ace. [yet without the 
art.] with nom. ro aXas), finally, nom. and ace. a\a Tdf. 



in Mk. ix. 50 [also Mt. v. 13; Lk. xiv. 34 (where see 
his note)] (similar to ydXa, gen. yoKaros, a form noted 
by certain grammarians, see \_WH. App. p. 158;] 
Kuhner i. 353 sq. ; but see what Fritzsche, Com. on Sir. 
(xxxix. 26) p. 226 sq., says in opposition) ; salt ; 1. 
Salt with which food is seasoned and sacrifices are 
sprinkled: Mk. ix. 49RG; ci. aXi^a. 2. aXas rrjs yiji, 
those kinds of saline matter used to fertilize arable 
land, Mt. v. 13'; here salt as a condiment cannot be 
understood, since this renders land sterile (Deut. xxix. 
23 ; Zeph. ii. 9 ; Judg. ix. 45) ; cf. Grohmann in Kiiuf- 
fer's Bibl. Studien, 1844, p. 82 sqq. The meaning is, 
' It is your prerogative to impart to mankind (likened 
to arable land) the influences required for a life of devo- 
tion to God.' In the statement immediately following, 
iav be cikas ktX., the comparison seems to be drawn from 
salt as a condiment, so that two figures are blended; 
[but it is better to adopt this latter meaning throughout 
the pass., and take yfj to denote the mass of mankind, 
see s. V. 4 b. and cf. Tholuck et al. ad loc.]. In Mk. 
ix. 50 " and Lk. xiv. 34 salt is a symbol of that health 
and vigor of soul which is essential to Christian virtue ; 
[cf. Mey. on the former pass.]. 3. Salt is a symbol 
of lasting concord, Mk^ ix. 50 °, because it protects food 
from putrefaction and preserves it unchanged. Ac- 
cordingly, in the solemn ratification of compacts, the 
Orientals were, and are to this day, accustomed to par- 
take of salt together. Cf. Win. RWB. s. v. Salz ; 
[BB.DD. s. V. Salt] ; Knobel on Leviticus p. 370. 4. 
Wisdom and grace exhibited in speech : Col. iv. 6 [where 
see Bp. Lghtft.].* 

"AXao-o-a : Acts xxvii. 8 ; cf. Ancraia. 

[dXeevs, d, T WH uniformly for dkuvs, see Tdf.'s note 
on Mk. i. 1 6 and N. T. ed. 7, Froleg. p. 1. ; esp. ed. 8, 
Froleg. p. 82 sq. ; WH. App. p. 151.] 

dXei()>w : impf. fpieKpov ; 1 aor. ^'Xei\//-a ; 1 aor. mid. 
impv. d'Xei\|/-at; [allied with Xltt-os grease; cf. Curtius 
§ 340 ; Vanicek p. 811 ; Feile p. 407 ; fr. Hom. down] ; 
to anoint : rivd or ri, Mk. xvi. 1 ; Jn. xii. 3 ; rivd or ri 
TLvt [W. 227 (213)], as iXala, Lk. vii. 46 "; Mk. vi. 13; 
Jas. V. 14; tivp<a, Jn. xi. 2; Lk. vii. 38, 46"; Mid.: 
Mt. vi. 1 7 (lit. ' anoint for thyself thy head,' unge tibi 
caput tuum; cf. W. 257 (242); B. 192 (166 sq.)). Cf. 
Win. RWB. s. V. Salbe ; [B.D. or McC. and S. s. v. 
Anoint, etc. Syn. : " dXei'c^eti' is the mundane and profane, 
Xpietv the sacred and religious, Avord." Trench § xxxviii. 
COMP. : e'^aXei'(/)a)].* 

dX€KTopoc|)wvia, -as, t], {dXeKTwp and cficovfj [W. 25]), 
the crowing of a cock, cock-croiving : Aesop, fab. 79 [44]. 
Used of the third watch of the night : Mk. xiii. 35 ; in 
this passage the watches are enumerated into which the 
Jews, following the Roman method, divided the night ; 
[cf. Win. RWB. s. v. Nachtwachen; B. D. s. v. Watches 
of Night ; Alex.'s Kitto s. v. Cock-crowing ; Wetst. on 
Mt. xiv. 25 ; Wieseler, Chron. Syn. p. 406 note]. (For 
writ, who use this word see Lob. ad Phryn. p. 229, [and 
add (fr. Soph. Lex. s. v.) Strab. 7, frag. 35 p. 83, 24; 
Orig. i. 825 b. ; Constt. Ap. 5, 18 ; 5, 19 ; 8, 34].) * 



dXeKTcop 



26 



a 



iXijd 



evQ) 



dXe'KTcop, -opos, 6, acock, (Lat. gallus gallinaceux) : Mt. 
xxvi. 34, 74 sq.; Mk. xiv. 30, 68 [Lchm. br.], 72; Lk. xxii. 
34, 60 sq. ; Jn. xiii. 38 ; xviii. 27. Cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 
22;i ; [Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 307 ; W. 23 ; see also 
BB.DD. s. V. ; Tristram, Nat. Hist, of the Bible, p. 221 sq. ; 
esp. Egli, Zeitschr. f. wiss. Theol., 1879 p. 517 sqq.].* 

'AXe|av8p€vs, -f'coy, 6, an Alexandrian, a native or a resi- 
dent of Alexandria (a celebrated city of Egypt) : Acts 
vi. .9: xviii. 24. [(Pint. Pomp. 49, 6; al.)] * 

'AXc^avSpivis [cf. Tdf.'s note on Acts xxvii. 6 ; G LTr 
Cobet, al. -bpivos; Chandler §397 note], -q, -ov, Alexan- 
drian : Acts xxvii. 6 ; xxviii. 11. [(Polyb. 34, 8, 7.)] * 

'AXc'lovSpos [i. e. defender of men], -ov, 6, Alexander; 
•1. a son of that Simon of Cyrene who carried the cross 
of Jesus: Mk. xv. 21. 2. a certain man of the kin- 
dred of the high priest: Acts iv. 6. 3. a certain 
Jew : Acts xix. 33. 4. a certain coppersmith, an op 
ponent of the apostle Paul : 1 Tim. i. 20 ; 2 Tim. iv. 
14; [al. doubt whether both these passages relate to the 
same man ; cf. e. g. Ellic. on the former].* 

oXtvpov, -ov, TO, (dXeuw to grind), wheaten flour, meal: 
Mt. xiii. 33 ; Lk. xiii. 21. Hesych. aXevpa Kvptos to. tov 
(TiTov, aX<pi.Ta 8e rav Kpi6a>v. (Hdt., Xen., Plat., Jo- 
seph., al.) * 

clXrieeia, -as, 17, (aXrjeljs), [fr. Hom. down], verity, truth. 
I. objectively; 1. univ. what is true in any matter 
under consideration (opp. to what is feigned, fictitious, 
false) : Jas. iii. 14; aXij^etai/ Xtyeti^, ipeiv, Jn. viii. 45 sq.; 
xvi. 7 ; Ro. ix. 1 ; 1 Co. xii. 6 ; 1 Tim. ii. 7 ; tiirfv avra 
naaav ttjv dXrjdfiav, everything as it really was, Mk. v. 
33, (so in classics) ; paprvpeiv rfi dXrjdfla to testify ac- 
cording to the true state of the case, Jn. v. 33 ; in a 
broader sense, XaXe'iv dX^Sfiav to speak always according 
to truth, Eph. iv. 25 ; [aXrj^et'as pfjpara aTrocpdeyyopai, as 
opp. to the vagaries of madness. Acts xxvi. 25J; dXr]6fi.a 
tyevfTo, was shown to be true by the event, 2 Co. vii. 14. 
fv dXrjdeiq in truth, truly, as the case is, according to 
fact: Mt. xxii. 16; Jn. iv. 23 sq. (as accords with the 
divine nature) ; 2 Co. vii. 14 ; Col. i. 6 ; in dXTjBeias 
a. truly, in truth, according to truth: Mk. xii. 32; Lk. 
iv. 25, (Job ix. 2 Sept. ; Philo, vit. Moys. i. § 1). h. of 
a truth, in reality, in fact, certainly: Mk. xii. 14; Lk. 
XX. 21; [xxii. 59]; Acts iv. 27; x. 34, (Clem. Rom. 
1 Cor. 23, 6 and 47, 3) ; [cf. W. § 51, 2 f. ; B. 336 (289)] ; 
KOT dXrjdfiav in accordance with fact, i. e. (ace. to the 
context) justly, without partiality: Ro. ii. 2; elVf Trpo- 
(pdcrei, t'ire dXriOtla, Phil. i. 18; eV epyo) k- dXrjdda, 
1 Jn. iii. 18 [Rec. om. ev, so Eph. iv. 21 WII mrg.]. 
2. In reference to religion, the word denotes what is 
true in things appertaining to God and the duties of man, 
(' moral and religious truth ') ; and that a. with the 
greatest latitude, in the sceptical question tI fcrriv dXrj- 
dtia, Jn. xviii. 38 ; b. the true notions of God which 
are open to human reason without his supernatural in- 
tervention : Ro. i. 18; also )7 dXrjdtia 6tov the truth of 
which God is the author, Ro. i. 25, cf. 19, (^ dXriBiia tov 
XptoTov, Evang. Nicod. c. 5, 2 ; accordingly it is not, as 
many interpret the phrase, the true nature of God [yet 



see Mey. ad loc.]) ; truth, the embodiment of which the 
Jews sought in the Mosaic law, Ro. ii. 20. c. the truth, 
as taught in the Christian religion, respecting God and 
the execution of his purposes through Christ, and respect- 
ing the duties of man, opposed alike to the superstitions 
of the Gentiles and the inventions of the Jews, and 
to the corrupt opinions and precepts of false teachers 
even among Christians : ij dXrideia tov tvayy. the truth 
which is the gospel or which the gospel presents, Gal. ii. 
5, 14, [cf. W. § 34, 3 a.]; and absol. f) dXrjdfia and 
dX^deia: Jn. i. 14, 17; viii. 32, 40; [xvi. 13] ; xvii. 19; 

1 Jn. i. 8; ii. 4, 21 ; 2 Jn. 1-3; Gal. iii. 1 (Rec.) ; v. 7; 

2 Co. iv. 2; xiii. 8; Eph. iv. 24; 2 Th. ii. 10, 12; 1 
Tim. ii. 7 (ev nlaTft k. aXrjdfia in faith and truth, of 
which I became a partaker through faith) ; iii. 15 ; iv. 

3 ; vi. 5 ; 2 Tim. ii. 18 ; iii. 8 ; iv. 4 ; Tit. i. 14 ; 2 Pet. 
i. 12 ; [3 Jn. 8, 12] ; 6 Xoyos ttjs dXrjdfias, Col. i. 5 ; Eph. 
i. 13; 2 Tim. ii. 15; Xoyos dXrjOdas, 2 Co. vi. 7; Jas. i. 
18 ; 666? TTJf dX. 2 Pet. ii. 2 ; Tricms dXrjdelas, 2 Th. ii. 
13 [W. 186 (175)] ; vnaKoi] t^js dX. 1 Pet. i. 22 ; firiyvco- 
ais TTJs dX. Heb. x. 26 ; 1 Tim. ii. 4 ; 2 Tim. ii. 25 ; iii. 
7 ; [Tit. i. 1] ; TTvevfiii ttjs aX. the Spirit (of God) which 
is truth (1 Jn. v. 6) and imbues men with the knowledge 
of the truth, Jn. xiv. 1 7 ; [xvi. 13] ; xv. 26 ; 1 Jn. iv. 6 ; 
e'yo) dpi Tj dXTjdeia I am he in whom the truth is summed 
up and impersonated, Jn. xiv. 6 ; ij dXrj^eid crou [Rec] 
(i. e. deoii) the truth which is in thee and proceeds from 
thee, Jn. xvii. 1 7 ; [(cttiv dXrjdfia XptaTov ev ipoi i. e. 
controls, actuates, me, 2 Co. xi. 10] ; elvai in t^? dXrjBeias 
to be eager to know the truth, Jn. xviii. 37 (see e/c,IL 7, 
and flpi,Y. 3 d.) ; to proceed from the truth, 1 Jn. ii. 21 ; 
to be prompted and controlled by the truth, 1 Jn.iii. 19; 
papTvpelv TTJ dXj]6. to give testimony in favor of the 
truth in order to establish its authority among men, Jn. 
xviii. 37 ; aXfjOfiav no( f'lv to exemplify truth in the life, 
to express the form of truth in one's habits of thought 
and modes of living, Jn. iii. 21 ; 1 Jn. i. 6, (Tob. xiii. 6 ; 
iv. 6 ; cf. Neh. ix. 33 ; 686v dXrjOfUis alpfTl^faSai, Ps. 
cxviii. (cxix.) 30) ; so also TrepmaTflv iv tjj dX. 2 Jn. 4 ; 
3 Jn. 3 sq. ; dnfiBfiv ttj dX. is just the opposite, Ro. ii. 8 ; 
so also irXavrjdfjvai dirb Trji dX. Jas. v. 19. II. sub- 
jectively; truth as a personal excellence; that candor 
of mind which is free from affectation, pretence, simula- 
tion, falsehood, deceit : Jn. viii. 44 ; sincerity of mind 
and integrity of character, or a mode of life in harmony 
with divine truth : 1 Co. v. 8 ; xiii. 6 (opp. to dhiKia) ; 
Eph. iv. 21 [see L 1 b. above] ; v. 9 ; [vi. 14] ; aov f/ 
dXT)dfia the truth as it is discerned in thee, thy habit of 
thinking and acting in congruity with truth, 3 Jn. 3 ; 
17 dXr]6€ia TOV 6fov which belongs to God, i. e. his holi- 
ness [but cf. Tvepiaaevo}, 1 b. fin.], Ro. iii. 7; spec, ve- 
racity (of God in keeping his promises), Ro. xv. 8 ; iv 
dXrjdtia sincerely and truthfully, 2 Jn. 1 ; 3 Jn. 1. The 
word is not found in Rev. ([nor in 1 Thess., Philem., 
Jude]). Cf. Holemann, " Bibelstudien ", (Lpz. 1859) Ite 
Abth. p. 8 sqq. ; [ Wendt in Stud. u. Krit., 1883,p. 51 1 sqq ]• 

oXT^Oevw ; in prof. writ. ([ Aeschyl.], Xen., Plat., Aristot., 
al.) to speak the truth ; a. to teach the truth : rivi 



aXi}drj<i 



27 



aWd 



Gal. iv. 16. b. to profess the truth (true doctrine) : 
Eph. iv. 15. [R. V. mrg. in both pass, to deal truly.'] * 

aXT)6T|s, -«f, (a priv. and ^T]6a>, \a6f1v [\av6dvcii], to 
\fj0os, — cf. aixadrji ; lit. not hidden, unconcealed), [fr. 
Horn, down]; 1. true: Jn. iv. 18; x. 41; xix. 35; 
,1 Jn. ii. 8, 27; Acts xii. 9 (an actual occurrence, opp. 
to opafia); Phil. iv. 8; ^aprvpia, Jn. v. 31 sq. ; viii. 
13 sq. 17; xxi. 24; 3 Jn. 12; Tit. i. 13; Kpiais, just, 
Jn. viii. 16 (L T Tr WH aXijOiv^) ; napoipia, 2 Pet. ii. 
22; x«P**' grace which can be trusted, 1 Pet. v. 12. 
2. loving the truth, speaking the truth, truthful : Mt. xxii. 
16; Mk. xii. 14; Jn. vii. 18; 2 Co. vi. 8 (opp. to 
TrXai/of); of God, Jn. iii. 33; viii. 26 ; Ro. iii. 4 (opp. to 
ylrfiKTTTjs). 3. i. q. aXrjdivos, 1 : Jn. vi. 55 (L T Tr 
WH ; for Rec. aXrfdcos), as in Sap. xii. 27, where dXrjdfjs 
deos is contrasted with ovs e^oKow deovs- Cf. Riickert, 
Abendmahl, p. 266 sq. [On the distinction betw. this 
word and the next, see Trench § viii. ; Schmidt ch. 1 78, 6.J* 

aXTj0iv<5s, -f], -6u, (freq. in prof. writ. fr. Plato down ; 
[twenty-three times in Jn.'s writ. ; only five (ace. to 
Lchm. six) times in the rest of the N. T.]) ; 1. " that 
which has not only the name and semblance, but the real 
nature corresponding to the name" (Tittmann p. 155; 
[" particularly appUed to express that which is all that it 
pretends to be, for instance, pure gold as opp. to adul- 
terated metal " Donaldson, New Crat. § 258 ; see, at 
length. Trench § viii.]), in every respect corresponding to 
the idea signified by the name, real and true, genuine; 
a. opp. to what is fictitious, counterfeit, imaginary, 
simulated, pretended : Oeos (nnX 'H ^X, 2 Chr. xv. 3), 
1 Th. i. 9 ; Heb. ix. 14 Lchm. ; Jn. xvii. 3 ; 1 Jn. v. 20. 
(a\r)6ii>o\ (piXoi, Dem. Phil. 3, p. 113, 27.) b. it con- 
trasts realities with their semblances : aKijurj, Heb. viii. 
2; the sanctuary, Heb. ix. 24. (6 Iniros contrasted 
with 6 fv TT) (Ikovi, Ael. v. h. 2, 3.) c. opp. to what is 
imperfect, defective, frail, uncertain: Jn. iv. 23, 37; vii. 
28 ; used without adjunct of Jesus as the true Messiah, 
Rev. iii. 7 ; <^w?, Jn. i. 9; 1 Jn. ii. 8; Kpicris, Jn. viii. 16 
(L T Tr WH ; Is. lix. 4) ; Kplaeis, Rev. xvi. 7 ; xix. 2 ; 
apros, as nourishing the soul unto life everlasting, Jn. 
vi. 32; apneXot, Jn. xv. 1 ; paprvpia, Jn. xix. 35; pdprvs, 
Rev. iii. 14; Sea-irorns, Rev. vi. 10; 68o!, Rev. xv. 3; 
coupled with mo-rds', Rev. iii. 14; xix. 11 ; substantively, 
TO aXr]6i.v6v the genuine, real good, opp. to external 
riches, Lk. xvi. 11, (J^ois pev yap oKijOlvos ttXovtos iv 
ovpava, Philo de praem. et poen. § 17, p. 425 ed. 
Mang. ; cf. Wetst. on Lk. 1. c] ; affKr^rai, Polyb. 1, 6, 6). 
2. i. q. a\T]6j]i, true, i^eracinus, sincere, (often so in Sept.) : 
Kap8ia, Heb. x. 22 (pfr dXrjdfins 'u Kap8la aXrjdiv^, Is. 
xxxviii. 3); Xdyoi. Rev. [xix. 9]; xxi. 5; xxii. 6, (Plut. 
apoph. p. 184 e.). [Cf. Cremer 4te Aufl. s. v. aXrjdsia.] * 

dX'^Ow ; (a com. Grk. form for the Attic oKeco, cf. Lob. 
ad Phryn. p. 151); to grind: Mt. xxiv. 41 ; Lk. xvii. 
35. It was the custom to send women and female slaves 
to the mill-houses [?] to turn the hand-mills (Ex. xi. 5), 
who were called by the Greeks ywaiKes oKerpides (Hom. 
Od. 20, 105) ; [cf. B. D. s. v. Mill].* 

dXT|6(os, adv., [fr. Aeschyl. down], truly, of a truth, in 



reality; most certainly : Jn. i. 47 (48) ; iv. 42 ; vi. 14, oi 
Rec; vii. 26, 40; viii. 31; xvii. 8; Mt. xiv. 33; xxvi. 
73 ; [Mk. xiv. 70 ; Mt.] xxvii. 54 ; [Mk. xv. 39] ; Lk. 
ix. 27; xii. 44; xxi. 3; Acts xii. 11 ; 1 Th. ii. 13; 1 Jn. 
ii. 5.* 

oXievS} -«a)j, 6, (aXf, aXos, the sea), [fr. Hom. down] ; 
a fisherman, fisher: Mt. iv. 18 sq. ; Mk. i. 16 sq. ; Lk. 
V. 2, — in all which pass. T and WH have aXftls f r. the 
form dXeevy, q. v.* 

dXuvw; (nXtevr) ; to fish: Jn. xxi. 3. [Philo, Plut.]* 

aXLX,o> : (aXs, a\6s, salt) ; to salt, season with salt, sprin- 
kle icith sail ; only the fut. pass, is found in the N. T. : 
iv TivL a\ia6rj(TfTai ; by what means can its saltness be 
restored? Mt. v. 13 ; 6va-ia dXt aXtadqa-fTai, the sacrifice 
is sprinkled with salt and thus rendered acceptable to 
God, Mk. ix. 49 [R G L Tr txt. br.], (Lev. ii. 13 ; Ezek. 
xliii. 24 ; Joseph, antt. 3, 9, 1 ; cf. Knobel on Lev. 
p. 369 sq. ; Win. RWB. s. v. Salz; [BB.DD. s. v. Salt]) ; 
TTas TTvpl aXiadijafTai, every true Christian is rendered 
ripe for a holy and happy association with God in his 
kingdom by lire, i. e. by the pain of afflictions and 
trials, which if endured with constancy tend to purge 
and strengthen the soul, Mk. ix. 49. But this ex- 
tremely difficult passage is explained differently by 
others ; [cf. Meyer, who also briefly reviews the history 
of its exposition]. (Used by the Sept., Aristot., [cf. 
Soph. Lex.]; Ignat. ad Magnes. 10 [shorter form] dXt- 
adrjTf iv XpicTTO), Iva pr] 8ia(f)dapfj tis iv vplv.) [CoMP. : 
avv-aXlCo), — but see the word.] * 

dXio-yTi[j.o, -Tos, TO, (dXto-yeo) to pollute, which occurs 
Sir. xl. 29 ; Dan. i. 8; Mai. i. 7, 12 ; akin to dXiVo aXivia 
to besmear [Lat. linere, cf. Lob. Pathol. Element, p- 21 ; 
Rhemat. p. 123; Steph., Hesych., Sturz, De Dial. Alex, 
p. 145]), pollution, contamination: Acts xv. 20 (tov 
dTre'xeo'^at (^tX- to beware of pollution from the use 
of meats left from the heathen sacrifices, cf. vs. 29). 
Neither dXtcryeo) nor oKlayripa occurs in Grk. writ.* 

dXXd, an adversative particle, derived from aXXa, 
neut. of the adj. d'XXoy, which was originally pronounced 
aXXos (cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. p. 1 sq.), hence properly, 
other things sc than those just mentioned. It differs 
from Se, as the Lat. at and sed from autem, [cf. W. 441 
sq. (41 1)]. I. But. So related to the preceding words 
that it serves to introduce 1. an opposition to con- 
cessions ; nevertheless, notwithstanding : Mt. xxiv. 6 ; 
Mk. xiii. 20 ; xiv. 28 ; Jn. xvi. 7, 20 ; Acts iv. 17; vii. 
48; Ro. V. 14 sq. ; x. 16; 1 Co. iv. 4 ; 2 Co. vii. 6; 
Phil. ii. 27 (dXX' 6 6e6s etc.), etc 2. an objection : 
Jn. vii. 27; Ro. x. 18 sq. ; 1 Co. xv. 35; Jas. ii. 18. 
3. an exception : Lk. xxii. 53 ; Ro. iv. 2 ; 1 Co. viii. 7 ; 
X. 23. 4. a restriction: Jn. xi. 42; Gal. iv. 8; Mk. 
xiv, 36. 5. an ascensive transition or gradation, 
nay rather, yea moreover : Jn. xvi. 2 ; 2 Co. i. 9 ; esp. 
with Kai added, Lk. xii. 7; xvi. 21 ; xxiv. 22. dXX' ov8e, 
but . . . not even (Germ, /a nicht einmal) : Lk. xxiii. 1-^; 
Acts xix. 2 ; 1 Co. iii. 2 [Rec. ovVe] ; cf. Fritzsche o> 
Mk. p. 157. 6. or forms a transition to the cardinal 
matter, especially before imperatives: Mt. ix. 18; ML 



aWd 



28 



aXXofiai 



ix. 22; xvi. 7; Lk. vii. 7; Jn. viii. 26; xvi. 4; Acts ix. 
6 [not Rec.]; x. 20; xxvi. 16. 7. it is put ellipti- 
cally : aXX' Iva, i. e. aWa tovto ytyovev. iva, Mk. xiv. 49 ; 
Jn. xiii. 18; xv. 25; 1 Jn. ii. 19. 8. after a condi- 

tional or concessive protasis it signifies, at tlie begin- 
ning of the apodosis, i/et [cf. W. 442 (411)] : after koI 
(I, 2 Co. xiii. 4 [R G] ; Mk. xiv. 29 R G L, (2 Mace, 
viii. 15); after d Kal, Mk. xiv. 29 [T Tr AVII] ; 2 Co. 
iv. 16; V. 16; xi. 6; Col. ii. 5, (2 Mace. vi. 26); after 
«, 1 Co. ix. 2; Ro. vi. 5, (1 Mace. ii. 20); after eav, 
1 Co. iv. 15; after einep, 1 Co. viii. 6 [L Tr mrg. WH br. 
aXX']; cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. p. 93 sq. ; Kiihner ii. 
p. 827, § 535 Anm. 6. 9. after a preceding fiev. Mk. 
ix. 13 [T om. Tr br. fieu]; Acts iv. 16; Ro. xiv. 20; 
1 Co. xiv. 1 7. 10. it is joined to other particles ; 
aWd ye [Grsb. dXXaye] (twice in the N. T.) : yet at least, 
1 Co. ix. 2; yet surely {aberjreilich), Lk. xxiv. 21 [L T 
Tr WH add koi yea and etc.], cf. Bornemann ad loc. 
In the more elegant Greek writers these particles are 
not combined without the interposition of the most 
emphatic word between them; cf. Bornemann 1. c. ; 
Klotz ad Devar. ii. pp. 15 sq. 24 sq. ; Ast, Lex. Plat. i. p. 
101 ; [W. 444 (413)]. aXX' rj (arising from the blending 
of the two statements ovbtv aXXo rj and ovbh ak\o, aWd) 
save only, except : 1 Co. iii. 5 (where aXX' 7 omitted 
by G L T Tr WH is spurious); Lk. xii. 51, (Sii-. 
xxxvii. 12; xliv. 10); and after aWa itself, 2 Co. i. 13 
[here Lclini. br. dXX' before ^] ; cf. Klotz u. s. ii. 31 sqq. ; 
Kuhner ii. p. 824 sq. § 535, 6 ; W. 442 (412) ; [B. 374 
(320)]. dXX' ov but not, yet not : Heb. iii. 16 (if punctu- 
ated TTapeniKpavav : dXX' ov) for 'but why do I ask? did 
not all,' etc.; cf. Bleek ad loc. [W. 442 (411)]. dXX' 
ovxi iL-ill he not rather ? Lk. xvii. 8. II. preceded by 
a negation : but (Lat. sed, Germ, sondern) ; 1. ovk. 
(fjL^) . . . dWd: Mt. xix. 11; Mk. v. 39'; Jn. vii. 16; 
1 Co. i. 17: vii. 10, 19 [ouSe'i/] ; 2 Co. vii. 9; 1 Tim. v. 
23 IprjKeri], etc. By a rhetorical construction ovk 
. ■ . dWd sometimes is logically equiv. to not so much 
. . . as : Alk. ix. 37 (ovk ifie 8e;(6Tat, dWa tov dnocTTei- 
Xavrd fxe) ; Mt. x. 20 ; Jn. xii. 44 ; Acts v. 4 ; 1 Co. xv. 
10: 1 Th. iv. 8 ; by this form of speech the emphasis is 
laid on the second member; cf. Fritzsche on ]\Ik. p. 
773 s(iq. ; W. § 55, 8 b. ; [B. 356 (306)]. ov povov . . . 
dWa Kai not only . . . but also: Jn. v. 18; xi. 52 [dXX' 
Iva Kai, etc.] ; Ro. i. 32, and very often. When Kal is 
omitted (as in the Lat. non solum . . . sed), the grada- 
tion is strengthened : Acts xix. 26 [Lchm. adds Kai] ; 
1 Jn. v. 6 : dWa ttoXXw fiaWov, Phil. ii. 12; cf . Fritzsche 

1. c. p. 786 sq-i.; W. 498 (464); [B. 369 sq. (317)]. 

2. The negation to which dWd jiertains is suppressed, 
but can easily be supplied upon reflection [W. 442 
(412)]: Mt. xi. 7-9; Lk. vii. 24-26, (in each passage, 
before dWd supply ' you will say you did not go out into 
the wilderness for this purpose') ; Acts xix. 2 (we have 
not received the Holy Spirit, but . . .) ; Gal. ii. 3 (they 
said not one word in opposition to me, but . . .) ; 2 Co. 
vii. 11 (where before dWd. repeated six times bv ana- 
phora, supply ov jxovov with the accus. of the preceding 



word). It is used in answers to questions havino' the 
force of a negation [W. 442 (412)] : Jn. vii. 49; Acts 
XV. 11 ; 1 Co. X. 20. dWa Iva [or aXX' Iva, cf. W. 40; 
B. 10] elliptical after a negation [W. 316 sq. (297); 
620 (576) ; Fritzsche on Mt. p. 840 sq.] : Jn. i. 8 (sup- 
ply aXka rjkdev, iva) ; ix. 3 (dXXa tu0X6s iyevtro [or eytv- 
vTjdj]], Iva) ; Mk. iv. 22 (dXXa toiovtg eyevfro, Iva). ['' The 
best Mss. seem to elide the final a before nouns, but 
not before verbs" Scrivener, Plain Introduction, etc., 
p. 14 ; but see Dr. Gregory's full exhibition of the facts 
in Tdf. Proleg. p. 93 sq., from which it appears that 
"elision is commonly or almost always omitted before a, 
almost always before v, often before e and rj, rarely 
before o and w, never before t ; and it should be noticed 
that this coincides with the fact that the familiar words 
€v, Iva, oTi, ov, as, jirefer the form dXX' " ; see also WH. 
App. p. 146. Cf. W. § 5, 1 a. ; B. p. 10.] 

dXXd<ro-w : fut. dXXd^co ; 1 aor. TJXXa^a ; 2 fut. pass. 
aXXayrjaofjiai ; (aXXos) ; [fr. Aeschyl. down] ; to change : 
to cause one thing to cea.'^e and another to take its 
place, TO. €01], Acts vi. 14 ; ttjv (f)covr]v to vary the voice, 
i. e. to speak in a different manner accorduig to the 
different conditions of minds, to adapt the matter and 
form of discourse to mental moods, to treat them now 
severely, now gently, Gal. iv. 20 [but see Meyer ad 
loc.]. to exchange one thing for another: tI ev tivi, 
Ro. i. 23 (3 -I'pn Ps. cv. (cvi.) 20 ; the Greeks say d\- 
\d(raeiv ri tivos [cf. W. 206 (194), 388 (363) ; Vaughan 
on Rom. I.e.]). to transform: 1 Co. xv. 51 sq. ; Heb. i. 
12. [CoMP. : BTT-, 81-, Kor-, dno-Kar-. per-, a-w-aXKdcraco.] * 

aXXa.\6Qiv, adv., from another place: Jn. x. 1 (i. q. 
aXXodev [which the grammarians prefer, Thorn. Mag. 
ed. Ritschl p. 10, 13; Moeris ed. Piers, p. 11]; cf . 
(Kaa-Taxodev, 7ravTa)(66ev) . [(Antiph., al.)]* 

dXXaxov, adv., i. (|. tiWodi, elsewhere, in another place: 
Mk. i. 38 (T Tr txt. WII Tr mrg. br.). Cf. Borne- 
mann in the Stud. u. Krit. for 1843, p. 127 sq. [Soph., 
Xen., al. ; see Thom. M. and Moer. as in the preced. 
word.] * 

dXXii-yopew, -a : [jires. pass. ptcp. aWriyopovfifvos] ; i. e. 
(iXXo pev dyopevco, aWo 8e voeco, " aliud \erbis, aliud 
sensu ostendo " (Quint, instt. 8, 6, 44), to sjieak alle- 
gorically or in a Jigure : Gal. iv. 24. (Philo, Joseph., 
Pint., and srram. writ. ; [cf. Mey. on Gal. 1. c.].) * 

dXXTiXotiia, [WH. *AXX. and -d: see Intr. § 408]. Hebr. 
T^■'-^bbr\, praise ye the Lord, Hallelujah : Rev. xix. 1, 3 sq. 
Q. [Sept. Pss. passim ; Tob. xiii. 18 ; 3 Mace. vii. 13.] * 

dXXT|Xwv, gen. plur. [no nom. being possible]; dat. 
-otj, -ais, -oty; ace. -on?, -ar, -a, one another ; reciprocally, 
mutually: IMt. xxiv. 10; Jn. xiii. 35; Acts xxviii. 25; 
Ro. i. 12; Jas. v. 16; Rev. vi. 4, and often. [Fr. Ilom. 
down.] 

dXXo7€VT|s, -es, (aXXos and yevos), sprung from another 
race, a foreigner, alien : Lk. xvii. 18. (In Sept. [Gen. 
xvii. 27 ; Ex. xii. 43, etc.], but nowliere in prof, writ.)* 

dXXopiai ; impf . rjKkop-qv ; aor. rjkdpr^v and rjKoprjv (Bttm. 
Ausf. Spr. ii. p. 108; [W. 82 (79); B. 54 (47)]); to 
leap (Lat. salio) : Acts iii. 8; xiv. 10 (Rec. ijXXero ; 



dWo'i 



29 



aXa)Trr}^ 



G L T Tr WH 77X0x0) ; to spring up, gush up, of water, 
Jn. iv. 14, (as in Lat. satire, Verg. eel. 5, 47; Suet. 
Octav. 82). [COMP. : e'|-, ((f)-aXXonai.] * 

aXKos, ->], -o, [cf. Lat. alius. Germ, alles, Eng. else ; fr. 
Horn, down], another, other ; a. absol. : Mt. xxvii. 
42; XX. 3; Mk. vi. 15; Aets xix. 32; xxi. 34 (aXXoi. 
ft,ev akXo), and often. b. as an adj. : Mt. ii. 12; iv. 
21 ; Jn. xiv. 16 ; 1 Co. x. 29 (uXXt) crweidrjais i. e. fj aw. 
aXXov rti/of). c. with the art. : 6 ciXXos the other (of 

two), Mt. V. 39; xii. 13, etc. [cf. B. 32 (28), 122 (107)]; 
Dt (iXXoi all others, the remainder, the rest : Jn. xxi. 8 ; 

1 Co. xiv. 29. 

[Syn. &\\os, erepos: &\. as compared with eV. denotes 
numerical iu distinction from qualitative difference ; &\. adds 
('one besides '), eV. distinguishes (' one of two ') ; every eV. 
is an &\., but not every &\. is a eV. ; "r.A. generally ' denotes 
simply distinction of individuals, erepos involves the sec- 
ondary idea of difference of k i n d ' ; e. g. 2 Co. xi. 4 ; Gal. i. 
6, 7. See Bp. Lghtft. and Mey. on the latter pass. ; Trench 
§ xcv. ; Schmidt ch. 198.] 

dWoTpio-e-irio-KOiros (L T Tr WII dXXorpi err.), -ov, 6, 
(dXXoTpios and eiria-Kouos), one luho takes the supervision 
of affairs pertaining to others and in no toise to himself, [o 
meddler in other men's matters'\ : 1 Pet. iv. 15 (the writer 
seems to refer to those who, with holy but intemperate 
zeal, meddle with the affairs of the Gentiles — whether 
public or private, civil or sacred — in order to make them 
conform to the Christian standard). [Hilgenfeld (cf. 
Einl. ins N. T. p. 630) would make it equiv. to the Lat. 
delator.'] The word is found again only in Dion. Areop. 
ep. 8 p. 783 (of one who intrudes into another's office), 
and [Germ, of Const, ep. 2 ad Cypr. c. 9, in] Coteler. 
Eccl. Graec. Mon. ii. 481 b. ; [cf. W. 25, 99 (94)].* 

dWoTpiosj -a, -ov; 1. belonging to another (^opp. to 
iSios), not one's own: Ileb. ix. 25; Ro. xiv. 4; xv. 20; 

2 Co. x. 15 sq. ; 1 Tim. v. 22 ; Jn. x. 5. in neut., Lk. 
xvi. 12 (opp. to TO vfierepov). 2. foreign, strange: 
yfj. Acts vii. 6 ; Heb. xi. 9 ; ?iot of one's oion family, 
alien, Mt. xvii. 25 sq. ; an enemy, Heb. xi. 34, (Hom. II. 
5, 214; Xen. an. 3, 5, 5).* 

d\\6(}>v\os, -ov, {aXXos, and (pvXov race), foreign, (in 
prof. auth. fr. [Aeschyl.,] Thuc. down) ; when used in 
Hellenistic Grk. in opp. to a Jew, it signifies a Gen- 
tile, [A. V. one of another nation] : Acts x. 28. (Philo, 
Joseph.)* 

dXXws, adv., {aXXos), [fr. Horn, down], otherwise : 
1 Tim. v. 25 (ra (iXXcos e'xovra, which are of a different 
sort i. e. which are not koXo. epya, [al. which are not 
TTpodrjXa]).* 

dXoda>, -a ; (connected with fj SXas or 17 dXarj, the 
floor on which grain is trodden or threshed out) ; to 
thresh, (Ammon. to ern ttj aXa> narelv Koi Tpl^eiv ras 
a-raxvas) : 1 Co. ix. [9], 10; 1 Tim. v. 18 (Dent. xxv. 
4). In prof. auth. fr. Arstph., Plato down.* 

d-Xo-yos, -ov, (Xoyos reason) ; 1. destitute of reason, 
brute: ^a>a, brute animals, Jude 10; 2 Pet. ii. 12, (Sap. 
xi. 16; Xen. Hier. 7, 3, al.). 2. contrary to reason, 
absurd: Acts xxv. 27, (Xen. Ages. 11,1; Thuc. 6, 85; 
often in Plat., Isocr., al.).* 



dXoT) [on the accent see Chandler § 149], -tjs, if, (com- 
monly ^uXaXo;;, dyaXXoxov), Plut., the aloe, aloes: Jn. 
xix. 39. The name of an aromatic tree which grows in 
eastern India and Cochin China, and whose soft and 
bitter wood the Orientals used in fumigation and in 
embalming the dead (as, ace. to Hdt., the Egyptians 
did), Ilebr. D'bnx and n'iSnx [see Muhlau and Volck 
s. vv.]. Num. xxiv. 6 ; Ps. xiv. 9 ; Prev. vii. 17 ; Cant, 
iv. 14. Ardh. All uwe ; Linn.: Excoecaria Agallochum. 
Cf. Win. RWB. s. v. Aloe [Low § 235 ; BB.DD].* 

dXs, dXos, 6, see aXaS' 

dXvKos, -Tj, -6v, salt (i. q. aXpvpos) : Jas. iii. 12. 
([Hippocr., Ai-stph.J Plat. Tim. p. 65 e. ; Aristot., 
Theophr., al.) * 

dXvirosi -ov, (Xvirrj), free from pain or grief: Phil. ii. 28. 
(Very often in Grk. writ. fr. Soph, and Plat, down.)* 

dXvo-is, or as it is com. written aXvais [see WII. App. 
p. 144], -60)?, f), (fr. a priv. and Xvat, because a chain is 
aXvTos i. e. not to be loosed [al. fr. r. val, and allied w. 
flXeco to restrain, aXi^a to collect, crowd; Curtius § 660; 
Vanicek p. 898]), a chain, bond, by which the body, or 
any part of it (the hands, feet), is bound : Mk. v. 3 ; Acts 
xxi. 33 ; xxviii. 20 ; Rev. xx. 1 ; ev dXva-fi in chains, a 
prisoner, Eph. vi. 20 ; ovk (Traiaxvv6r] Tf]v dX. pnv he was 
not ashamed of my bonds i. e. did not desert me be- 
cause I was a prisoner, 2 Tim. i. 16. spec, used of a 
manacle or hand-cuff, the chain by wliich the hands are 
bound together [yet cf. Mey. on Mk. u. i. ; per contra 
esp. Bp. Lghtft. on Phil. p. 8] : Mk. v. 4; [Lk. viii. 29]; 
Acts xii. 6 sq. (From Hdt. down.)* 

d-Xvo-iT€XT|s, -ey, Q<va-iTeXr]s, see Xvo-treXeo)), unprofit- 
able, (Xen. vectig. 4, 6); by litotes, hurtful, pernicious : 
Heb. kiii. 17. (From [Hippocr.,] Xen. down.)* 

dX<{>a, TO, indecl. : Rev. i. 8; xxi. 6 ; xxii. 13. See A. 

*AX<j)aios [WH 'A\(f>., see their Intr. § 408], -aiov, 6, 
('2hr\, cf. 'in 'Ayyalos, Hag. i. 1), Alphceus or Alpheus; 
1. the father of Levi the publican: Mk. ii. 14, see Aevi, 
4. 2. the father of James the less, so called, one of 
the twelve apostles: Mt. x. 3; Mk. iii. 18; Lk. vi. 15; 
Acts i. 13. He seems to be the same person who in Jn. 
xix. 25 (cf. Mt. xxvii. 56 ; Mk. xv. 40) is called KXcoTias 
after a different pronunciation of the Hebr. '37n ace. 
to which n was changed into k, as np3 (paaeK, 2 Chr. 
XXX. 1. Cf. 'idKco^os, 2 ; [B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Alphaeus; 
also Bp. Lghtft. Com. on Gal. pp. 256, 267 (Am. ed. pp. 
92, 103) ; Wetzel in Stud. u. Krit. for 1883, p. 620 sq.].* 

dXwv, -covos, 17, (in Sept. also 6, cf. Ruth iii. 2 ; Job 
xxxix. 12), i. q. r} aXas, gen. SXco, a ground-plot or thresh- 
ing-foor, i. e. a place in the field itself, made hard after 
the harvest by a roller, where the grain was threshed 
out: Mt. iii. 12; Lk. iii. 17. In both these pass., by 
meton. of the container for the thing contained, aXayv is 
the heap of grain, the flooring, already indeed threshed 
out, but still mixed with chaff and straw, like Hebr. 
pj, Ruth iii. 2; Job xxxbc. 12 (Sept. in each place 
dXwva) ; [al. adhere to the primary meaning. Used by 
Aristot. de vent. 3, Opp. ii. 973% 14].* 

dX<Sini5, -fKos, fi, a fox: Mt. viii. 20; Lk. ix. 58. 



d\(o<Ti<; 



Metaph. a sly and crafty man : Lk. xiii. 32 ; (in the 
same sense often in the Grk. writ., as Solon in Plut. Sol. 
30, 2; Pind. Fyth. 2, 141 ; Plut. Sulla 28, 5).* 

aX«<ris, -foii, Tj, (dXoco, dX^crico/xat to be caught), a catch- 
ing, capture: 2 Pet. ii. 12 ds oiXoaii/ to be taken, [some 
would here take the word actively: to take}. (Fr. 
Pind. and Ildt. down.) * 

otia [Skr. sa, sama ; Eng. same; Lat. simul; Germ. 
sajnmt, etc.; Curtius § 449; VaniCek p. 972. Fr. Horn, 
down] ; 1. adv., at the same time, at once, together : 

Acts xxiv. 26; xxvii. 40; Col. iv. 3; 1 Tim. v. 13; 
Philem. 22; all to a man, every one, Ko. iii. 12. 2. 
prep. [W. 470 (439)], together with, with dat. : Mt. xiii. 
29. ana Tpo>t early in the morning: Mt. xx. 1, (in Grk. 
writ. 5^ r<5 yjX.vi 5^" '".^ WW)- I" 1 Th. iv. 17 and 
v. 10, where afia is foil, by viiv, ajxa is an adv. {at the 
same time) and must be joined to the verb.* 

[Syv. fi/io, i^oC: the distinction given by Ammonius 
(de diff. voc. s. v,)et al., that a>a is temporal, 6/ioO local, 
seems to hold in the main ; yet see Ro. iii. 12, and of. Hesych. 

8. v.] 

a+iaeTis, -is, gen. -oOf, {^iavBavu), whence tfiaSov, to fiuBos, 
cf. aKr]6i)<i), unlearned, ignorant: 2 Pet. iii. 16. (In Grk. 
writ. fr. Ildt. down.)* 

dfiap^vTivos, -ov, (fr. ayiapavros, as podivos made of 
roses, fr. podoi^ a rose; cf. oKavdivos), composed of ama- 
ranth (a flower, so called because it never withers or 
fades, and when plucked off revives if moistened with 
water ; hence it is a symbol of perpetuity and immor- 
tality, [see Paradise Lost iii. 353 sqq.] ; Plin. h. n. 21 
(15), 23 [al. 47]) : ore^ai/or, 1 Pet. v. 4. (Found besides 
only in Philostr. her. 19, p. 741 ; [and (conjecturally) in 
Boeckh, Corp. Inscrr. 155, 39, c. B. C. 340].) * 

ofLdpavTOS, -01/, (fr. pLapalva; cf. apiavros, a(f)ai>Tos, etc.), 
not fading away, unfading, perennial; Vulg. immarcesci- 
bilis; (hence the name of the flower, [Diosc. 4, 57, al.] ; 
see dpapdvTivos) : 1 Pet. i. 4. Found elsewhere only in 
Sap. vi. 13; [(corj dp,ap. Sibyll. 8, 411; Boeckh, Corp. 
Inscrr. ii. p. 1124, no. 2942 c, 4; Lcian. Dom. c. 9].* 

e4J.ttpTdv«; fut. apaprrja-ai (Mt. xviii. 21; Ro. vi. 15; 
in the latter pass. L T Tr WH give apapTrjo-apfv for 
RG ipLaprfjcropfv), in class. Grk. &paprr](ropai; 1 aor. 
(later) rjpdpTTja-a, Mt. xviii. 15; Ro. v. 14, 16 (cf. W. 
82 (79); B. 54 (47)); 2 aor. rjpapTov; pf. r)piipTr]Ka; 
(ace. to a conjecture of Bttm., Lexil. i. p. 137, fr. a priv. 
and pdpui, pelpopai, pepos, prop, to be without a share in, 
sc. the mark) ; prop, to miss the mark, (Hem. II. 8, 311, 
etc.; with gen. of the thing missed, Ilom. II. 10, 3 72; 
4, 491 ; Tov (TKonov, Plat. Hipp. min. p. 375 a. ; rfjs 68ov, 
Arstph. Plut. 9()1, al.) ; then to err, be mistaken; lastly 
to miss or wander from the path of uprightness and honor, 
to do or go wrong. [" Even the Sept., although the Hebr. 
Ktpn also means primarily to miss, endeavor to reserve 
ApapT. exclusively for the idea of sin ; and where the 
llebr. signifies to miss one's aim in the literal sense, 
they avail themselves of expressive compounds, in par- 
ticular t^apapravdv, Judg. xx. 16." Zezschwitz, Profan- 
graec. u. bibl. Sprachgeist, p. 63 sq.] In the N. T. 



30 afxapTia 

to wander from the law of God, violate God's law, sin ; 
a. absol. : Mt. xxvii. 4; Jn. v. 14; viii. 11; ix. 2 sq.; 
1 Jn. i. 10; ii. 1 ; iii. 6, 8 sq. ; v. 18 ; Ro. ii. 12 ; iii. 23 ; 
v. 12, 14, 16; vi. 15; 1 Co. vii. 28, 36; xv. 34; Eph. 
iv. 26; 1 Tim. v. 20; Tit. iii. 11; Heb. iii. 17; x. 26 
(fKovaifos) ; [2 Pet. ii. 4] ; of the violation of civil laws, 
which Christians regard as also the transgression of divine 
law, 1 Pet. ii. 20. b. ap-apTduetv dpapriav to commit 

(lit. sm) a sin, 1 Jn. v. 16, (^€ydX?;i' dpapriav, Ex. xxxii. 
30 sq. Hebr. HNDn XtTin ; alcrxpdv ap. Soph. Phil. 1249; 
ptydXa apapTrjpara dpapravdv, Plat. Phaedop. 113 e.) ; cf. 
ciyaTrau), sub fin. d/iapruj'fii' eif rii/a [B. 173 (150) ; W. 233 
(219)]: Mt. xviii. 15 (LT WHom. Tr mrg.br. tls ae), 
21 ; Lk. XV. 18, 21 ; xvii. 3 Rec, 4 ; 1 Co. viii. 12 ; tI dt 
Kaiaapa, Acts xxv. 8 ; tls to ifitov awpa, 1 Co. vi. 18, (ets 
avTovs T( tca\ fls aXXous, Plat. rep. 3, p. 396 a.; ds to 
dflov, Plat. Phaedr. p. 242 c. ; ds dtovs, Xen. Hell. 1, 7, 
19, etc.; [cf. dp. Kvpito 6(^, Bar. i. 13 ; ii. 5]) ; Hebraisti- 
cally, (vwmov ('J3^) tivos [B. § 146, 1] in the presence of, 
before any one, the one wronged by the sinful act being, 
as it were, present and looking on : Lk. xv. 18, 21, (1 S. 
vii. 6; Tob. iii. 3, etc.; [cf. tvavTi. Kvpiov, Bar. i. 17]). 
[For reft, see dpapTia. CoMP. : ■npo-apapTavoi.']* 

dfidprnfia, -roi, to, (fr. dpapTtu i. q. dpaprdvo), cf. dbi- 
Ktjpa, dXiayrjpLa), a sin, evil deed, ["Differunt tj dpapTia et 
TO dpdpTTjpa ut Latinorum peccat u s et peccat u m. Nam 
TO dpdprqpa et peccatum proprie malum facinus indi- 
cant ; contra ij dpapTia et peccatus primum peccationem, 
TO peccare, deinde peccatum, rem consequentem, valent." 
Fritzsche ; see dpapTia, fin. ; cf. also Trench § Ixvi.] : Mk. 
iii. 28, and (LTTrtxt.WH) 29; iv. 12 (where G T Tr 
txt. WH om. L Tr mrg. br. rd dpapT.) ; Ro. iii. 25 ; 1 Co. 
vi. 18; 2 Pet. i. 9 (R[LWH txt. Tr mrg.] dpapnSiv). 
In prof. auth. fr. Soph, and Thuc. down ; [of bodily de- 
fects, Plato, Gorg. 479 a.; dp. pvrjpoviKov, Cic. ad Att. 
13, 21 ; dp. ypa(f)iK6v, Polyb. 34, 3, 11 ; Srav ptv TrapaXoyas 
fj iSXdiSfj yfVrjTui, oTvxVf^'^' ^Tav 8e pr} TrapaXo'yws, dv(v 8e 
KOKias, dpi'ipTTjpa • otuv 8( fldus pev pt] npolSovXtiiaai Se, 
dtiKTjpa, Aristot. eth. Nic. 5, 10 p. 1135\ 16 sq.].* 

dfiapTia, -as, fj, (fr. 2 aor. dpapTtlv, as oTTOTvxia fr. 
dnoTvxdv), a failing to hit the mark (see dpaprdvu)). In 
Grk. writ. (fr. Aeschyl. and Thuc. down). 1st, an error 
of the understanding (cf. Ackermann, Das Christl. im 
Plato, p. 59 Anm. 3 [Eng. trans. (S. R. Asbury, 1861) 
p. 57 n. 99]). 2d, a bad action, evil deed. In the N. T. 
always in an ethical sense, and 1. equiv. to to dpap- 
Tavfiv a sinning, whether it occurs by omission or com- 
mission, in thought and feeling or in speech and action 
(cf. Cic. de fin. 3, 9): Ro. v. 12 sq. 20; v(^' dpapTiav 
(ivai held down in sin, Ro. iii. 9 ; empevdv tt) dp-apria, Ro. 
vi. 1 ; dnoSvfia-Kfiv ttj dp. and ^fjv eV air^, Ro. vi. 2 ; ttjv dp. 
yivu}(rK(iv, Ro. vii. 7; 2 Co. v. 21 ; v(Kp6s Tjj dp. Ro. vi. 
1 1 ; TTfpi dpaprias to break the power of sin, Ro. viii. 3 [cf. 
IMey.] ; a-wpa t^s dp. the body as the instrument of sin, 
Ro. vi. 6 ; an-drr; ttjs dp. the craft by which sin is accus- 
tomed to deceive, Heb. iii. 13; tiv6poiiros t^s- dp. [avopias 
T Tr txt. WH txt.] the man so possessed by sin that he 
seems unable to exist without it, the man utterly given up 



dfiapria 



31 



a/i€/A7rT09 



to sin, 2 Th. ii. 3 [W. § 34, 3 Note 2]. In this sense 17 
ifxapria (i. q. to dfiafyrdvfiv) as a power exercising domin- 
ion over men (siVi as a principle and power) is rhetorically 
represented as an imperial personage in the phrases 17 
Aft. ^aaikfiiti, Kvpi€vei, Karepyd^fTai., Ro. v. 21 ; vi. 12, 
14; vii. 17, 20; SovXevtiv tjj dp.. Ro. vi. 6; SoOXor rrjs 
dp.. Jn. viii. 34 [WH br. G om. r^s dp..'] ; Ro. vi. 1 7 ; vopos 
TTjf dp. the dictate of sin or an impulse proceeding from 
it, Ro. vii. 23 ; viii. 2 ; hvvapis r^s dp. 1 Co. xv. 56 ; (the 
prosopopoeia occurs in Gen. iv. 7 and, ace. to the read- 
ing dpapTia, in Sir. xxvii. 10). Thus dpapria in sense, 
but not in signification, is the source whence the 
several evU acts proceed ; but it never denotes vitiosity. 
2. that which is done wrong, committed or resultant sin, 
an offence, a violation of the divine law in thought or in 
act (17 dpapria iarlv fj dvop'ia, 1 Jn. iii. 4) ; a. generally : 
Jas. i. 15 ; Jn. viii. 46 (where dpapr. must be taken to 
mean neither error, nor craft by which Jesus is corrupt- 
ing the people, but sin viewed generally, as is well 
shown by Liicke ad loo. and Ullmann in the Stud. u. 
Krit. for 1842, p. 667 sqq. [cf. his Siindlosigkeit Jesu 
p. 66 sqq. (Eng. trans, of 7tli ed. p. 71 sq.)] ; the 
thought is, ' If any one convicts me of sin, then you may 
lawfully question the truth and divinity of my doctrine, 
for sin hinders the perception of truth') ; x'^ph dpaprias 
so that he did not commit sin, Heb. iv. 15 ; iroielv dpap- 
Tiav and Tfjv dp. Jn. viii. 34 ; 1 Jn. iii. 8 ; 2 Co. xi. 7 ; 
1 Pet. ii. 22 ; e;^6iv dpupriav to have sin as though it were 
one's odious private property, or to have done something 
needing expiation, i. q. to have committed sin, Jn. ix. 
41 ; XV. 22, 24 ; xLx. 11 ; 1 Jn. i. 8, (so alpa (x^iv, of one 
who has committed murder, Eur. Or. 514) ; very often 
in the plur. dpaprlai [in the Synopt. Gospels the sing, 
occurs but once: Mt. xii. 31]: 1 Th. ii. 16; [Jas. v. 16 
LTTrWII]; Rev. xviii. 4 sq., etc.; TrX^^or dpapnav, 
Jas. V. 20; 1 Pet. iv. 8; Troifii^ dpaprias, Jas. v. 15; also 
in the expressions a(f)((Tis dpapnuv, dffiupai rds dp., etc. 
(see d^irfpi, 1 d.), in which the word does not of itself 
denote the guilt or penalty of sins, but the sins are con- 
ceived of as removed so to speak from God's sight, 
regarded by him as not having been done, and there- 
fore are not punished, ev dpapr. av {-/(vvrjOrjs oXos thou 
wast covered all over with sins when thou wast born, 
i. e. didst sin abundantly before thou wast born, Jn. ix. 
34 ; tv Tali dp. diro6vrj(TK€iv to die loaded with evil deeds, 
therefore unreformed, Jn. viii. 24 ; en, iv dpaprlais flvat 
still to have one's sins, sc. unexpiated, 1 Co. xv. 1 7. 
b. some particular evil deed: rfjv dp. ravrrjv. Acts vii. 60 ; 
Ttda-a dpapria, Mt. xii. 3 1 ; dpapria npos Bdvarov, 1 Jn. v. 1 6 
(an offence of such gravity that a Christian lapses from 
the state of ^u>r} received from Christ into the state of 
Odvaros (cf. ddvaros, 2) in which he was before he be- 
came united to Christ by faith ; cf . Liicke, DeWette, [esp. 
VVestcott, ad I.]). 3. collectively, the complex or 

aggregate of sins committed either by a single person orhy 
many : dpetv t^u dp.- rov Koapov, Jn. i. 29 (see atpto, 3 
c.) ; aTTo6vr](TKtiv iv rfj dp.. Jn. viii. 21 (see 2 a. sub fin.) ; 
ircpi dpaprias, sc. Ovalas [W. 583 (542) ; B. 393 (336)], 



expiatory sacrifices, Heb. x. 6 (ace. to the usage of the 
Sept., who sometimes so translate the Hebr. nXDn and 
r(N£3n, e. g. Lev. v. 11 ; vii. 27 (37) ; Ps. xxxix. (xl.) 7) ; 
X(iopls dpaprias having no fellowship with the sin which 
he is about [?] to expiate, Heb. ix. 28. 4. abstract for 
the concrete, i. q. dpaprcdkos : Ro. vii. 7 (6 vopos dpapria, 
opp. to 6 vopos dyios, vs. 12) ; 2 Co. v. 21 {rov . . . dpaprlav 
inolr)a-iv he treated him, who knew not sin, as a sinner). 
Cf. Fritzsche on Rom. vol. i. 289 sqq. ; [see dpMprrjpa ; 
Trench § Ixvi.]. 

dfLaprvpos, -ov, (pdprvs), without witness or testimony, 
unattested : Acts xiv. 1 7. (Thuc, Dem., Joseph., Plut., 
Lcian., IJdian.) * 

dfiapTwX6s, -6v, (fr. the form dp,apr<o, as ^(/SwXoj from 
(j)€l8opat), devoted to sin, a (raasc. or fem.) sinner. In 
the N. T. distinctions are so drawn that one is called 
d/xaprtoXdf who is a. not free from sin. In this sense 
all men are sinners ; as, Mt. ix. 13 ; Mk. ii. 1 7 ; Lk. v. 8, 
32 ; xiii. 2 ; xviii. 13 ; Ro. iii. 7 ; v. [8], 19 ; 1 Tim. i. 15 ; 
Heb. vii. 26. b. pre-eminently sinful, especially wicked; 
o. univ. : 1 Tim. i. 9 ; Jude 15 ; Mk. viii. 38 ; Lk. vi. 32- 
34 ; vii. 37, 39 ; xv. 7, 10 ; Jn. ix. 16, 24 sq. 31 ; Gal. ii. 
1 7 ; Heb. xii. 3 ; Jas. iv. 8 ; v. 20 ; 1 Pet. iv. 18 ; dpapria 
itself is called dpapr(i>\6s, Ro. vii. 13. p. spec, of men 
stained with certain definite vices or crimes, e. g. 
the tax-gatherers : Lk. xv. 2 ; xviii. 13 ; xix. 7 ; hence the 
combination rekoivai Kai dpaproiXol, Mt. ix. 10 sq. ; xi. 19 ; 
Mk. ii. 15 sq. ; Lk. v. 30; vii. 34; xv. 1. heathen, 
called by the Jews sinners kut i^oxrjv (1 Mace. i. 34 ; 
ii. 48, 62 ; Tob. xiii. 6) : Mt. xxvi. 45 [?] ; Mk. xiv. 41 ; 
Lk. xxiv. 7 ; Gal. ii. 15. (The word is found often in 
Sept., as the equiv. of HQU and i'K/">, and in the O. T. 
Apocr. ; very seldom in Grk. writ., as Aristot. eth. Nic 
2, 9 p. 1109", 33 ; Plut. de audiend. poet. 7, p. 25 c.)* 

641,0x0$, -ov, (pdxr]), in Grk. writ. [fr. Pind. down] 
commonly not to be withstood, invincible ; more rarely 
abstaining from fighting, (Xen. Cyr. 4, 1, 16; Hell. 4, 4, 
9) ; in the N. T. twice metaph. not contentious : 1 Tim. 
iii. 3 ; Tit. iii. 2.* 

a^jOM, -v> : 1 aor. ^prjaa ; (fr. apa together ; hence to 
gather together, cf. Germ, sammeln ; [al. regard the init. 
a as euphonic and the word as allied to Lat. meto, Eng. 
motv, thus making the sense of cutting primary, and that 
of gathering in secondary ; cf. Vanicek p. 6 73]) ; freq. in 
the Grk. poets, to reap, mow down : rds x^pf^^f J^^- '^- ^•* 

ofieOwo-Tos, -ov, Tf, amethyst, a precious stone of a violet 
and purple color (Ex. xxviii. 19 ; ace. to Phavorinus so 
called 8id ro dnelpyfiv rrjs pidr/s [so Plut. quaest. conviv. 
iii. 1, 3, 6]) : Rev. xxi. 20. [Cf. B. D. s. v.] » 

d[i,€Xc(o, -u) ; fut. dpf^fjaoi ; 1 aor. rjpt^rjva ; (fr. dpikrjs, 
and this fr. a priv. and /xtXco to care for) ; very com. in 
prof. auth. ; to be careless of, to neglect : nvos, Heb. ii. 3 ; 
viii. 9; 1 Tim. iv. 14; foU. by inf., 2 Pet. i. 12 R G; 
without a case, dpe^rjaavrts (not caring for what had just 
been said [A. V. they made light ofitj), ]\It. xxii. 5.* 

a-|ic|xirros, -ov, (pipcfjop-ai to blame), blameless, deserv- 
ing no censure (Tertull. irreprehensibilis), free from fault 
or defect : Lk. i. 6 ; Phil. ii. 15 ; iii. 6 ; 1 Th. iii. 13 [WH 



afMeuTTTCo^ 



32 



'-4/Lt7rA,ta« 



mrg. d/xf^n-Tcof] ; Heb. viii. 7 (in wliicli nothing is lack- 
ing) ; in Sept. i. q. Dfl, Job i. 1, 8 etc. Com. in Grk. 
writ. [Cf. Trench § ciii.] * 

o-lxe'iiirTws, adv., Uamelessbj, so that there is no cause for 
censure: 1 Th. u. 10; [iii. 13 WH mrg.] ; v. 23. [Fr. 
Aeschvl. down. Cf. Trench § ciii.] * 

oiiepifAvos, -ov, (fie'pifiva), free from anxiety, free from 
care: Mt. xxviii. 14; 1 Co. vii. 32 (free from earthly 
cares). (Sap. vi. 16 ; vii. 23 ; Ildian. 2, 4, 3 ; 3, 7, 11 ; 
Anth. 9, 3j;>, .5 ; [in pass, sense, Soph. Ajax 120(i].)* 

d-(A6Td0€TOs, -ov, (iJ.eTaTi6T)fj.i), not transposed, not to be 
transferred ; fxed, unalterable: lleb. vi. 18; to h^ieTade- 
Tov as subst., immutability, lleb. vi. 17. (3 JNiacc. v. 1 ; 
Polyb., Diod., Pint.) * 

d-jteTo-KivriTOS) -ov, (fieraKiveo)), not to he moved from its 
place, unmoced; metaph. firmly persistent, [A. V. unmor- 
able} : 1 Co. xv. .58. (Plat. ep. 7, p. 343 a. ; Dion. Hal. 
8, 74 ; [Joseph, c. Ap. 2, IG, f) ; 2, 32, 3 ; 2, 35, 4].) * 

drH.€TajjL«'XT]Tos, -ov, (fifTajxiXofiai, fierafieXfi), not re- 
pented of, unref/retted : Ro. xi. 29; a-aTTjpLa, by litotes, 
salvation affording supreme joy, 2 Co. vii. 10 [al. con- 
nect it with neTcwoiav}. (Plat., Polyb., Plut.) * 

d(A«Tav6iiTos, -ov, {fjieravoeco, (;[. v.), admitting no change 
of mind (amendment), unrepentant, impenitent : Ro. ii. 5. 
(In Lcian. Abdic. 1 1 [passively], i. q. dfieraniXriTos, q. v. ; 
[Philo de praem. et poen. § 3].)* 

dfterpos, -ov, (fierpov a measure), icithout measure, im- 
mense: 2 Co. X. 13, 15 sq. (e?s to. aperpa Kavxaadai to 
boast to an immense extent, i. e. beyond measure, ex- 
cessively). (Plat., Xen., Anthol. iv. p. 1 70, and ii. 206, 
ed. Jacobs.)* 

djA'^v, Ilebr. |0K ; 1. verbal adj. (fr. pN to prop; 

Niph. to be firm), /z?77?, metaph. faithful: 6 dprjv. Rev. 

iii. 14 (where is added 6 pdprvi 6 ttkttos k. d\T}6iv6s). 2. 

it came to be used as an adverb by which something is 

asserted or confirmed : a. at the beginninfr of a dis- 
cs o 

course, surely, of a truth, truly ; so freq. in the discourses 
of Christ in i\It. ]\Ik. and Lk. : dpriv Xe'-yto vplv ' I sol- 
emnly declare unto you,' e. g. Mt. v. 18; Aik. iii. 28; 
Lk. iv. 24. The repetition of the word {dpriv dprjv), em- 
ployed by John alone in his Gospel (twenty-five times), has 
the force of a superlative, 7nost assuredly: Jn. i. 51 (52) ; 
iii. 3. b. at the close of a sentence ; so it is, so be it, 
may it he fulfilled (yivoiro, Sept. Num. v. 22 ; Dent, xxvii. 
15, etc.): Ro. i. 25; ix.5; Gal.i. 5; Eph. iii. 21; Phil. iv. 
20 ; 1 Tim. i. 1 7 ; Heb. xiii. 21 ; 1 Pet. iv. 11 ; Rev. i. G, 
and often ; cf. Jer. xi. 5 ; xxxv. (xxviii.) 6 ; 1 K. i. 30. 
It was a custom, which passed over from the synagogues 
into the Christian assemblies, that when he who had 
lead or discoursed had offered up a solemn prayer to 
God, the others in attendance responded Amen, and 
thus made the substance of what was uttered their own : 

1 Co. xiv. IG (to dfiTjv, the well-known response Amen), 
cf. Num. V. 22 ; Dent, xxvii. 15 sqq. ; Neh. v. 13 ; viii. G. 

2 Co. i. 20 al tnayyeXiai . . . to vai, Kal ... to dpriv, i. e. 
had shown themselves most sure. [Cf. B. D. s. v. Amen.] 

dji.'fJTwp, -opos, 6, T), (pr]Tr)p), vAthout a mother, mother- 
less; in (irk. writ- 1. born tvithout a mother, e. g. 



IMinerva, Eur. Phoen. 666 sq., al. ; God himself, inasmuch 
as he is without origin, Lact. instt. 4, 13, 2. 2. bereft 
of a mother, Hdt. 4, 154, al. 3. born of a base or un- 
known mother, Eur. Ion 109 cf. 837. 4. unmotherly, 
unworthy of the name of mother : /iijTj^p dprjTcop, Soph. 
El. 1154. Cf. Bleek on lleb. vol. ii. 2, p. 305 sqq. 5. 
in a signif. unused by the Greeks, * whose mother is not 
recorded in the genealogy ' : of Melchizedek, lleb. vii. 3 ; 
(of Sarah by Pliilo in de temul. § 14, and rer. div. haer. 
§ 12 ; [cf. Bleek u. s.]) ; cf. the classic dvoXvprnds* 

d-ftCavTos, -ov, (piaivoi), not defiled, unsoiled ; free from 
that by tcliich the nature of a thing is deformed and de- 
based, or its force and vigor impaired : koIttj pure, free 
from adultery, lleb. xiii. 4; nXripovopia (without defect), 
1 Pet. i. 4 ; GprjaKeia, Jas. i. 27 ; pure from sin, lleb. vii. 
26. (Also in the Grk. writ. ; in an ethical sense, Plat, 
legg. 6, p. 777 e.; Plut. Pericl. c. 39 /3ioy Kadapos Ka\ 
apiavTos-) 

'A|iiva8dp, 6, Diypi^ (servant of the prince, [al. my 
people are noble; but cf. B. D. s. v.]), [A. V. Aminadab^, 
the prop, name of one of the ancestors of Christ (1 Chr. 
ii. 10 [A. V. Amminadab]) : Mt. i. 4 ; Lk. iii. 33 [not 
WH. See B. D. s. v.].* 

d(ji(ios, -ov, rj. sand; ace. to a Ilebr. comparison ap. Trjs 
SaXdaa-Tjs and up. napa to x^^^os ttjs daX. are used for 
an innumerable multitude, Ro. ix. 27; Heb. xi. 12; 
Rev. XX. 8, equiv. to xii. 18 (xiii. 1). Aoc. to the con- 
text sandy ground, Mt. vii. 26. (Xen., Plat., Theophr. 
often, Plut., Sept. often.) * 

d(jiv6s, -ov, 6, [fr. Soph, and Arstph. down], a lamb : 
Acts viii. 32; 1 Pet. i. 19; tov 6eov, consecrated to God, 
Jn. i. 29, 36. In these passages Christ is likened to a 
sacrificial lamb on account of his death, innocently and 
patiently endured, to expiate sin. See dpviov* 

dp.oiP'fj, -^y, 17, (fr. dpfi^ai, as dXoKprj fr. dXfi(f)a), aroi^rf 
fr. ore/jSco), a very com. word with the Greeks, re<iidtal, 
recompense, in a good and a bad sense (fr. the signif. of 
the mid. dpt'ifiopai to requite, return like for Kke) : in a 
good sense, 1 I'im. v. 4.* 

dfAireXos, -ov, 17, [fr. Hom. down], a vine : INlt. xxvi. 29 ; 
Mk. xiv. 25 ; Lk. xxii. 18 ; Jas. iii. 12. In Jn. xv. 1, 4 sq. 
Christ calls himself a vine, because, as the vine imparts 
to its branches sap and productiveness, so Christ infuses 
into his followers liis own divine strength and life. apiv. 
rrjs yrjs in Rev. xiv. 18 [Rec?* om. t^s dpir.'], 19, signifies 
the enemies of Christ, who, ripe for destruction, are 
likened to clusters of grapes, to be cut off, thrown into 
the wine-press, and trodden there.* 

djAireXovpYds, -ov, 6, fj, (fr. apneXos and EPrQ), a vine- 
dresser: Lk. xiii. 7. (Arstph., Plut., Geopon., al. ; Sept. 
for D"!'3.)* 

djjnreXuv, -avos, 6, a vineyard : Mt. xx. 1 sqq. ; xxi. 28, 
[33], 39 sqq. ; Mk. xii. 1 sqq. ; Lk. [xiii. G] ; xx. 9 sqq. ; 
1 Co. ix. 7. (Sept. ; Diod. 4, 6 ; Plut. pro nobilit. c. 3.)* 

'ApLirXlas [T ' ApirXlaTos, Tr WH L mrg. 'AynTrXiaTo? ; 
hence accent 'ApnXias ; cf. Lob. Pathol. Proleg. p. 505 ; 
Chandler § 32], -ov, 6, Amplias (a contraction from the 
Lat. Ampliatus, which form appears in some authoriiies, 



^ A^irkiarof; 



33 



av 



cf. W. 102 (97)), a certain Christian at Rome : Ro. xvi. 
8. [See Bp. Lghtft. on Phil. p. 174 ; cf. TItc Athencemn 
for March 4, 1882, p. 28!) sq.] * 

'ApitrXiaTos (Tdf.) or more correctly 'A/ii7rXiaror (L 
mrg. Tr WH) i. q. 'A/iTrXtar, (j. v. 

d|&vv<i> : 1 aor. mid. r]ij,vvafj.r]v ; [allied w. Lat. munio, 
vioenia, etc., Vanicek p. 731; Curtius § 451]; in Grk. 
writ. [fr. Horn, down] to ward off, keep off' any thing 
from any one, tI tcvi, ace. of the thing and dat. of pers. ; 
hence, with a simple dat. of the pers., to aid, assist any 
one (Thuc. 1, 50; 3, 67, al.). Mid. dfivvo^ai, with ace. 
of pers., to keep off, ward off, any one from one's self; to 
defend one's self against any one (so also 2 Mace. x. 1 7 ; 
Sap. xi. 3 ; Sept. Josh. x. 13) ; to take vengeance on any 
one (Xen. an. 2, 3, 23 ; Joseph, antt. 9, 1, 2) : Acts vii. 
24, where in thought supply tov ahiKovvra [cf. B. 194 
(1G8) note; W. 258 (242)].* 

afi.<)>ia^(d ; [fr, aiKlil, lit. to put around] ; to put on, 
clothe : in Lk. xii. 28 L WH dfi<pid^ei for Rec. dficpupwa-i. 
(A later Grk. word ; Sept. [2 K. xvii. 9 Alex.] ; Job 
xxix. 14 ; [xxxi. 19] ; xl. 5 ; Ps. Lxxii. 6 Symm. ; several 
times in Themist. ; cf . Btt7n. Ausf. Spr. ii. p. 112; [Veitch 
s. V. ; B. 49 (42 sq.) ; Steph. s. v. col. 201 c. quotes from 
Cram. Anecdot. Ox. vol. ii. p. 338, 31 to fiev d^KpuXa^ eVrt 
Koiva>s, TO Se dfKpid^o) AcopiKov, wOTrep to vnonu^u) Koi 
VTroTrtafo)].) Cf. dfJ-Cpu^a-" 

afj.4>i-pdX\(a ; to throw around, i. q. Trepi^dWa, of a gar- 
ment (Hom. Od. 14, 342) ; to cast to and fro now to one 
side now to the other : a net, ]\Ik. i. 16 G L T Tr WH [ace. 
to TTrWH used absol. ; cf. ol d/xc^t/SoXely, Is. xix. 8]. 
(Hab. i. 17.)* 

d|x<j)ip\Ti(rTpov, -ov, to, (dpcpi^dWo)), in Grk. writ, anij- 
thing thrown around one to impede his motion, as chains, 
a garment ; spec, a net for fishing, [casting^et'] : Mk. i. 
16 RGL; Mt. iv. 18. (Sept.; Hes. scut. 215; Hdt. 1, 
141 ; Athen. 10, 72, p. 450.) [Syn. see biKrvov, and cf. 
Trench § Ixiv. ; B. D. s. v. net.] * 

d)j.({>i.€^(o, i. q. dfjL<pifuirvp.i ; in Lk. xii. 28 dfjLcpif^ei, T Tr. 
Cf. dp(f)i.d^oi. 

d4Ji4>i-E'vvv|i.i ; pf. pass. ripiC^iecrpiai'., {evvvfii) ; [fr. Horn, 
down] ; toj:)ut on, to clothe : Lk. xii. 28 (R G ; cf. dp,(f)i.€((o) ; 
Mt. vi. 30 ; evTiui [B. 191 (166)], Lk. vii. 25 ; Mt. xi. 8.* 

"A|A4>Ciro\is, -eojy, 17, Amphipolis, the metropolis of 
Macedonia Prima [cf. B. D. s. v. Macedonia] ; so called, 
because the Strymon flowed around it [Thuc. 4, 102]; 
formerly called 'Evvea 68ot. (Thuc. 1,100) : Acts xvii. 1 
[see B. D.].* 

a|i,<|>oSov, -ov, TO, (dp.(f)i 686s), prop, a road round any- 
thing, a street, [Hesych. aiJ,(j)o8a' al pvfxai. dyviai 810801 
(al. Ste'^oSot 8wpvyp.ai, al. 17 nXaTeia) ; Lex. in Bekk. An- 
ecdota i. p. 205, 14 "A/j.c^oSof' rj axrnfp €< TCTpayaivov 
Hiayeypa^Hevr] 686s- For exx. see Soph. Lex. ; Wetst. on 
Mk. 1. c. ; cod. D in Acts xix. 28 (where see Tdf.'s 
note)] : Mk. xi. 4. (Jer. xvii. 27 ; xxx. 16 (xlix. 27), and 
in Grk. writ.) * 

dfujxSTEpoi, -ai, -a, [fr. Hom. down], both of two, both the 
one and the other : Mt. ix. 1 7, etc. ; to. dficfMrtpa, Acts 
xxiii. 8 ; Eph. ii. 14. 



d-(i(opLi]Tos, -01', (fjMfxdofiai), that cannot be censurecL_ 
blameless: Phil. ii. 15 R (i (cf. Ttuva fioifirfTa, Deut. 
xxxii. 5); 2 Pet. iii. 14. (Hom. II. 12, 10!); [IIcmoU, 
Pind., al. ;] Plut. frat. amor. 18; often in Anthol.)* 

d(i(ojiov, -ov, TO, amomum, a fragrant plant of India, 
having the foliage of the white vine [al. ampeloleuce] 
and seed, in dusters like grapes, from which ointment 
was made (Plin. h. n. 12, 13 [28]) : Rev. xviii. 13 GL 
T Tr WH. [See B. D. Am. ed. s. v.] * 

a-|i(i>(i.os> -ov, (pufios), tvithout blemish, free from faulti- 
ness, as a victim without spot or blemish : 1 Pet. i. 1 9 
(Lev. xxii. 21) ; Ileb. ix. 14 ; in both places allusion is 
made to the sinless life of Christ. Ethically, without 
blemish, faultless, unblamahle: Eph. i. 4 ; v. 27; Col. i. 
22; Phil. ii. 15 L TTrWH; Jude 24; Rev. xiv. 5. 
(Often in Sept.; [Hesiod, Simon., Iambi.], Hdt. 2, 177, 
Aeschyl. Pers. 185 ; Theocr. 18, 25.) [Syn. see Trench 
§ ciii. ; Tittmann i. 29 sq.] * 

'A.\Lii>v, 6, indecl., Arnon, (p'OX artificer [but cf. B. D.]), 
king of Judah, son of IManasseh, and father of Josiah: 
Mt. i. 10, [L T Tr WH -/xws. Cf. B. D.].* 

'Ajxtos, 6, Amos, (]'13N strong), indecl. prop, name of one 
of Christ's ancestors : [Mt. i. 10 L T Tr VVii] ; Lk. iii. 25.* 

av, a particle indicating that something can or could 
occur on certain conditions, or by the combination of 
certain fortuitous causes. In Lat. it has no equivalent ; 
nor do the Eng. haply, perchance, Germ, wohl (tool), 
etwa, exactly and everywhere correspond to it. The 
use of this particle in the N. T., illustrated by copious 
exx. fr. Grk. writ., is shown by W. § 42 ; [cf. B. 216 
(186) sqq. Its use in classic Grk. is fully exhibited (by 
Prof. Goodwin) in L. and S. s. v.]. 

It is joined I. in the apodoses of hypothetical sen- 
tences 1. with the Impf., where the Lat. uses the 
impf. subjunctive, e. g. Lk. vii. 39 (eylvwa-Kev av, sciret, 
he would know) ; Lk. xvii. 6 (eXeyere av ye would say) ; Mt. 
xxiii. 30 (non essemus, we should not have been) ; Jn. 
V. 46 ; viii. 42 ; ix. 41 ; xv. 19 ; xviii. 36 ; 1 Co. xi. 31 ; 
Gal. i. 10 ; iii. 21 [but WH mrg. br.] ; Heb. iv. 8 ; viii. 4, 
7. 2. with the indie. Aor. (where the Lat. uses the 
plpf. subj. like the fut. pf. subj., / would have done it), 
to express what would have been, if this or that either 
were (d with the impf. in the protasis preceding), or 
had been (el with the aor. or plpf. preceding) : Mt. xi. 
21 and Lk. x. 13 (av /MfTevorjaav they would have rer 
pented) ; Mt. xi. 23 ; xii. 7 (ye would not have con- 
demned) ; Mt. xxiv. 43 (he would have watched), 22 and 
Mk. xiii. 20 (no one would have been saved, i. e. all even now 
would have to be regarded as those who had perished ; 
cf. W. 304 (286)) ; Jn. iv. 10 (thou wouldst have asked) ; 
xiv. 2 (elirov av I would have said so) ; 28 (ye would have 
rejoiced) ; Ro. ix. 29 (we should have become) ; 1 Co. ii. 
8; Gal. iv. 15 (RG); Acts xviii. 14. Sometimes the 
condition is not expressly stated, but is easily gathered 
from what is said : Lk. xix. 23 and Mt. xxv. 27 (/ should 
have received it back with interest, sc. if thou hadst given 
it to the bankers). 3. with the Plupf. : Jn. xi. 21 
[R Tr mrg.] (ovk &v (Tt6vr]K(i [L T Tr txt. AVH dnfBavfv'] 



av 



34 



ava 



would not have died, for which, in 32, the aor. oIk av 
dntdave) ; Jn. xiv. 7 [not Tdf.] (ei with the plpf. preced- 
ing) ; 1 Jn. ii. 19 {ihey would have remained with us). 
Sometimes (as in Grk. writ., esp. the later) av is omitted, 
in order to intimate that the thing wanted but Uttle 
(impf.) or had wanted but little (plpf. or aor.) of being 
done, which yet was not done because the condition was 
not fulfilled (cf. Alex. Btim. in the Stud. u. Krit. for 1858, 
p. 489 sqq. ; [N. T. Gram. p. 225 (194)]; Fritzsche on 
Rom. vol. ii. 33 ; W. § 42, 2 p. 305 (286)), e. g. Jn. viii. 39 
(where the av is spurious) ; xv. 22, 24; xix. 11 ; Acts 
xxvi. 32; Ro. vii. 7; Gal. iv. 15 {av before (8a>KaTe 
has been correctly expunged by L T Tr WH). II. 
Joined to relative pronouns, relative adverbs, and ad- 
verbs of time and quality, it has the same foi-ce as the 
Lat. cumque or cunque, -ever, -soever, (Germ, irgend, 
etwa). 1. foil, by a past tense of the I n d i c a t i v e, when 
some matter of fact, something certain, is spoken of ; 
where, " when the tiling itself which is said to have 
been done is certain, the notion of uncertainty involved 
in av belongs rather to the relative, whether pronoun or 
particle " {Klotz ad Dev. p. 145) [cf. W. § 42, 3 a.] ; Baoi 
av as many as : Mk. vi. 56 {oaoi av tJtttovto [tj\j/'avTo L 
txt. T Tr txt. WH] avrov as many as touched him [cf. B. 
216 (187)]) ; Mk. xi. 24 (oaa av irpoa-evxoufvoi. alrela-de 
[Grsb. om. av}, but L txt. T Tr WH have rightly restored 
Za-a npoa-(ixf(rde k- alrelade). Kodori av in so far or so often 
SIS, according as, (Germ, je nachdem gerade) : Acts ii. 45 ; 
iv. 35. us av: 1 Co. xii. 2 (in whatever manner ye were 
led[cf.B.§139, 13; 383(329)sq.]). 2. foll.byaSub- 
junctive, a. the Present, concerning that which 
may have been done, or is usually or constantly done 
(where the Germ, uses mogen) ; ffviKa av whensoever, as 
often as : 2 Co. iii. 15 L T Tr WH ; os iiv tvhoever, be he 
loho he may : Mt. xvi. 25 (L T Tr WH (dv) ; [Mk. viii. 35 
(where TTrWH fut. indie; see WH. App. p. 172)]; 
Lk. x. 5 (L T Tr WH aor.), 8 ; Gal. v. 1 7 (T Tr WH ^dv, 
L br. edv) ; 1 Jn. ii. 5 ; iii. 1 7 ; Ro. ix. 15 (Ex. xxxiii. 19) ; 
xvi. 2 ; 1 Co. xi. 27, etc. ocrrts av : 1 Co. xvi. 2 [Tr WH 
fdv ; WH mrg. aor.] ; Col. iii. 1 7 (L txt. Tr WH edv). oaoi 
&v : Mt. vii. 12 (T WH edv) ; xxii. 9 (L T Tr WH tdv). 
onov av whithersoever : Lk. ix. 57 (L Tr idv) ; Rev. xiv. 4 
(L Tr [T ed. 7 not 8, WH] have adopted imdyfi, defended 
also by B. 228 (196)); Jas. iii. 4 (RGLTrmrg. in 
br.). 6(rd/M9 av how often soever: 1 Co. xi. 25 sq. (where 
L TTrWH idv). ws av in what way soever: 1 Th. ii. 7 
([cf. EUic. ad loc. ; B. 232 (200)] , L T Tr WH edv). b. 
the Aorist, where the Lat. uses the fut. pf. ; os av: Mt. 
V. 21, 22 (ftTTij whoever, if ever any one shall have said) ; 
31 sq. [in vs. 32 L T Tr WH read Tras 6 dnoXvav'] ; x. 
11 ; xxvi. 48 (Tdf. edv) ; Mk. iii. 29, 35 ; ix. 41, etc. ooTtr 
&p : Mt. X. 33 [L Tr WH txt. om. av} ; xii. 50 ; Jn. xiv. 
13 [Tr mrg. WH pres.] ; Acts iii. 23 (Tdf. edv), etc. oa-oi 
iv: Mt. xxi. 22 (Treg. edv) ; xxiii. 3 (T WH edv) ; Mk. iii. 
28 (Tr WH edv) ; Lk. ix. 5 (L T Tr WH pres.) ; Jn. xi. 
22; Acts ii. 39 (Lchm. ovs); iii. 22. ottov av: Mk. 
xiv. 9 (T WH edv) ; ix. 18 (L T Tr WH idv). axpa ot 
iy until (donee) : 1 Co. xv. 25 Rec. ; Rev. ii. 25. eas av 



until (usque dum) : Mt. ii. 13 ; x. 11 ; xxii. 44 ; Mk. vi. 
10 ; Lk. xxi. 32 ; 1 Co. iv. 5, etc. TjvUa av, of fut. time, 
7iot until then, when ... or then at length, when . . . : 2 Co. 
iii. 16 (T WH txt. eai/) [cf. Kiihner ii. 951 ; Jelf ii. 565]. 
^s av as soon a.s [B. 232 (200)] : 1 Co. xi. 34 ; Phil. ii. 
23. d^' ov av eyepdfj, Lk. xiii. 25 (from the time, what- 
ever the time is, when he shall have risen up). But edv 
(q. V.) is also joined to the pronouns and adverbs men- 
tioned, instead of av ; and in many places the Mss. and 
edd. fluctuate between av and edv, (exx. of which have 
already been adduced) ; [cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 96 ; WH. 
App. p. 173 "predominantly dV is found after conso- 
nants, and edv after vowels "]. Finally, to this head 
must be referred orav (i. q. ore av) with the indie, and 
much oftener with the subj. (see orav), and ottws; av, al- 
though this last came to be used as a final conjunction 
in the sense, that, if it be possible : Lk. ii. 35 ; Acts iii. 
20 (1 9) ; XV. 1 7 ; Ro. iii. 4 ; see oncos, II. 1 b. [Cf . W. 309 
(290 sq.) ; B. 234 (201).] III. ^v is joined to the 

Optat. [W. 303 (284); B. 217(188)]; when a certain 
condition is laid down, as in wishes, / loould that etc. : 
Acts xxvi. 29 ((v^alp.r]v [Tdf. ev^d/iJji/] av I could pray, sc. 
did it depend on me) ; in d i rec t questions [W. 1. c. ; B. 
254 (219)] : Acts viii. 31 (nas av bvvatprjv; 1.6. on what 
condition, by what possibility, could I? cf. Xen. oec. 11, 
5); Acts xvii. 18 (ti av ^e'Xoi . . . Xeyeiv what would he 
say ? it being assumed that he wishes to utter some defi- 
nite notion or other) ; Acts ii. 12RG; in dependent 
sentences and indirect questions in which the nar- 
rator introduces another's thought [W. §42,4; B.l.c] : 
Lk. i. 62 ; vi. 11 ; ix. 46 ; [xv. 26 L br. Tr WH ; cf. xviii. 
36 Lbr. Trbr.WHmrg.]; Acts v. 24; x. 17; xvii. 20 
R G. IV. av is found without a mood in 1 Co. vii. 5 

(el pfi Ti av [WH br. av}, except perhaps, sc. yevoiro, [but 
cf. Bttm. as below]), as av, adverbially, tanquam (so 
already the Vulg.), as if: 2 Co. x. 9 (like &anfp av in Grk. 
writ. ; cf. KUhner ii. 210 [§ 398 Anm. 4; Jelf § 430] ; B. 
219 (189) ; [L. and S. s. v. D. III.]). 

av, contr. from edv, if; foil, by the subjunc. : Jn. xx. 
23 [Lchm. edv. 'Also by the (pres.) indie, in 1 Jn. v. 15 
Lchm.; see B. 223 (192); W. 295 (277)]. Further, 
L T Tr WH have received av in Jn. xiii. 20 ; xvi. 23 ; 
[so WH Jn. xii. 32; cf. W. 291 (274) ; B. 72 (63)].* 

dvd, prep., prop, upwards, up, (cf . the adv. avat, opp. to 
Kurd and Kdro)), denoting motion from a lower place to a 
higher [cf. W. 398 (372) n.]; rare in the N. T. and only 
with the accus. 1. in the expressions di'd fieaov (or 
jointly dvdfieaov [so R" Tr in Rev. vii. 1 7]) into the 7nidst, 
in the midst, amidst, among, between, — with gen. of place, 
Mt. xiii. 25 ; Mk. vii. 31 ; Rev. vii. 17 [on this pass, see 
fiearos, 2 sub fin.] ; of pers., 1 Co. vi. 5, with which cf. 
Sir. XXV. 18(1 7) di'd pia-ov tov (Fritz. Tci>v) rrXrjaiov avrov; 
cf. W. § 27, 1 fin. [B. 332 (285)], (Sir. xxvii. 2 ; 1 Mace, vii, 
28 ; xiii. 40, etc. ; in Sept. for ^in3, Ex. xxvi. 28 ; Josh, 
xvi. 9 ; xix. 1 ; Diod. 2, 4 dvd peaov to)v ^f tXtwi/ [see ^ea-os, 
2]) ; di'd pepos, (Vulg. per partes), in turn, one after an- 
other, in succession : 1 Co. xiv. 27 [where Rec^^writes dva- 
,iepos}, (Polyb. 4, 20, 10 dvd pepos qSew). 2. joined to 



apa^adfio^ 



35 



avayatov 



numerals, it has a distributive force [W. 398 (372); B. 
331 sq. (285)] : Jn. ii. 6 (dva fxeTprjras 8vo rj rpels two or 
three metrette apiece) ; Mt. xx. 9 scj. {eXa^ov dva drivdpiov 
they received each a denarius) ; Lk. ix. 3 [Tr br. WH om. 
dvd; ix. 14]; x. 1 (dvd 8vo [WH dva 8vo [Svo]] two by 
two) ; Mk. vi. 40 (L T Tr WH Kara) ; [Rev. iv. 8] ; and 
very often in Grk. writ.; cf. W. 398 (372). It is used 
adverbially in Rev. xxi. 21 (^dvd ds eKaa-ros, like dva ria- 
aapts, Plut. Aem. 32 ; cf. W. 249 (234) ; [B. 30 (26)]). 
3. Prefixed to verbs dvd signifies, a. upwards, up, up 
to, (hat. ad. Germ, auf), as in dvaKpnveiv, dva^aiveiv, 
dva^dXXfiv, dvaKpdCfiv, etc. b. it corresponds to the 
Lat. ad (Germ, an), to [indicating the goal], as indvay- 
ye'XXfiv [al. would refer this to d.], dvaTrreLv. c. it de- 
notes repetition, renewal, i. q. denuo, anew, over again, as 
in dvayevvdv. d. it corresponds to the Lat. re, retro, hack, 
backwards, as in dvaKdp.TTTn.v, dvax<i>pf'iv, etc. Cf. Win. 
De verb. comp. Pt. iii. p. 3 sq.* 

dva-Pa6|x6s, -ov, 6, {^adfios, and this fr. ^a'iva>) ; 1. 
an ascent. 2. a means of going up, ajiight of steps, 
a stair : Acts xxi. 35, 40. Exx. fr. Grk. writ, in Lob. ad 
Phryn. p. 324 sq.* 

dva-Pa(v(o ; [impf . dvt^aivov Acts iii. 1 ; fut. dva^rjaofiai 
Ro. X. 6, after Deut. xxx. 12]; pf. dva^t^rjKa; 2 aor. 
dve^rjv, ptcp. dva^ds, impv. dvd^a Rev. iv. 1 (dvdj^Tjdi 
Lchm.), plur. dvaSare (for RG dvalSr^Tf) Rev. xi. 12 L 
T Tr [WH ; cf. WH. App. p. 168"] ; W. § 14, 1 h. ; [B. 54 
(47) ; fr. Iloni. down] ; Sept. for r\'^Jl,i au to go up, 
move to a higher place, ascend: a tree (eW), Lk. xix. 
4 ; upon the roof of a house (eVi), Lk. v. 19 ; into a ship 
(«y), Mk. vi. 51; [Mt. xv. 39 GTrtxt.; Acts xxi. 6 
Tdf.] ; fls TO opos, Mt. V. 1 ; Lk. ix. 28 ; Mk. iii. 13 ; eh to 
inrepatov, Acts i. 13; dt tov ovpavov, Ro. x. 6 ; Rev. xi. 12; 
(Is Tovovp. is omitted, but to be supplied, in Jn. i. 51 (52) ; 
vi. 62, and in the phrase dva^. rrpoj tov narepa, Jn. xx. 1 7. 
(It is commonly maintained that those persons are fig. 
said dva^f^rjKfvai. (Is tov ovpavov, who have penetrated the 
heavenly mysteries: Jn. iii. 13, cf. Deut. xxx. 12; Prov. 
xxiv. 27 (xxx. 4) ; Bar. iii. 29. But in these latter pass, 
also the expression is to be understood literally. And as 
respects Jn. iii. 13, it must be remembered that Christ 
brought his knowledge of the divine counsels with him 
from heaven, inasmuch as he had dwelt there prior to 
his incarnation. Now the natural language was ovbds 
rfv (V Tw ovpava ; but the expression dvafi(^r)K(v is used 
because none but Christ could get there except by a s- 
c e n d i n g. Accordingly d firj refers merely to the idea, 
involved in dvajSf^rjKcv, ofapastresidencein heaven. 
Cf. Meyer [or Westcott] ad loc.) Used of travelling to a 
higher place : ds 'UpoaoX. Mt. xx. 17 sq. ; Mk. x. 32 sq., 
etc. ; ds TO i(p6v, Jn. vii. 14 ; Lk. xviii. 10. Often the place 
to or into which the ascent is made is not mentioned, but 
is easily understood from the context : Acts viii. 31 (into 
the chariot) ; Mk. xv. 8 (to the palace of the governor, 
ace. to the reading dva^ restored by L T Tr txt. WH 
for R G dva^orjirai), etc. ; or the place alone id men- 
tioned from which (dno, ek) the ascent is made : Mt. iii. 
16 ; Acts viii. 39 ; Rev. xi. 7. b. in a wider sense 



of things rising up, to rise, mount, be borne up, spring 
up: of a fish swimming up, Mt. xvii. 27 ; of smoke rising 
up. Rev. viii. 4 ; ix. 2 ; of plants springing up from the 
ground, Mt. xiii. 7 ; Mk. iv. 7, 32, (as in Grk. writ. ; 
Theophr. hist, plant. 8, 3, and Hebr. Tlhy) ; of things 
which come up in one's mind (Lat. suboriri) : dva^aiv. eVt 
Tr]v Kap8. or (v ttj Kap8ia, Lk. xxiv. 38 ; 1 Co. ii. 9 ; Acts 
vii. 23 (dv(^r) eVt ttjv k. it came into his mind i. e. he re- 
solved, foil, by inf.), after the Hebr. dVSx T\hy, Jer. iii. 
16, etc. [B. 135 (118)]. Of messages, prayers, deeds, 
brought up or reported to one in a higher place : Acts 
X. 4 ; xxi. 31 (tidings came up to the tribune of the 
cohort, who dwelt in the tower Antonia). [Comp. : irpoa--, 
(rvv-ava^ai.va>.'\ 

dva-pdWw: 2 aor. mid. di/f/SaXd/xjjj/; 1. to throw or 
toss up. 2. to put back or ojf, delay, postpone, (very 
often in Grk. writ.) ; in this sense also in mid. (prop, to 
defer for one's self) : rivd, to hold back, delay ; in a 
forensic sense to put off any one (Lat. ampliare, Cic. 
Verr. act. 2, 1, 9 § 26) i. e. to defer hearing and decid- 
ing (adjourn) any one's case : Acts xxiv. 22 ; cf. Kypke 
[or Wetst.] ad loc* 

dva-Pipd^(i> : 1 aor. dve^i^aaa ; to cause to go up or as- 
cend, to draw up, (often in Sept. and Grk. writ.) : Mt. 
xiii. 48, (Xen. HeU. 1, 1, 2 irpos ttjv yrjv di/e/3i'^aff tus 

(aVTOV TpiT)p(ls}.* 

dva-p\eirw ; 1 aor. dve^Xc^a; [fr. Hdt. down]; 1. 
to look up : Mk. viii. 24, [25 R G L] ; xvi. 4 ; Lk. xix. 5 ; 
xxi. 1 ; Acts xxii. 1 3 ; ('is Tiva, ibid. ; ds tov ovpavov, Mt. 
xiv. 19; Mk. vi. 41; vii. 34, (Plat. Axioch. p. 370 b.; 
Xen. Cyr. 6, 4, 9). 2. to recover (lost) sight : Mt. xi. 
5; xx. 34; Lk. xviii. 41 sqq., etc. ([Hdt. 2, 111 ;] Plat. 
Phaedrus p. 243 b. napaxpriixa dvf^Xc^(, Arstph. Plut. 
126) ; used somewhat loosely also of the man blind from 
birth who was cured by Christ, Jn. ix. 11 (12) (cf. Meyer 
ad loc), 17 sq. (Pans. 4, 12, 7 (10) (tvv(^t) top *O0to«/«o 
. . .tov (k y(V(Tr]s tv(})X6v dva^Xt'^ai). Cf. Win^Deverh. 
comp. etc. Pt. iii. p. 7 sq. 

dvd-p\c\|/is, -(as, fj, recovery of sight: Lk. iv. 18 (19), 
(Sept. Is. Ixi. 1). [Aristot.]* 

dva-Pod(D, -o) : 1 aor. dv(^6r]<Ta ; [fr. Aeschyl. and Hdt. 
down] ; to raise a cry, to cry out anything, say it shout- 
ing : Lk. ix. 38 (L T Tr WH t/Sd^/o-f ) ; Mk. xv. 8 (where 
read dva^ds, see dva^aiva, a. sub fin.) ; with the addition 
of cjiojv^ fKyaXi], Mt. xxvii. 46 [Tr WH L mrg. (^6r]a('], 
(as Gen. xxvii. 38; Is. xxxvi. 13, etc.). Cf. Win. De 
verb, comp. Ft. iiL p. 6 sq. ; [and see Soda, fin.].* 

dva-Po\irj, -rjs, f], {dva^dXXa, q. v.), often in Grk. writ., 
a putting off, delay : noida-dai dva^oXfjv to interpose (lit. 
make) delay. Acts xxv. 1 7, (as in Thuc. 2, 42 ; Dion. Hal. 
11, 33; Plut. Camill. c. 35).* 

dvd-yaiov, -nv, to, (fr. dva and ya2a i. e. yrj), prop, any- 
thing above the ground ; hence a room in the upper part 
of a house : Mk. xiv. 15 ; Lk. xxii. 12,(in G L T Tr WH). 
Also written dvayaiov (which Tdf. formerly adopted; 
cf. Xen. an. 5, 4, 29 [where Dind. dvuKdav]), dva>y(ov 
(Rec), dvo)y((i>v ; on this variety in writing cf. Lob. ad 
Phryn. p. 297 sq. ; \_Rutherford, New Phryn p. 358]; 



dvayyeWco 



36 



avaSeiKvv/jLi 



Fritzsche on Mk. p. 611 sq.; B. 13 (12); [WH. App. 
p. 151].* 

av-ayyiWto ; impf . avf]yy(Wov ; [fut. ai/ayyeXo)] ; 1 aor. 
avriyytiXa; 2 aor. pass. dvrjyyeKrjv, Ko. XV. 21 ; 1 Fet. i. 12 
(several times in Sept.; 1 Mace. ii. 31 ; W. 82 (78); 
[Veitch s. V. dyyeXXw]) ; to announce, make known, [cf. 
ava, 3 b.] : tI, Acts xix. 18 ; foil, by on, Jn. v. 15 [L mrg. 
WH txt. T fTntv'] ; oaa kt\. Acts xiv. 27 ; [Mk. v. 19 R 
G L mrg.] ; [absol. with els, ^Ik. v. 14 Rec] ; equiv. to 
disclose : ri rivi, Jn. iv. 25; xvi. 13-15 ; used of the for- 
mal proclamation of the Christian religion : Acts xx. 

20 ; 1 Pet. i. 12 ; 1 Jn. i. 5 : itepi nvos, Ro. xv. 21 (Is. hi. 
15) ; to report, bring hack tidings, rehearse, used as in 
Grk. writers (Aeschyl. Prom. 664 (661) ; Xen. an. 1, 3, 

21 ; Polyb. 25, 2, 7) of messengers reporting what they 
have seen or heard, [cf. dvd u. s.] : rt. Acts xvi. 38 
(where L T Tr WII a^yy.) ; 2 Co. vii. 7. 

dva--Yevvdw, -w : 1 aor. dveyevvrjaa ; pf . pass, dvayeyev- 
vtjfiai ; to produce again, beget again, beget anew : metaph. : 
Tivd, thoroughly to change the mind of one, so that he 
lives a new life and one conformed to the will of God, 

1 Pet. i. 3 ; passively ck tivos, ibid. i. 23. (In the same 
sense in eccl. writ. [cf. Soph. Lex. s. v.]. Among prof, 
auth. used by Joseph, antt. 4, 2, 1 rwv sk tov o-racridfetf 
avTois dvayfvpoififpcov [yet Bekker av yevofiivatv] beivav 
which originated.)* 

dva-"yivio<rKto ; [im])f. dvfyiva)aKev Acts viii. 28] ; 2 aor. 
dveyvoiv, [inf. dvayvaivai Lk. iv. IG], jitcp. dvayvovs', Pass., 
[pres. dvayivci)a-KOfiai] ; 1 aor. dveyvuxrdrjv ; in prof. auth. 
1. to distinguish betioeen, to recognize, to know accurately, 
to acknowledge; hence 2. to read, (in this signif. 
["first in Pind. O. 10 (11). 1"] fr. [Arstph.,] Time, 
down) : ri, Mt. xxii. 31 ; Mk. xii. 10 ; Lk. vi. 3 ; Jn. xix. 
20; Acts ^-iii. 30, 32; 2 Co. i. 13; [Gal. iv. 21 Lchm. 
mrg.] ; Rev. i. 3 ; v. 4 Rec. ; riva, one's book, Acts viii. 
28, 30 ; ev with dat. of the book, Mt. xii. 5 ; xxi. 42 ; Mk. 
xii. 26 ; with ellipsis of eV ra vofia, Lk. x. 26 ; foU. by on 
[objective], ]\It. xix. 4 ; [foil, by on recitative, Mt. xxi. 
16] ; tI enoiTjaf, Mt. xii. 3 ; Mk. ii. 25. The obj. not 
mentioned, but to be understood from what precedes : 
Mt. xxiv. 15 ; Mk. xiii. 14; Acts xv. 31 ; xxiii. 34; Eph. 
iii. 4 ; pass. 2 Co. iii. 2. to read to others, read aloud : 

2 Co. iii. 15 ; Acts xv. 21, (in both places Mcovo-^y i. q. 
the books of Moses) ; [Lk. iv. 16 ; Acts xiii. 27] ; 1 Th. 
V. 27; Col.iv. 16.* 

dvo-yKd^io ; [im])f. r^vdyKa^ov] ; 1 aor. r^vdyKaaa ; 1 aor. 
pass. r]vayKda6r]u ; (fr. dvayar)) ; [fr. Soph, down] ; to 
necessitate, compel, drive to, constrain, whether by force, 
threats, etc., or by persuasion, entreaties, etc., or by 
other means : nvd, 2 Co. xii. 1 1 (by your behavior 
towards me) ; nvd foil, by inf.. Acts xxvi. 1 1 ; xxviii. 
19 ; Gal. ii. 3. 14 (by your example) ; vi. 12 ; Mt. xiv. 
22; :\Ik. vi. 45; Lk. xiv. 23.* 

dva^KaioS) -aia, -aiov, (dvdyKr)). [fr. Horn, down (in vari- 
ous senses)], necessary \ a. what one cannot do with- 
out, indispensable : 1 Co. xii. 22 (to fifXr]) ; Tit. iii. 14 
(xpfiai)- b. connected by the bonds of nature or of 
friendship : Acts x. 24 {dvayKoioi [A. V. near} <piXoi). 



c. what ought according^ to the law of duty to be done, 
what is required by the condition of things: Phil. i. 24. 
dvayKoiov icrn foil, by acc. with inf.. Acts xiii. 46 ; Heb. 
viii. 3. dvayKoiov r^ytlaBai to deem necessary, foil, by 
inf., Phil. ii. 25; 2 Co. ix. 5.* 

dva-yKao-Tus, adv., by force or constraint ; opp. to tnov 
o-i'wy, 1 Pet. V. 2. (Piat. Ax. p. 366 a.)* 

dvd-yioi, -ryy, rj \ 1. necessity, inij)osed either by the 
external condition of things, or by the law of duty, re- 
gard to one's advantage, custom, argument : kot dvdyKrjv 
perforce (opp. to Kara eKovcriov), Philem. 14 : i^ dvayK-qs 
of necessity, compelled, 2 Co. ix. 7; Ileb. vii. 12 {neces- 
sarily) ; €xo> dvdyKTjv I have (am compelled by) neces- 
sity, (also in Grk. writ.) : 1 Co. vii. 37 ; Ileb. vii. 27 ; foil, 
by inf., Lk. xiv. 18; xxiii. 17 RLbr. ; Jude 3; dv. fioi 
fTtiKfirai necessity is laid upon me, 1 Co. ix. 16: amy*:?; 
(i. q. di/ayKoiop ecrn) foil, by inf. : Mt. xviii. 7 ; Ro. xiii. 
5 ; Heb. ix. 16, 23, (so Grk. writ.). 2. in a sense rare 
in the classics (Diod. 4, 43), but very common in Hellen- 
istic writ, (also in Joseph, b. j. 5, 13, 7, etc. ; see W. 30), 
calamity, distress, straits : Lk. xxi. 23 ; 1 Co. vii. 26 ; 1 Th. 
iii. 7 ; plur. (u dvdyKuis, 2 Co. vi. 4 ; xii. 10.* 

dva--yv(op(t'^ : 1 aov. Yiass. dveyvupirrSrjv; to recognize: 
Acts vii. 13 [Tr txt. WHtxt. fyvo}pia6ri~\ was recognized 
by his brethren, cf. Gen. xiv. 1. (Plat, politic, p. 258 a. 
dvayvcopi^fiv tovs avyyfVf'is.)* 

dvd--Yva)o-is, -ecof, rj, (dvayivaaKa), q. v.) ; a. a know- 

ing again, owning. b. reading, [fr. Platoon]: Acts 
xiii. 15 ; 2 Co. iii. 14 ; 1 Tim. iv. 13. (Neh. viii. 8 i. q. 

av-d'yci) : 2 aor. dvrjyayov, inf. dvayayelv, [ptcp. dvaya- 
yo)!/] ; Pass., [pres. di'dyopai] ; 1 aor. [cf. sub fin.] dvr]- 
x6r)v ; [fr. Hom. down] ; to lead up, to lead or bring into 
a higher place; foil, by fU with acc. of the place: Lk. 
ii. 22; iv. 5 [T Tr WII om. L br. the cl.] ; xxii. 66 [T 
TrWH a7n-;yayoj/] ; Acts ix. 39; xvi. 34; Mt. iv. 1 (ds 
T. eprjpou, sc. fr. the low bank of the Jordan). Tii/d eK 
vtKpav fr. the dead in the world below, to the upper 
world, Heb. xiii. 20 ; Ro. x. 7 ; rii/d tw Xaw to bring one 
forth who has been detained in prison (a lower place), 
and set him before the people to be tried. Acts xii. 4 ; 
Qvcr'iav TU) fiSwXw to offer sacrifice to the idol, because 
the victim is lifted up on the altar. Acts vii. 41. Navi- 
gators are Kar e^o^riv said dvdyfffQai (pass, [or mid. J) 
when they launch out, set sail, put to sea, (so dvayuiyr) 
in Justin. Mart. dial. c. Tr. c. 142 [and in the classics]) : 
Lk. viii. 22 ; Acts xiii. 13; xvi. 11 ; xviii. 21 ; xx. 3, 13; 
xxi. [1], 2; xxvii. 2, 4, 12, 21 ; xxviii. 10 sq. (Polyb. 
1, 21, 4 ; 23, 3, etc.) [Comp. : eV-ai/dya).] * 

dva-ScCKtruiii : 1 aor. dvtbei^a, [inipv. dudbei^ou: fr. Soph, 
down] ; to lift up anything on high and exhibit it for all 
to behold (Germ, aufzeigen) ; hence to show accurately, 
clearly, to disclose what was hidden, (2 Mace. ii. 8 cf. 
6) : Acts i. 24 (show which of these two thou hast 
chosen). Hence dva8. nvd to proclaim any one as elected 
to an office, to announce as appointed (king, general, 
etc., messenger): Lk. x. 1, (2 Mace. ix. 14, 23, 25; x. 
11; xiv. 12, 26; 1 Esdr. i. 35; viii. 23; Polyb. 4, 48, 



dvdSei^L^ 



37 



avaOe/jLarl^od 



3; 51, 3; Diod. i. 66; 13, 98; Plut. Caes. 37, etc.; 
Hdian. 2, 12, 5 (3), al.). Cf. Win. De verb. comp. Pt. 
iii. p. 12 sq.* 

dvd-8€i.|iS) -ecos, fj^ (draSeiKW/Ltt, q. v.), a painting out, 
public t>howing forth ; rSiv ;(pdi/ti)j/. Sir. xliii. G. a pm- 
claiming, announcing, ifuiugurating, of sucli as ai'e elected 
to oflioe (Plut. Mar. 8 vnarav dvadfi^is [cf. Polyb. 15, 26, 
7]) : Lk. i. 80 (until the day when he was announced 
[A. V. of his shelving^ to the people as the forerunner 
of the Messiah ; this announcement he himself made at 
the command of God, Lk. iii. 2 sqq.).* 

dva-8€xonat : 1 aor. duede^dixrjv ; fr. Hom. down ; to 
take up, take upon one's self, undertake, assume ; hence 
to receive, entertain any one hospitably : Acts xxviii. 7 ; 
to entertain' in one's mind: ras eTrayyeXias, i. e. to em- 
brace them with faith, Heb. xi. 1 7.* 

dva-8i8(o|ii. : 2 aor. ptcp. dvadovs ; 1. to give forth, 
send up, so of the earth producing plants, of plants 
yielding fruit, etc. ; in prof. auth. 2. ace. to the sec- 
ond sense which dvd has in composition [see dvd, 3 b.], 
to deliver up, hand over : enia-ToXrju, Acts xxiii. 33, (the 
same phrase in Polyb. [29, 10, 7] and Plut.).* 

dva-^dw, -Q) : 1 aor. dvi^rjcra ; a word found only in the 
N. T. and eccl. writ. ; to live again, recover life ; a. 
prop., in Rec. of Ro. xiv. 9 ; Rev. xx. 5. b. trop. 
one is said dva^rjv who has been veKpos in a trop. sense ; 
a. to be restored to a correct life : of one who returns to 
a better moral state, Lk. xv. 24 [ WH mrg. eXj/trei/] ([A. V. 
is alive again'], cf. Mey. ad loc), 32 (TTr WH 'dCrjae). 
/3. to revive, regain strength and vigor : Ro. vii. 9 ; sin is 
alive, indeed, and vigorous among men ever since the 
fall of Adam ; yet it is destitute of power (v(Kpd eari) 
in innocent cliildren ignorant of the law ; but when they 
come to a knowledge of the law, sin recovers its power 
in them also. Others less aptly explain dpe^rja-e here 
began to live, sprang into life, (Gei'm. lebte auf).* 

dva-^Tire'd), -co ; [impf. di/e^jjrovi'] ; 1 a,or. dve^)]T7](ra; 'to 
run through with the eyes any series or succession of 
men or things, and so to seek out, search through, make 
diligent search. Germ, daran hinsuchen, aifsuchen' (_Win. 
De verb. comp. etc. Pt. iii. p. 14) : nvd, Lk. ii. 44, (and 
45 L txt. T Tr WII) ; Acts xi. 25. (See exx. fr. Grk. 
writ. [fr. Plato on] in Win. 1. c.) * 

dva-5wwv(Ai : to gird up', mid. to gird up one's self or 
for one's self: dva^coadfjiepoi rds 6(r(f)iias, 1 Pet. i. 13, i. e. 
prepared, — a metaphor derived from the practice of the 
Orientals, who in order to be unimpeded in their move- 
ments were accustomed, when about to start on a jour- 
ney or engage in any work, to bind their long and flow- 
ing garments closely around their bodies and fasten them 
with a leathern girdle; cf. jrept^oivvvfii. (Sept. Judg. 
xviii. 16 ; Prov. xxix. 35 (xxxi. 17) ; Dio Chrys. or. 72, 
2, ed. Emp. p. 729; Didym. ap. Athen. 4, (17) p. 139 
d., al.)* 

dva-twirvpcw, -co ; (to (anrvpov i. e. a. the remains of 
a fire, embers; b. that by which the fire is kindled 
anew or lighted up, a pair of bellows) ; to kindle anew, 
rekindle, resuscitate, [yet on the force of dva- cf. Ellic. 



on 2 Tim. as below] ; generally trop., to kindle up, in- 
fame, one's 7nind, strength, zeal, (Xen. de re ctjuest. 10, 
16 of a horse roused to his utmost; Hell. 5, 4, 46 ; An- 
tonin. 7, 2 (Pavraa-ias ; Plut. Pericl. 1, 4; Pomp. 41, 2; 
49, 5 ; Plat. Charm, p. 156 d. ; etc.) : to xdpio-fia, 2 Tim. 
i. 6, i. e. TO TTvevpa, vs. 7. Intrans. to be enkindled, to 
gain strength : Gen. xlv. 27 ; 1 Mace. xiii. 7, and in prof, 
auth.; dva^coTTvpTjo-tirw r^ tti(ttis, Clem. Rom. 1 Cor. 27, 3 
[see Ge])h. and Harn. ad loc.].* 

dva-6dXXcd : 2 aor. dveSaXov; (Ps. xxvii. (xxviii.) 7; 
Sap. iv. 4 ; very rare in Grk. writ, and only in the poets, 
cf. Btt7n. Ausf. Spr. ii. p. 195 ; [Veitch s. v. (9dXXw ; W. 
87 (83); B. 59 (52)]) ; to shoot up, sprout again, grow 
green again, Jlourish again, (Hom. II. 1, 236 ; Ael. v. h. 
5, 4) ; trop. of those whose condition and afPairs are 
becoming more prosperous: Pliil. iv. 10 dveOakfTe to 
vnep epov (ppoveiv ye have revived so as to take thought for 
■me [the inf. being the Grk. accus., or accus. of specificar 
tion, W. 317 (298) ; cf. Ellic. ad loc.]. Others, ace. to 
a trans, use of the verb found only in the Sept. (Ezek. 
xvii. 24; Sir. i. 18, etc.), render ye have revived {alloived 
to revive) your thought for me [the inf. being taken as an 
object-acc, W. 323 (303) ; B. 263 (226) ; cf. Bp. Lghtft- 
ad loc] ; against whom see Meyer ad loc* 

dvd-6€(Aa, -To^, to, (i. q. to dvaTfdeipevoi/) ; 1. prop. 

a thing set up or laid by in order to be kept; spec a. 
votive offering, which after being consecrated to a god 
was hung upon the walls or columns of his temple, or put 
in some other conspicuous place : 2 Mace ii. 13, (Plut. 
Pelop. c. 25); Lk. xxi. 5 in L T, for dvaSrjpaai RGTr 
WH ; for the two forms are sometimes confounded in the 
codd. ; Moeris, dvd6rjpa aTTiKas, dvddepa eWrjviKms- Cf. 
eTri6r)pa, emOepa, etc., in Lob. ad Pliryn. p. 249 [cf. 445; 
ParaL417; see also iipsms, Gram. Unters. p. 41]. 2. 
dvddepa in the Sept. is generally the translation of the 
Heb. mn, a thing devoted to God without hope of being 
redeemed, and, if an animal, to be slain [Lev. xxvii. 28, 
29] ; therefore a person or thing doomed to destruction, 
Josh. vi. 17; vii. 12, etc. [W. 32]; a thing abominable 
and detestable, an accursed tiling, Deut. vii. 26. Hence 
in the N. T. dvddepa denotes a. a curse : dvadepnTL dva- 
eepaTiCfLv, Acts xxiii. 14 [W. 466 (434) ; B. 184 (159)]. 
b. a man accursed, devoted to the direst woes (i. q. eVt- 
KaTaparoi) : dvddepa eartu, Gal. i. 8 sq. ; 1 Co. xvi. 22 ; 
duddepa Xeyetp Tivd to execrate one, 1 Co. xii. 3 (RG, 
but L T Tr WH have restored dvddepa 'Irjaovs, sc. ea-Ta) ; 
dvddepa elvai dno Toij XpiaTOv, Ro. ix. 3 (pregnantly i. q. 
doomed and so separated /)-o?« Christ). Cf. the full re- 
marks on this word in Fritzsche on Rom. vol. ii. 247 
sqq. ; Wieseler on Gal. p. 39 sqq. ; [a trans, of the latter 
by Prof. Riddle in Schaff's Lange on Rom. p. 302 sqq. ; 
see also Trench § v. ; Bp. Lightfoot on Gal. 1. c ; Elli- 
cott ibid. ; Tholuck on Rom. 1. c. ; BB.DD. s. vv. Anath- 
ema, Excommunication].* 

oiva-OciiarC^M ; 1 aor. dvedepdricxa ; (dvddepa, q. v.) ; a 
purely bibl. and eccl. word, to declare anathema or ac- 
cursed ; in the Sept. i. q. D'lDr' ^o devote to destruction, 
(Josh. vi. 21, etc. ; 1 Mace. v. 5) ; eavrov to declare one's 



dvadecopea) 



38 



ai^aKe(f>a\acoa> 



self liable to the severest divine penalties, Acts xxiii. 
12, 21; dvaOtnari avadfixaTi^eiv (Deut. xiii. 15; xx. 17, 
[W. § 54, 3; B. 184 (159)]) eauroy foil, by inf., to bind 
one's self under a curse to do something. Acts xxiii. 14. 
absol., to asseverate with direful imprecations : Mk. xiv. 
71. [COMP. : KaT-avadefxarl^oi.^* 

ava-6i(Dpi(o, -o) ; prop. ' to survey a series of things from 
the lowest to the highest, Germ, daran hinsehen, lungs 
durchsehen', [to look along up or through'], ( Win. De verb, 
comp. Pt. iii. p. 3); hence to look at attentively, to observe 
accurately, consider well : rt, Acts xvii. 23 ■, Ileb. xiii. 7. 
(Diod. Sic. 12, 15 f^ e7!-t7roX^9 ^tv dfoipovfievos • • • avadfoy- 
povfifvos 8e Koi iJ.€T oKpilifias f$fra(ofi€Pos', 14,109; 2, 
5; Lcian. vit. auct. 2; necyom. 15; Plut. Aem. P. 1 
[uncertain]; Cat. min. 14; [adv. Colot. 21, 2].)* 

dvd-0ii|ia, -Tos, TO, (dvaTidrjfii), a gift consecrated and 
laid up in a temple, a votive offering (see avaQffia, 1) : Lk. 
xxi. 5 [RGTrWH]. (3 Mace. iii. 17; cf. Grimm on 
2 Mace. iii. 2 ; Koa-fxdv dvadrjuaa-i occurs also in 2 Mace, 
ix. 16; Plato, Alcib. ii. § 12, p. 148 e. duadrjfiaai re k€- 
KoafiTjKafifv ra lepa avraiv, Hdt. 1, 183 to fiev 8r] Upov 
ovTco KfK6(Tp.i]Tai * ((TTi 8e KOI i8ia ava6r]p.aTa ttoXXo.)* 

dvaiSeia (T Wll di/atSi'a ; see I, t), -as, tj, (duaidrjs, and 
this fr. 17 al8ois a sense of shame) ; fr. Horn, down ; 
shamelessness, impudence : Lk. xi. 8 (of an importunate 
man, persisting in his entreaties; [A. V. importunity']).* 

dv-ttCpto-is, -fos, Tj, (fr. dvaipfco, 2, q. v.), a destroying, 
killing, murder, 'taking off' : Acts viii. 1 ; xxii. 20 Rec. 
(Sept. only in Num. xi. 15; Judg. xv. 17; Jud. xv. 4; 
2 Mace. V. 13. Xen. Hell. 6, 3, 5; Hdian. 2, 13, 1.)* 

dv-aipcw, -to ; fut. aftXco, 2 Th. ii. 8 (L T Tr WH txt. cf. 
Jud. vii. 13 ; Dion. Hal. 11, 18 ; Diod. Sic. 2, 25 ; cf. W. 
82 (78) ; [B. 53 (47) ; Veitch s. v. aipta, " perh. late 
eXw "]), for the usual dvaiprjo-co ; 2 aor. dvelXov ; 2 aor. mid. 
dvei\6p.r]v (but dveiXaTO Acts vii. 21, dvf'iXav Acts x. 39, 
dvflXare Acts ii. 23, in G L T Tr WH, after the Alex. 
form, cf. W. 73 (71) sq. ; B. 39 (34) sq. [see aipea]) ; 
Pass., pres. di'aipov/iat; 1 aor. di/.i^pe^r^i/ ; 1. to take up, 
to lift up (from the ground) ; mid. to take up for myself 
as mine, to orvn, (an exposed infant) : Acts vii. 21 ; (so 
di/aipetcr^ai, Arstph. nub. 531; Epict. diss. 1, 23, 7; 
[Plut. Anton. 36, 3; fortuna Rom. 8; fratern. am. 18, 
etc.]). 2. to take away, abolish; a. ordinances, es- 
tablished customs, (to abrogate) : Heb. x. 9 : b. a man, 
to put out of the way, slay, kill, (often so in Sept. and 
Grk. writ. fr. [Hdt. 4, 66] Thuc. down) : Mt. ii. 16 ; Lk. 
xxii. 2 ; xxiii. 32 ; Acts ii. 23 ; v. 33, 36 ; vii. 28 ; ix. 23 
sq. 29; x. 39; xii. 2; xiii. 28; xxii. 20; xxiii. 15, 21, 27; 
XXV. 3 ; xxvi. 10 ; 2 Th. ii. 8 L T Tr WH txt. ; eavrov, to 
kill one's self, Acts xvi. 27.* 

dv-aCrioS) -ov, (ahla) guiltless, innocent: Mt. xii. 5, 7. 
(Often in (Jrk. writ.; Deut. xxi. 8 sq. i. q. 'pj; Sus. 62.)* 

dva-KaS-i^w : 1 aor. dveKaOia-a ; to raise one's self and 
sit upright; to sit up, sit erect: Lk. vii. 15 [Lchm. mrg. 
WHmrg. (Ka6ia-ev]; Acts ix. 40. (Xen. cyn. 5, 7, 19; 
Plut. Alex. c. 14 ; and often in medical writ. ; with 
tavTov, Plut. Philop. c. 20 ; mid. in same sense, Plat. 
Phaedo c. 3 p. 60 b.)* 



dva-KaivC^w ; (kqivos) ; to reneiv, renovate, (cf. Germ. 
aujfrischen) : rti/d fls pfrdvoiav so to renew that he shall 
repent, Heb. vi. 6. (Isocr. Areop. 3 ; Pliilo, leg. ad Gaium 
§11; Joseph, antt. 9,8,2; Plut. Marcell. c. 6 ; Lcian. 
Philop. c. 1 2 ; Sept. Ps. cii. (ciii.) 5 ; ciii. (civ.) 30, etc. ; 
eccl. writ.) Cf. Win. De verb. comp. Pt. iii. p. 10.* 

dva-Kaivoo), -w : [pres. pass. dvaKaiPoLpai] ; a word 
pecuhar to the apostle Paul; prop, to cause to grow up 
(dm) 7iew, to make new ; pass., new strength and vigor 
is given to me, 2 Co. iv. 16 ; to be changed into a new 
kind of life, opposed to the former corrupt state, Col. 
iii. 10. Cf. Win. De verb. comp. Pt. iii. p. 10 [or Mey. 
on Col. I.e.; Test. xii. Patr., test. Levi 16, 17 dvoKaivo- 
TToteco. Cf. Kbstlin in Herzog ed. 2, i. 477 sq.]* 

dva-KaCvoxris, -tcoj, fj, a renewal, renovation, complete 
change for the better, (of. dvuKaivoai) : toii voos, object, gen., 
Ro. xii. 2 ; nvevpuTos dylov, eflected by the Holy Spirit, 
Tit. iii. 5. (Etym. Magn., Suid. ; [Herm. vis. 3, 8, 9; 
other eccl. writ.] ; the simple KatVoxriy is found only in 
Joseph, antt. 18, 6, 10.) [Cf. Trench § xviii.] * 

dva-KaXviTTw : [Pass., pres. ptcp. dvaKaXvTtTofifvos ; pf. 
ptcp. dvaicfKaXvpfjLivos] ', to unveil, to uncover (by 

drawing back the veil), (i. q. nSj, Job xii. 22 ; Ps. xvii. 
(xviii.) 16) : KoXvpua . . . fxf] dvaKaXv7rT6p.fvov the veil . . . 
7iot being lifted (lit. unveiled) [so AVH punctuate, see 
W. 534 (497); but L T Alf . etc. take the ptcp. as a 
neut. ace. absol. referring to the clause that follows with 
oTt : it not being revealed that, etc. ; (for dvoKoX. in this 
sense see Polyb. 4, 85, 6 ; Tob. xii. 7, 11) ; see Meyer ad 
loc], is used allegor. of a hindrance to the understand- 
ing, 2 Co. iii. 14, (dvaKaXinrTdv avyicaXvpixa, Deut. xxii. 
30 Alex.) ; dvaKfKaXvp.pevu> npoaunra with unveiled face, 
2 Co. iii. 18, is also used allegor. of a mind not blinded, 
but disposed to perceive the glorious majesty of Christ. 
(The word is used by Eur., Xen., [Aristot. de sens. 5, 
vol. i. p. 444^ 25], Polyb., Plut.)* 

dva-Kdfiirrw : fut. dvaKapylro) ; 1 aor. dv(Kap\l/a; to bend 
back, turn back. In the N. T. (as often in prof. auth. ; 
in Sept. i. q. 2W) intrans. to return: Mt. ii. 12; Lk. 
X. 6 (where the meaning is, ' your salutation shall return 
to you, as if not spoken ') ; Acts xviii. 21 ; Heb. xi. 15.* 

dvd-K€i|iai ; [impf. 3 pers. sing. di/eVetro] ; depon. mid. 
to be laid up, laid : Mk. v. 40 R L br. [cf . Eng. to lay out]. 
In later Grk. to lie at table (on the lectus tricliniaris [cf. 
B.D. s. V. Meals] ; the earlier Greeks used Kftadai, koto- 
Kt'iadat, cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 216 sq. ; Fritzsche [or 
Wetst.] on Mt. ix. 10) : Mt. ix. 10; xxii. 10 sq. ; xxvi. 
7, 20 ; Mk. [vi. 26 T Tr WH] ; xiv. 18 ; xvi. 14 ; Lk. vii. 
37 (LTTrWH KaTdKeirm); xxii. 27; Jn. xii. 2 (Rec. 
avvavaKdfi.) ; xiii. 23, 28. Generally, to eat together, to 
dine: Jn. vi. 11. [Cf. di/aTriVro), fin. CoMP. : avv-avar 
K€ifiai.] * 

dva-K€4>aXai6w, -co : [pres. pass. di/aK€(paXaioviiai ; 1 aor. 
mid. inf. dvaKfCpaXaioia-aa-dai] ; (fr. Kf(f)aXai6cii, q. v., and 
this fr. K((f)dXawv, (j. v.) ; to sum up (again), to repeat 
summarily and so to condense into a summary (as, the 
substance of a speech ; Quintil. 6. 1 ' rerum repetitio et 
congregatio, quae graece dvoKfCpaXaicoais dicitur ', [epyov 



avaKXLvoi 



39 



avoKvai'^ 



pjjTopiKrjs • . • dvaii((pa\ai6)(Ta(Tdai irpos dvanvrjaw, Aristot. 
frag. 123, vol. v. p. 14;>Lt', 33]); so in Ko. xiii. Ti. In 
Eph. i. 10 God is said avaKfcpaXaidjcraadai to. Trdma iv tm 
Xpio-rta, to bring together again for himself (note the 
mid.) all things and beings (hitherto disunited by sin) 
into one combined state of fellowship in Christ, the uni- 
versal bond, [cf. Mey. or EUic. on Eph. 1. c] ; (Protev. 
Jac. 13 (Is e/Lie dveKe(paXaici)6Tj rj icrTopia 'A8a/i, vrhere cf. 
Thilo).* 

dva-KXCvw : f ut. dvaKXivu) ; 1 aor. dvtK\iva ; Pass., 1 aor. 
dufK\idT]v; fut. dvaK\i6rjaofiai; [fr. Honi. down]; io lean 
against, lean upon ; a. to lay down : rivd, Lk. ii. 7 (iv 

(tv^ (^drj/j;). b. to make or bid to recline : Mk. vi. 39 
(intTa^ev avro'is, SC. the disciples, dvaicKlvai, [-KkiO^vai L 
WH txt.] nduras I e. the people) ; Lk. ix 15 (T Tr WH 
KariKXivav) ; xii. 37. Pass, to lie back, recline, lie down : 
Mt. xiv. 19; of those reclining at table and at feasts, 
Lk. vii. 36 (RG); xiii. 29; Mt. viii. 11, — in the last 
two pass, used fig. of participation in future blessedness 
in the Messiah's kingdom.* 

dva-KOTTTw : 1 aor. dveKo-^a ; to beat bad", check, (as the 
course of a ship, Theophr. char. 24 (25), 1 [var.]): 
Tivd foil, by an inf. [A. Y. hinder^, Gal. v. 7 Rec, where 
the preceding (rptx^Te shows that Paul was thinking of 
an obstructed road ; cf. eyKoiTTw* 

dva-Kpd^o) : 1 aor. [" rare and late," Veitch s. v. xpafu ; 
8. 61 (53)] dv€Kpa^a] 2 aor. dveKpayov (Lk. xxiii. 18 T 
Trtxt. WH) ; to raise a cry from the depth of the throat, 
'o cry out : IVIk. i. 23 ; vi. 49 ; Lk. iv. 33 ; viii. 28 ; xxiii. 
18. Exx. fr. prof. auth. in Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. 
iii. p. 6 sq.* 

dwa-KpCv<i> ; 1 aor. dvfKpiva', Pass., [pres. duaKpiuonai^ ; 
1 aor. dv(Kpi6i]v ; (freq. in Grk. writ., esp. Attic) ; prop. 
by looking through a series (dvd) of objects or particulars 
to distinguish (Kpiva>) or search after. Hence a. to 
investigate, examine, inquire into, scrutinize, sift, ques- 
tion: Acts xvii. 11 (jas ypa(pds); 1 Co. x. 25, 27 (not 
anxiously questioning, se. whether the meat set before 
you be the residue from heathen sacrifices). Spec, in a 
forensic sense (often also in Grk. writ.) of a judge, to 
hold an investigation ; to interrogate,, examine, the ac- 
cused or the ivitnesses; absol. : Lk. xxiii. 14; Acts xxiv. 
8. Tti/d, Acts xii. 19 ; xxviii. 18; pass., Acts iv. 9. Paul 
has in mind this judicial use (as his preceding term 
aTToKoy'ia shows) when in 1 Co. ix. 3 he speaks of rots 
ifie dvaKplvovai, investigating me, whether I am a true 
apostle. b. univ. to Judge of, estimate, determine (the 
excellence or defects of any person or thing) : rl, 1 Co. 
ii. 15 ; Tivd, 1 Co. iv. 3 sq. ; pass., 1 Co. ii. [14], 15 ; xiv. 
24. [Cf. Lghtjl. Fresh Revision, etc. iv. § 3 (p. 67 sq. 
Am. ed.).]* 

dva-Kpio-is, -fwf , 17, an examination ; as a law-term 
among the Greeks, the preliminary investigation held 
for the purpose of gathering evidence for the informa- 
tion of the judges (Meier and Schomann, Att. Process, 
pp. 27, [622; cf. Diet, of Antiq. s. v.]) ; this seems to 
be the sense of the word in Acts xxv. 26.* 

dva-KvX£a> : 1. to roll up. 2. to roll back : dvaKt- 



Kv\i(TTai 6 Xldos, Mk. xvi. 4 T Tr WH. (Alexis in Athen. 
vi. J). 237 c. ; Lcian. de luctu 8 ; Dion. Hal., Plut., al.) * 
dva-KviTTw : 1 aor. dveKv\l/a ; to raise or lift one's self 
up; a. one's body: Lk. xiii. 11 ; Jn. viii. 7, 10; (Xen. 
de re equ. 7, 10, al.; Sept. Job x. 15). b. one's soul; 
to be elated, exalted: Lk. xxi. 28 ; (Xen. oec. 11, 5; 
Joseph, b. j. 6, 8, 5, al.).* 

dva-XajiPdvo) ; 2 aor. dveXa^ov ; 1 aor. pass. dveXfjCpdiju 
(dveX.'ifKpdrjv LTTrWH; of. W. p. 48 [B. 62 (54); 
Veitch (s. x.Xafx^dvu) ; see Xay-fidvin, and s. v. M, /x]) ; [fr. 
Hdt. down] ; 1. to take up, raise : els rbv ovpavov, Mk. 
xvi. 19 ; Acts i. 11 ; x. 16, (Sept. 2 K. ii. 11) ; without 
case, Acts i. 2, 22; 1 Tim. iii. 16 [cf. W. 413 (385)], 
(Sir. xlviii. 9). 2. to take up (a thing in order to 
carry or use it) : Acts vii. 43 ; Eph. vi. 13, 16. to take 
to one's self: nvd, in order to conduct him. Acts xxiii. 
31 ; or as a comjjanion, 2 Tim. iv. 11 ; or in Acts xx. 13 
sq. to take up sc. into the ship.* 

dvd-\rn|/is {dmXT]p.\lfti L T Tr WH ; see M, fi), -ews, rj, 
(dvaXafjLl^dvco), [fr. IIij)pocr. down], a taking up: Lk. ix. 
51 (sc. eiy Tov ovpavov of the ascension of Jesus into 
heaven ; [cf. Test. xii. Patr. test. Levi § 18 ; Suicer, 
Thesaur. Eccles. s. v. ; and Meyer on Lk. 1. c.]).* 

dv-aXuTKw : fr. the pres. dvaXoco [3 pers. sing. dvaXol, 
2 Th. ii. 8 AYH mrg.] come the fut. dvaXaao) ; 1 aor. 
dvfjXiocra and dvdXwaa [see Veitch] ; 1 aor. pass. dvrjXoiy- 
6t]v; (the simple verb is found only in the pass. dXla-KOfiai 
to be taken ; but a in dXia-Kofiai is short, in dvaXia-Kio 
long; cf. Bttm. Ausf. Spr. ii. p. 113 ; [Veitch s. vv. ; "the 
diff. quantity, the act. form, the trans, sense of the pf., 
and above all the difference of sense, indicate a diff. 
origin for the two verbs." L. and S.]) ; [fr. Pind. 
down] ; 1. to expend ; to consume, e. g. ^^pij/xara (to 
spend money ; very often in Xen.). 2. to consume, 
use up, destroy : Lk. ix. 54 ; Gal. v. 15 ; 2 Th. ii. 8 R G 
WH mrg. (Sept. Jer. xxvii. (1.) 7 ; Prov. xxiii. 28 ; Gen. 
xii. 30, etc.) [CoMP. : /car-, ■Kpo(T-avdXl(TKa>.~\ * 

dvoXo-yCa, -ar, r], (dvdXoyos conformable, proportional), 
proportion : Kara ttjv avaXoyiav t^s nicTTeas, i. q. Kara to 
fierpov TTia-recos received from God, Ro. xii. 6, cf. 3. 
(Plat., Dem., Aristot., Theophr., al.)* 

dva-Xo^i^o^ai : 1 aor. dveXoyicrdiJirjv ; dep. mid. to think 
over, ponder, consider: commonly with ace. of the thing, 
but in Heb. xii. 3 with ace. of the pers. ' to consider by 
weighing, comparing,' etc. (3 Mace. vii. 7. Often in 
Grk. writ. fr. Plat, and Xen. down.) * 

dvoXos, -ov, (uXs salt), saltless, unsalted, (dproi avaXoi, 
Aristot. probl. 21, 5, 1 ; apros dvaXos, Plut. symp. v. 
quaest. 10 § 1) : &Xas avaXov salt destitute of pungency, 
Mk. ix. 50.* 

[dvoXow, see di/aXtWw.] 

dvd-Xv<ri,s, -ecoy, 17, (dvaXvco, q. v.) ; 1. an unloosing 
(as of things woven), a dissolving (into separate parts). 
2. departure, (a metaphor drawn from loosing from 
moorings preparatory to setting sail, cf. Horn. Od. 15, 
548 ; [or, ace. to others, fr. breaking up an encampment; 
cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Phil. i. 23]), Germ. Aufbruch: 2 Tim. 
iv. 6 (departure from life; Philo in Flacc. § 21 [p. 544 



avoKvcii 



40 



avairavto 



ed. Mang.] fj t'/c tov ^iov reXevraia avakvcris; [Clem. Rom. 

1 Cor. 44, 5 eyKapnov k. reXeiav eaxov rfjv dvaXvaiv, Euseb. 
h. e. 3, 32, 1 fiaprvpia tov jdiov dpaXiia-ai, ci. 3, 34j. Cf. 
dvdXva-is dno (rvvovcriai, Joseph, autt. 19, 4, 1).* 

dva-Xvw : fut. dvaKvcrat; 1 aor. dfsXucra; 1. to un- 

loose, undo again, (as, woven threads). 2. to depart, 
Germ, aufbrechen, break up (see avdXvo-is, 2), so very 
often in (irk. writ. ; to depart from life : Phil. i. 23, 
(Lcian. Philops. c. 14 oKTcoKai-BeKaeTijs ^v dviXvev, add 
Ael. V. h. 4, 23 ; [aveXva-ev 6 inianonoi IlXdrcoc eV Kvpico, 
Acta et mart. Matth. § 31]). to return, (k twi/ ydpav, 
Lk. xii. 36 [B. 145 (127); for exx.] cf. Kuinoel [and 
Wetstein] ad loc. ; Grimm on 2 Mace. viii. 25.* 

dva|Aa.pTT]Tos, -ov, (fr. dv priv. and the form dfiapTeco), 
sinless, both one who has not sinned, and one who cannot 
sin. In the former sense in Jn. viii. 7; Deut. xxLx. 19; 

2 Mace. viii. 4; xii. 42; [Test. xii. Patr. test. Benj. 
§ 3]. On the use of tliis word fr. Hdt. down, cf. Ull- 
mann, Siindlosigkeit Jesu, p. 91 sq. [(abridged in) Eng. 
trans, p. 99 ; Cremer s. v.].* 

dva-ne'vw ; [fr. Horn, down] ; nvd, to icait for one 
(Germ, erharren, or rather heranharren [i. e. to await 
one whose coming is known or foreseen]), with the 
added notion of patience and trust: 1 Th. i. 10 [cf. El- 
licott ad loc.]. Good Greek ; cf. Win. De verb. comp. 
etc. Pt. iii. p. 15 sq.* 

[dva-[i.€pos, i- e. dvd pfpos, see dud, 1.] 

[dv(x-n€o-ov, i. e. dvd pecrov, see dvd, 1.] 

dva-|j.i[j.vT|a-Kb> ; fut. dvapvijaat (fr. the form pvaat) ', Pass., 
[pres. dvapipvr]CTKopaL\ ; 1 aor. dvepvrjcrdTjv ; [fr. Hom. 
down] ; to call to remembrance, to remind : rivd ti one of 
a thing [W. § 32, 4 a.], 1 Co. iv. 17; to admonish, rtvd 
foil, by inf., 2 Tim. i. 6. Pass, to recall to one's own mind, 
to remember; absol. : Mk. xi. 21. with gen. of the thing, 
Mk. xiv. 72 Rec. r'l, Mk. xiv. 72 L T Tr WII ; context- 
ually, to {remember and) weigh well, consider: 2 Co. vii. 
15;'Heb. x. 32; cf. W. § 30, 10 c; [B. § 132, 14]; 
Matth. ii. p. 820 sq. [Comp. : eir-avapipuqaKa. Syn. 
see dvdpvr](ns fin.]* 

dvdfj.vTjcris, -€Q)j, 17, {dvapipvr](TK(o), a remembering, recol- 
lection : els T. (p.ijv dvdpvrja-iv to call me (affectionately) 
to remembrance, Lk. xxii. 1 9 [WII reject the pass.] ; 1 Co. 
XI. 24 S(j. eV avTois (sc. dvaiais) dvdpvrjcris apapricov in 
offering sacrifices there is a remembrance of sins, i. e. 
the memory of sins committed is revived by the sacri- 
fices, Ileb. x. 3. In Grk. writ. fr. Plat, down.* 

[Syn. avdiJ.vr)(Tts, vTr6p.vr)<ns : The distinction between these 
words as stated by Ammonias et al. — viz. that avd/nv. denotes 
an unassisted recalling, virofiv. a remembrance prompted by 
another, — seems to be not wholly without warrant ; note 
the force of viro (cf. our ' sng-^est '). But even in class. Grk. 
the words are easily interchangeable. Schmidt ch. 14; 
Trench § cvii. 6, cf. p. 61 note; Ellic. or Holtzm. on 2 Tim. 
i. 5.] 

ma.-vt6<t>,-S>: /o rene?t', (often in Grk. writ.) ; Pass. [W. 
§ 39, 3 N. 3 ; for the mid. has an act. or reciprocal 
force, cf. 1 Mace. xii. 1 and Grimm ad loc] dvavfoiaOat 
Tco irvtvpari to be renewed in mind, i. e. to be spii'itually 
transformed, to take on a new mind [see voiis, 1 b. fin. ; 



nvdi^vi, fin.], Eph. iv. 23. Cf. Tittmiinn i. p. 60 ; [Trench 
§§ Ix. xviii.], and dvaKaivooo above.* 

dva-vT|4»w '■ [' in good auth. apparently confined to the 
pres.'; 1 aor. dvevrjyl/a'] ; to return to soberness (ex p.f6r)s. 
which is added by Grk. writ.) ; metaph. : 2 Tim. ii. 26 
€K T^s TOV fita/SdXov TrayiSos [W. § 66, 2 d.] to be set free 
from the snare of the devil and to return to a sound mind 
['one's sober senses']. (Philo, legg. alleg. ii. § 16 dva- 
vTjcpei, rovT eWt pLfravoel; add Joseph, antt. 6, 11, 10; 
Ceb. tab. 9; Antonin. 6, 31; Charit. 5, 1.) [See dypv 
TTZ^eo), fin.] * 

'Avavias [WII. 'Avav., see their Intr. § 408], -a [but on 
the gen. cf. B. 20 (18)], 6, Ananias (n"jjn, fr. |jn to be 
gracious, and H" Jehovah, [cf. Mey. on Acts v. 1]): 
1. a certain Christian [at Jerusalem], the husband of 
Sapphira: Acts v. 1-6. 2. a Christian of Damascus: 
Acts ix. 10-18 ; xxii. 12 sqq. 3. a son of Nedebaeus, 
and high priest of the Jews c. a. d. 47-59. In the year 
66 he was slain by the Sicarii : Acts xxiii. 2 sq. ; xxiv. 
1 sq. ; Joseph, antt. 20, 5, 2 ; 6, 2 ; 9, 2-4 ; b. j. 2, 1 7, 6 ; 
9. [Cf. B. D. s. v.] * 

dv-avTi-ppT|TOS [V^'ll dvavTlprjTOs; see P, p] , -oi', (a priv., 
dvTi, and prjTos fr. PEG to say), not contradicted and not 
to be contradicted ; undeniable, ^not to be gainsaid^ ; in the 
latter sense. Acts xix. 36. (Occasionally in Grk. writ, 
fr. Polyb. down.)* 

dvavTippT|T«s [AN 11 dvavTipr]T(Oi, see their App. p. 163, 
and P, p], adv., without contradiction : Acts x. 29 (I came 
without gainsaying). Polyb. 23, 8, 11, [al.].* 

dv-d|ios, -ov. (a i)riv, and a^ios), [fr. Soph, down], un^ 
worth)/ (tivos) : unjit for a thing, 1 Co. vi. 2.* 

dv-a^tws, adv., [fr. Soph, down], in an unworthy man- 
ner : 1 Co. xi. 27, and 29 Rec. [Cf. W. 463 (431).] * 

dvd-Trav<ris, -ea>s, fj, {dvaTraixi)), [fr. Mimnerra., Pind. 
down] ; 1. internussiun, cessation, of any motion, busi- 
ness, labor: dvdirav(riv ovk exovai Xeyovres [Rec. Xeyoi/ra] 
equiv. to ovk dvanavovrai Xiyuvres they incessantly say, 
Rev. iv. 8. 2. rest, recreation : Mt. xii. 43 ; Lk. xi. 
24; Rev. xiv. 11, (and often in Grk. writ.); blessed 
tranquillity of soul, Mt. xi. 29, (Sir. vi. [27] 28; Ii. 27; 
Sap. iv. 7). [The word denotes a temporary rest, a 
respite, e. g. of soldiers ; cf. Schmidt ch. 25 ; Bp. Lghtft. 
on Philemr 7 ; Trench § xii.] * 

dva-Travo) : fut. dvaTTavcro) ; 1 aor. dv(7Tav(Ta ; pf. pass. 
dvaTTiiravpai ; Mid., [pres. dvanavopai] ; fut. dvaTrava-opai 
(Rev. vi. 11 [Lchm. ed. min., Tdf. edd.'2, 7, WII; but 
G L T Tr with R -o-wfrai]), and in the colloquial speech 
of inferior Grk. dvanafjo-opai (Rev. xiv. 13 LTTrWH, 
cf. Bttm. (57) esp. Eng. trans, p. 64 sq. ; Kiihner i. 886 ; 
[Tdf. Proleg. p. 123; WH. App. p. 170]; see also in 
eiravaTravco) ; 1 aor. dvenavadpijv ; (a common verb fr. 
Hom. down) : to cause or permit one to cease from any 
movement cr labor in order to recover and collect his 
strength (note the prefix dvd and distinguish fr. Kara- 
Trava, [see dvdnavms, fin.]), to give rest, refresh; mid. to 
give one's self rest, take rest. So in mid. absol. of rest after 
travelling, !\Ik. vi. 31 ; and for taking sleep, Mt. xxvi. 
45 ; I^lk. xiy. 41 ; of the sweet repose one enjoys after 



avaTreiuQ} 



lOc 



41 



avaaracTi'i 



toil, Lk. xii. 19; ^o keep quiet, of cahn and patient expec- 
tation, Rev. vi. 11; of the blessed rest of the dead, 
Rev. xiv. 13 {(< Tav KOTTOJv exempt from toils [cf. B. 158 
(138)] ; Plat. Critias in. e(c fxaKpas 68ov). By a Hebraism 
(hy niJ, Isa. xi. 2) TO TTvevfia €<f) vfias avanaveTai rests 
upon you, to actuate you, 1 Pet. iv. 14. Act. to refresh, 
the soul of any one : Tiva, Mt. xi. 28 ; to nvevfid tivos, 
1 Co. xvi. 18; Tu an^dyxva tivos, Philem. 20. In pass., 
Philem. 7 ; 2 Co. vii. 13 (dno navTav vfiav from your 
sight, attentions, intercourse). [Comp. : en-, avv- (-/xai).]* 

ava-^iiQu ; to stir up b>/ persuasion (cf. Germ, aiifreizen), 
to solicit, incite : riva ri iroi^aai, Acts xviii. 13. So also 
in Hdt., Thuc, Plat., Xen., al.* 

dvaireipos, a false spelling (arising from itacism, [cf. 
Phrvn. in Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 9, 22 : 8ia toO jj ttjv 
TpiTTjv, OX) 8ia riji ft 8i(pd6yyov a>s ol djua^ets]) in some 
Mss. in Lk. xiv. 13, 21 (and adopted by L Tr WH ; [see 
WH. App. p. 151]) for dvdnrjpoi, q. v. 

dva-ir€'|j.irw : 1 aor. dverrfp-ylra ; [fr. Pind. and Aeschyl. 
down] : 1. to send up ; i. e. a. to a higher place ; 
b. to a person higher in office, authority, power, (Plut. 
Marius c. 1 7 ; [Philo de creat. princip. § 8 ; Joseph, b. j. 
2, 20, 5]) : Tiva npos riva, Lk. xxiii. 7, 15 ; Acts xxv. 21 
LTTr WH. 2. to send back, rivd, Philem. 12 (11); 
Tivd Tivi, Lk. xxiii. 11.* 

wa-'jrTjSaw : [1 aor. ptcp. avaTnjSijcras] ; (Hom. II. 11, 
579 ; often in Plat., Xen., Dem.) ; to leap up, spring up, 
start up : dvanrj^rjo-as, Mk. x. 50 L T Tr WH ; cf. Fritzsche 
a,d loc. (1 S. XX. 34 ; Prov. xviii. 4 [Aid. etc.] ; Tob. 
ii. 4 ; vi. 3 ; vii. 6.)* 

dvd-inipos, -ov, (prop, nrjpos fr. the lowest part to the 
highest — dvd ; hence Suid. 6 Ka6' vTrep^oXrjv TreTrrjpa)p,evos, 
[cf. Lob. Path. Elementa i. 195]), disabled in the limbs, 
maimed, crippled; injured in, or bereft of, some member 
of the body : Lk. xiv. 13, 21 dvaTrrjpovs, ;((uXous, Tvcf)Xovs. 
In both these pass. L Tr WH have adopted with certain 
Mss. the spelling dvaTrfipovs — manifestly false, as aris- 
ing from itacism. (Plat. Crito p. 53 a. ;^ft)Xol koi tv(})\o\ 
KOI aXXoi dvdnrjpoi ; Aristot. h. a. 7, 6 [vol. i. p. 585'', 
29 y'lvovTai 6^ dvairfjpav dvdnrjpoi ; Lys. ap. Suid. plua koI 
2)Ta duaTTrjpos ', 2 Macc. viii. 24 Tois [leXea-iv dvanfjpovs-)* 

dva-ir£irTti) : 2 aor. dve-rreaov, 3 pers. plur. dvkireaov j\Ik. 
vi. 40 (TTrWH dveTreaav) ; Jn. vi. 10 (L T Tr WH 
avfTTicrav). inf. dvantafiv, impv. avdrtfcre Lk. xiv. 10 (Rec. 
dvdnfcrov fr. 1 aor. dvenfcra, [(Grsb. dvdnfcraL i. e. 1 aor. 
mid. impv.)]) ; Lk. xvii. 7 [R G dvdneaai, cf. WH. App. 
p. 164; T^f/f. Proleg. p. 123; see TriVrm], ptcp. di'aTreo-coi' ; 
cf. W. § 13, 1 p. 73 (71) ; [B. 39 (34) sq., 67 (59) ; fr. 
Eur. down] ; to lie back, lie down : absol., Mk. vi. 40 ; 
Jn. vi. 10, (sc. on the ground) ; eVi rj]v yrjv, Mt. xv. 35 ; eVt 
rrji yrjs, Mk. viii. 6. In later Grk. (cf. Lob. ad Phryn. 
p. 216 ; [W. 23 (22)]) for awicXtVo/iai to recline at table : 
Lk. xi. 37 ; xiv. 10 ; xvii. 7 ; xxii. 14 : Jn. xiii. 12 ; xxi. 
20 [al. refer this to the following signif.]. to lean back, 
Jn. xiii. 25 L Tr WH. [It denotes an a c t rather than a 
state, and in the last pass, differs from dvuKeifiai, vs. 23, 
by indicating a change of position.]* 

dva-irXi]p6(i), -S> ; fut. dvaTrXrjpdxrco ; 1 aor. dj/fTrXr/pwcra ; 



[pres. pass. dvanXTjpovfjiai] ; (dvd to, up to, e. g. to fill a 
vessel up to the brim ; up to the appointed measure or 
standard, Germ. anfUllen); [fr. Eurip. down]; 1. 
to Jill up, make full, e. g. a ditch (Strabo 5, 6 p. 223) ; 
hence trop. duaprias, 1 Th. ii. 16 (to add what is still 
wanting to complete the number of their sins ; on the 
meaning, cf. Gen. xv. 16 ; Dan. viii. 23 ; ix. 24 ; Mt. xxiii, 
32; 2 Macc. vi. 14). dvanXrjpovTai f] npocpijTfia the 
prophecy is fully satisfied, the event completely corre- 
sponds to it, Mt. xiii. 14. tou vofiov to fulfil i. e. observe 
the law perfectly. Gal. vi. 2, (Barn. ep. 21 dwiTrX. nda-av 
ivTo\j]v) ; Tov TOTTov TIVOS to fill the place of any one, 
1 Co. xiv. 16 (after the rabbin. Dl'po X'^0 to hold the 
position of any one, [yet cf. Mey. ad loc.]). 2. to 
supply : TO i(TT(pr}fia, Phil. ii. 30, (Col. i. 24) ; 1 Co. xvi. 1 7 
(they by their presence supplied your place in your ab- 
sence) ; cf. Plat. symp. p. 188 e. dXX' e'l n e^tXinov. aov 
epyov (sc. eariu) dvanXTjpojcrai. Cf. Win. De verb, 
comp. etc. Pt. iii. p. 11 sq. ; [EUic. on Phil. 1. c, or Mey. 
on Gal. 1. c. Comp. : dvr-, Trpoo-avaTrXj^pow].* 

dvairoXoYTiTOs, -ov, ivithout defence or excuse, Ro. i. 20 ; 
also that cannot be defended, inexcusable, Ro. ii. 1. 
(Polyb., Dion. Hal. antt. 7, 46 ; Plut. Brut. 46, al.) * 

dva-irT{)o-«r« : 1 aor. dveirrv^a; (dvd — cf. the Germ, auf 
i. q. auseinander, see dvaXvm — and Trruo-o-oj to fold up, 
roll together) ; to unroll, [i. e. open for reading] : to 
^ilSXiov (as in Hdt. 1, 48 and 125), Lk. iv. 17 [RGT], 
(2 K. xix. 14). The books of the Hebrews Avere rolls 
(m'bjp) fastened to [one or] two smooth rods and fur- 
nished with handles, so that they could be rolled up and 
unrolled ; [cf. B. D. s. v. Writing].* 

dv-dirrw; 1 aor. dv^^a: 1 aor. pass. dvri(f)dTjv ; to light 
up, kindle : Lk. xii. 49 ; Acts xxviii. 2 [R G] ; Jas. iii. 5. 
[From Hdt. down.] * 

dv-api9p.T]Tos, -ov, (a priv. and dpt^/xecu), innumerable : 
Heb. xi. 12. [From Pind. down.]* 

dva-a-iio) ; 1 aor. dveaeiaa ; to shake up ; trop. to stir 
up, excite, rouse: rbv oxXov, Mk, xv. 11 ; t6v Xaov, Lk. 
xxiii. 5. (So in Diod. 13, 91 ; 14, 10; Dion. Hal. antt. 
8, 81.)* 

dva-o-Kevd|o) ; (crKfvd^a), fr. crKfvos a vessel, utensil) ; 
1. to pack up baggage (Lat. vasa colligere) in order to 
carry it away to another place : Xen. an. 5, 10, (6, 2) 8. 
Mid. tOrmove one's furniture (when setting out for some 
other place, Xen. Cyr. 8, 5, 4 Srav 8e dvaa-Kevu^avrai, 
<TvvTi6rj(Ti fxev eKaaTos to. crKevr]) ; hence 2. of an 
enemy dismanding, plundering, a place (Thuc. 4, 116); 
to overthrow, ravage, destroy, towns, lands, etc, ; trop. 
y^v^ds, to turn away violently from a right state, to un- 
settle, subvert : Acts xv. 24.* 

dva-o-irdco, -co : dvaandao) ; 1 aor. pass. dvfaTrdcrdrjv ; to 
drair up : Lk. xiv. 5 : Acts xi. 10. [From Hom. down.] * 

dvd-crrao-is, -ecos, tj, (dviarrjfjii), [fr. Aeschyl. down] ; 
1. a raising up, rising, (e. g. fr. a seat) : Lk. ii. 34 (opp, 
to TiTWCTis ; the meaning is ' It lies [or ' is set ' A. V.] 
like a stone, which some will lay hold of in order to 
chmb; but others will strike against it and fall'). 2. 
a rising from the dead (eccl. Lat. 7-esurrectio), [AeschyL 



avaaraToo) 



42 



dvaridrj/jLi 



Eum. 648]; a. that of Christ: Actsi.22; ii.31; iv. 
33 ; Ro. vi. 5 ; Phil. iii. 10 ; 1 Pet. iii. 21 ; with the addi- 
tion of vtKpav, Ro. i. 4 (a generic phrase : the resurrection- 
of-the-<Iead, although it has come to pass as yet only in 
the case of Christ alone; cf. Acts xvii. 32; W. § 30, 2 a. 
fin.); €K vfKpuiv, 1 Pet. i. 3. b. that of all men at the 
end of the present age. This is called simply avaarafris 
or fj avdarams, Mt. xxii. 23, [28], 30; Mk. xii. 18, 23; 
Lk. XX. 27, 33, 36 ; Jn. xi. 24; Acts xvii. 18; xxiii. 8; 2 
Tim. ii. 18 ; by meton. i. q. the author of resurrection, Jn. 
xi. 25 ; with the addition of ^ « vfKpav, Lk. xx. 35 ; Acts 
iv. 2 ; or simply of rwv v(Kpa>v [on the distinction which 
some (e. g. Van Ilengel on Ro. i. 4 ; Van Hengel and Bp. 
Lghtf t. on Phil. iii. 1 1 ; Cremer s. v.) would make between 
th^ese phrases, see W. 123 (117) ; B. 89 (78)], Mt. xxii. 
31 ; Acts xvii. 32; xxiii. 6 ; xxiv. 15 [Rec], 21 ; xxvi. 
23 ; 1 Co. XV. 12 sq. 21, 42 ; Heb. vi. 2. avaar. C''>r)s res- 
urrection to life {av. tls Co>f)v, 2 Mace. vii. 14 [cf. Dan. xii. 
2]), and dv. Tfjs Kplatios resurrection to judgment, Jn. v. 
29, (on the genitives cf. W. 188 (177)) ; the former is 17 
dvd(TT. T&»/ 8iKaio)v, Lk. xiv. 14 ; Kpf'iTTcov avdaraa-is, Heb. 
xi. 35 (so called in comparison with a continuance of life 
on earth, which is spoken of as an dvdaTaais bj' a kind of 
license; [cf. W. 460 (429)]). fj dvdar. 17 np<j)Tr) in Rev. 
XX. 5 sq. will be that of true Christians, and at the end 
of a thousand years will be followed by a second resur- 
rection, that of all the rest of mankind, Rev. xx. 1 2 sqq. 
On the question whether and in what sense Paul also 
believed in two resurrections, separated from each other 
by a definite space of time, cf. Grimm in the Zeitschr. 
fiir wisscnschaftl. Theol., 1873, p. 388 sq. c. the res- 
urrection of certain in ancient Jewish story who were 
restored to life before burial : Heb. xi. 35.* 

ovourraTow, -co ; 1 aor. avfardTaaa ; a verb found no- 
where in prof, auth., but [in Dan. vii. 23 Sept. ; Deut. 
xxix. 27 Grace. Venet.] several times in the O. T. frag- 
ments of Aquila [e. g. Ps. x. 1] and Symmachus [e. g. 
Ps. Iviii. 11 ; Is. xxii. 3], and in Eustathius, (fr. dvaaraTos, 
driven from one's abode, outcast, or roused up from 
one's situation ; accordingly equiv. to dvda-Tarov woico), 
to stir up, excite, unsettle ; foil, by an ace. a. to excite 
tumults and seditions in the State : Acts xvii. 6 ; xxi. 
38. b. to upset, unsettle, minds by disseminating 
religious error : Gal. v. 12.* 

a»a-<rTavp<ia), -co ; to raise up upon a cross, crucify, (dvd 
as in dua(TKo\oni(ui) : Heb. vi. 6, (very often in Grk. 
writ. fr. Ildt. down). Cf. Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. 
iii. p. 9 sq. ; [Winer admits that in Heb. 1. c. the meaning 
to crucify again, or afresh, may also be assigned to this 
verb legitimately, and that the absence of a precedent 
in prof. writ, for such a sense is, from the nature of the 
case, not surprising].* 

ova-o-Tcva^w : 1 aor. avtarfva^a', to draw sighs up from 
the bottom of the breast, to sigh deeply : Mk. viii. 1 2. 
(Lam. i. 4; Sir. xxv. 18 (17); 2 Mace. vi. 30, and in 
Grk. writ. fr. [Aeschyl. choeph. 335,] Hdt. 1, 86 down.) * 

oMa-frrpt^o) : f ut. dl/ao■^pe^//■(a ; [1 aor. (ii'ecrTpf\//^a; Pass., 
pres. dua<TTpf<popai2 ; 2 aor. dp«TTpd(f)T]v ; 1. to turn 



upside down, overturn : ray Tpani^as, Jn. ii. 15, {8i(f)povs, 
Hom. H. 23, 436). 2. to turn back; intrans. [W. 
251 (236)] to return, like the Lat. reverto i. q. reverter, 
(as in Grk. writ. ; in Sept. i. q. 2W) : Acts v. 22 ; xv. 
16 (here dvaarpfyj^co Kat has not like the Hebr. ^>^ the 
force of an adverb, again, but God in the Messiah's 
advent returns to his people, whom he is conceived of 
as having previously abandoned; cf. W. 469(437)). 
3. to turn hither and thither; pass, reflexively, to turn 
one's self about, sojourn, dwell, iv in a place; a. liter- 
ally : Mt. xvii. 22, where L T WH Tr txt. a-v(rTp((f)ofxeva>v, 
cf. Keim ii. p. 581 [Eng. trans, iv. p. 303]. (Josh. v. 5 ; 
Ezek. xix. 6, and in Grk. writ.) b. like the Hebr. 
'?h'n to walk, of the manner of life and moral character, 
to conduct one's self behave one's self, live: 2 Co. i. 12 
(eV TM Koapa) ; 1 Tim. iii. 15 (eV o'ikco 6(ov) ; Eph. ii. 3 
(fvols among whom); 2 Pet. ii. 18 (eV nKdin]). simply 
to conduct or behave one's self ' walk ', (Germ, wandeln) : 
1 Pet. i. 17 ; Heb. x. 33 ; (^aXcSj) xiii. 18. [Cf. its use 
e. g. in Xen. an. 2, 5, 14; Polyb. 1, 9, 7; 74, 13 ; 86, 5 
etc., (see dva(TTpo(pr], fin.) ; Prov. xx. 7 Sept. j Clem. 
Rom. 1 Cor. 1, 21, 8; etc]* 

dva-<rTpo<t>Ti, -rjs, fj, (fr. the pass. dva(TTpe(f>opai, see the 
preceding word), prop. ^ ivalk,' i. e. manner of life, be- 
havior, conduct, (Germ. Lebenswandel) : Gal. i. 13 ; Eph. 
iv. 22; 1 Tim. iv. 12; Jas. iii. 13; 1 Pet. i. 15, 18; ii. 12; 
iii. 1 sq. 1 6 ; 2 Pet. ii. 7 ; plur. ayiai dvaaTpo(f)ai the ways 
in which holy living shows itself, 2 Pet. iii. 11. Hence 
life in so far as it is comprised in conduct, Heb. xiii. 7. 
(This word, in the senses given, is found in Grk. writ, 
fr. Polyb. 4, 82, 1 down ; in the Scriptures first in Tob. 
iv. 14; 2 Mace. v. 8; add Epict. diss. 1, 9, 5; 4, 7, 5, 
[and (fr. Soph. Lex. s.\.) Agatharchides 134, 12; 153, 
8; Aristeas 16].)* 

dva-Td<ro-o|Aai ; [1 aor. mid. inf. dvard^aadai] ; (mid. 
of dvaTdaaa), to put together in order, arrange, compose : 
bif]yT)<Tiv, Lk. i. 1 (so to construct [R. V. draw up} a nar- 
rative that the sequence of events may be evident. 
Found besides only in Plut. de sollert. anim. c. 12, where 
it denotes to go regularly through a thing again, re- 
hearse it ; [in Eccl. ii. 20 Aid., and in eccl. writ. e. g. 
Iren. 3, 21, 2 sub fin.]).* 

ava-T6\X(i) ; 1 aor. dvirdka ; pf . dvarfToKKa ; a. trans. 
to cause to rise : t6v {)\iov, Mt. v. 45, (of the earth bring- 
ing forth plants. Gen. iii. 18; of a river producing 
something, Hom. II. 5, 777). b. intrans. to rise, arise : 
light, Mt. iv. 16, (Is. Iviii. 10) ; the sun, Mt. xiii. 6; Mk. 
iv. 6 ; xvi. 2 ; Jas. i. 1 1 ; the clouds, Lk. xii. 54 ; (pucrcpo- 
pas, 2 Pet. i. 19. trop. to rise from, be descended from, 
Heb. vii. 14. The earlier Greeks commonly used dva- 
TeXXftfof the sun and moon, and eirireX'Kfiv of the stars; 
but Aelian., Pans., Stob. and other later writ, neglect 
this distinction ; see Lob. ad Phryn. p. 1 24 sq. [Comp. : 
(^nvaTfWo).'] * 

dva-Ti0ii(i,i : 2 aor. mid. dufdeprjv ; [in various senses fr. 
Hom. down] ; in the mid. voice to set forth a thing 
drawn forth, as it were, from some corner (dvd), to set 
forth [in words], declare, [R. V. lay before'} : rivl ri, Acts 



avaroXi] 



43 



^Av8p6viKO^ 



XXV. 14 ; Gal. ii. 2, (2 Mace. iii. 9 ; [Mic. vii. 5] ; Artem. 
oneir. 2, 64 riw to ovap; Diog. Laert. 2, 17, 16 p. 191 
ed. Heubn. ; Plut. amat. narr. p. 772(1.) Cf. Fritzschio- 
rum Opuscc. p. 169; \_Holsten, Zum Evang. des Paulus 
u. d. Petrus p. 256 sq. Comp. : Trpocr-avaridrjfii.'] * 

waToXT), -fjs, rj, (fr. di/areXXo), q. v.), as in Grk. writ. ; 

1. a rising (of the sun and stars) ; light rising e^ vy}/ovs, 
Lk. i. 78. 2. the east (the quarter of the sun's ris- 
ing) : Mt. ii. 2, 9 ; Rev. xxi. 13 (Grsb. dvaroXiov) ; Hdian. 

2, 8, 18 (10) ; 3, 5, 1 ; Joseph, c. Ap. 1, 14, 3, [6 ; 1, 26, 
6 ; Mk. xvi. WH (rejected) ' Shorter Conclusion '] ; Clem. 
Rom. 1 Cor. 5, 6; Ignat. ad Ro. 2, 2 ; Melito ap. Euseb. 
h. e. 4, 26, 14; with ijXi'ou added, Rev. vii. 2 [RGTTr 
WH txt.] ; Plur. eastern regions, the east, [W. 1 76 (166)] : 
Mt. ii. 1 ; viii. 11 ; xxiv. 27; Lk. xiii. 29, (Sept., Hdt., 
Plat., Polyb., Plut., al. ; Philo in Flacc. § 7) ; with the 
addition of ijXi'ou, Rev. xvi. 12 [-X^j T Tr txt. WH txt. ; 
vii. 2 L WH iiirg.].* 

ova-TptTro) ; [1 aor. averpEypa'] ; to overthrow, overturn, de 
stray: [toq rpaTri^a^, Jn. ii. 15 WH txt.] ; ethically, to sub 
vert: oIkovc families, Tit. i. 11. ti)v tivwv irianv, 2 Tim. 
ii. 18. (Common in Grk. writ., and in the same sense.)* 

ava-^p€'<|>(i> : 2 aor. pass. dverpd(f)T]v ; pf . pass. ptcp. dpa- 
rtdpappevos ', 1 aor. mid. dvfdp(\l^dpr]v; to nurse up, nour- 
ish up, (Germ, aufndhren, aiiffultern) ; prop, of young 
children and animals nourished to promote their growth 
(Xen. mem. 4, 3, 10, etc. ; Sap. vii. 4) ; to bring up : Lk. 
iv. 16 T WH mrg. ; Acts vii. 20 sq. ; with the predomi- 
nant idea of forming the mind. Acts xxii. 3, (4 Mace. 
x. 2, and often in Grk. writ.). Cf. Win. De verb. comp. 
etc. Pt. iii. p. 4.* 

dfa-^aCvw : 1 aor. dve<pava, Doric for the more com. 
dv((pr]va, (Acts xxi. 3 RTWH [with Erasm., Steph., 
Mill] ; cf. Passow p. 2199; [Veitch, and L. and S., s. v. 
ifalrco; W. 89 (85); B. 41 (35)]; see eVt^atVa)) ; Pass., 
[pres. dvacpalvopai] ; 2 aor. dv€(f}dpr]v ; [fr. Horn, down] ; 
to bring to light, hold up to view, show; Pass, to appear, 
be made apparent: Lk. xix. 11. An unusual phrase is 
di>a(PavevT(s ttjv Kinrpov having sighted Cyprus, for dva(f)a- 
vfiarji fjp'iv t^s Kvirpov, Acts xxi. 3 ; cf. B. 190 (164) ; W. 
§39, la. p. 260 (244); here R" T WH [see above] read 
dva(PavavTfs tt]v K. after we had rendered Cyprus visible 
(to us) ; [R. V. had come in sight of Cyprus.'].* 

(U'a-<{>€p(i> ; fut. dvoiau) (Lev. xiv. 20 ; Num. xiv. 33, 
etc.) ; 1 aor. dvrjvfyKa ; 2 aor. dvj]vfyKov ; [see reff . s. v. 
<\)fpa>; impf. pass. ai/e<^ep6/x;;i'; fr. Hom. down] ; 1. to 
carry or bring up, to lead up ; men to a higher place : 
Mt. xvii. 1 ; Mk. ix. 2 ; pass., Lk. xxiv. 51 [Tdf. om. WH 
reject the cl.]. dvacpepnv ras apapriai enl to ^v\ov, 1 Pet. 
ii. 24 (to bear sins up on the cross, sc. in order to expi- 
ate them by suffering death, [cf. W. 428 sq. (399)]). 2. 
to put upon the altar, to bring to the altar, to offer, (Sept. 
foi" ^/J^.n of presentation as a priestly act, cf. Kurtz 
on Hebr. p. 154 sq.), Bvalas, Svcriav, etc., (Isa. Ivii. 6, 
etc.): Heb. vii. 27; xiii. 15; 1 Pet. ii. 5; with eVi to 
Ovaiaa-TTjpiov added, Jas. ii. 21, (Gen. viii. 20; Lev. xiv. 
20; [Bar. i. 10; 1 Mace. iv. 53]) ; [eavrou, Heb. vii. 27, 
T Tr mrg. WH mrg. irpoaevfyKas]. Cf. Kurtz u. s. 3. 



to lift up on one's self, to take upon one's self, i. e. to place 
on one's self anything as a load to be upborne, to sus- 
tain : ras Apaprias i. e. by meton. their punishment, Heb. 
ix. 28 (Is. liii. 12; Tr)i> nopvdau, Num. xiv. 33) ; cf . Win. 
De verb. comp. etc. Pt. iii. p. 5 sq.* 

ava-^uviiD, -a : 1 aor. di/f^wi/^jaa ; to cry out with a loud 
voice, call aloud, exclaim: Lk. i. 42. (1 Chr. xv. 28 ; xvi. 
4; [Aristot. de mund. 6, vol. i. p. 400% 18]; Polyb., 
often in Plut.)* 

dvd-xvo-is, -ecoy, ^, (dvaxfoy [to pour forth]), rare in Grk. 
writ. [Strabo, Philo, Plut. ; dv. ^|'vx^^' ^" ^ good sense, 
Philo de decal. § 10 mid.]; an overflowing, a pouring 
out : metaph., 1 Pet. iv. 4 da-oirias dvdxv<ris the excess 
(flood) of riot in which a dissolute life pours itself 
forth.* 

ova-xwpcto, -<5 ; 1 aor. dpexc^pr](Ta; (freq. in Grk. writ.) ; 
1. to go back, return : Mt. ii. 1 2 sq. [al. refer this to next 
head]. 2. to withdrato ; a. univ., so as to leave room: 
Mt. ix. 24. b. of those who through fear seek some 
other place, or shun sight : Mt. ii. 14, 22; iv. 12; xii. 15; 
xiv. 13; XV. 21 ; xxvii. 5; Mk. iii. 7; Jn. vi. 15 [Tdf. 
cfxiiyfi]; Acts xxiii. 19 (Kar I8iav) ; xxvi. 31.* 

ovd-xlrulis, -fas, fj, (dpayj/vxco, q. v.), a cooling, refresh- 
ing : Acts iii. 20 (19), of the Messianic blessedness to be 
ushered in by the return of Christ from heaven ; Vulg. 
refrigerium. (Ex. viii. 15; Philo de Abr. § 29; Strabo 
10, p. 459 ; and in ecel. writ.)* 

dva-t|/vx(i> : 1 aor. dv(\j/v^a ; to cool again, to cool off, 
recover from the effects of heat, (Hom. Od. 4, 568; II. 5, 
795 ; Plut. Aem. P. 25, etc.) ; trop. to refresh : nvd, one's 
spirit, by fellowship, consolation, kindnesses, 2 Tim. i. 
16. (intrans. to recover breath, take the air, cool off, re- 
vive, refresh one's self, in Sept. [Ps. xxxviii. (xxxix.) 14; 
2 S. xvi. 14 ; Ex. xxiii. 12 ; 1 S. xvi. 23; etc., in] 2 Mace, 
iv. 46 ; xiii. 11 ; and in the later Grk. writ.)* 

dvSpairoSKTTTJs, -ov, 6, (fr. dv^panohi^o), and this fr. to 
dvbpdnohov — fr. dvT]p and ttoCs — a slave, a man taken in 
war and sold into slavery), a slave-dealer, kidnapper, 
man-stealer, i. e. as well one who unjustly reduces free 
men to slavery, as one who steals the slaves of others 
and sells them: 1 Tim. i. 10. (Arstph., Xen., Plat., 
Dem., Isocr., Lys., Polyb.)* 

'AvSpc'as, -ov, 6, Andrew, (a Grk. name [meaning 
manly ; for its occurrence, see Pape, Eigennamen, s. v. ; 
B. D. s. v. Andrew, init.]), a native of Bethsaida in 
Galilee, brother of Simon Peter, a disciple of John the 
Baptist, afterwards an apostle of Christ : Jn. i. 40, 44 
(41, 45) ; vi. 8 ; xii. 22 ; Mt. iv. 18 ; x. 2 ; Mk. i. 16, 29 ; 
iii. 18; xiii. 3 ; Lk. vi. 14; Acts i. 13.* 

dvSp(t<^ : {dvr]p) ; to make a man of or make brave, 
(Xen. oec. 5, 4). Mid. pres. dv8pi(opai ; to show one's 
self a man, be brave: 1 Co. xvi. 13 [A. V. quit you like 
men]. (Often in Sept. ; Sir. xxxiv. 25 ; 1 Mace. ii. 64 ; 
Xen., Plat., App., Plut., al.)* 

'AvSpovtKos, -ov, 6, Androni'cus, (a Grk. name, [lit. man 
of victory ; for its occurrence see Pape, Eigennamen, 
s. v.]), a Jewish Christian and a kinsman of Paul : Ro. 
xvi. 7.* 



avBpo(f>6vo*; 



44 



avej^oi 



ai/Spo-4>6vos, -ov, 6, a manslai/er : 1 Tim. i. 9. (2 Mace, 
ix. 28 ; Horn., Plat., Dem., al.) [Cf. (fiovevs.'] * 

av-t^Kkriros, -ov, (a priv. and eyKaXeco, q. v.), that can- 
not be called to account, unreprocable, unaccused, blame- 
less : 1 Co. i. 8 ; Col. i. 22 ; 1 Tim. iii. 10 ; Tit. i. G sq. (3 
Mace. V. 31 ; Xen., Plat., Dem., Aristot., al.) [Cf. 
Trench § ciii.] * 

(lv-eK8if|-yT]TOS, -ov, (a priv. and (Kdirj-yeofiai, q. v.), U7i- 
speahilile, indescribable: 2 Co. ix. 15 Scupea, to describe 
and commemorate wliieh words fail. (Only in eecl. writ. 
[Clem. Kom. iCor. 20, 5 ; 49, 4 ; Athenag., Tlieoph., al.].)* 

dv-cK-XdX-qTos, -ov, (a priv. and eKXdXeo)), unspeakable : 
1 Pet. i. 8 (to which words are inadequate). ([Diose. 
medicam. p. 93 ed. Kiihn] ; lieliod. 6, 15 p. 252 (296) ; 
and in eccl. Avrit.)* 

dveKXeiirros, -ov, (a priv. and eKXeiVo) to fail), unfuiling: 
Lk. xii. 33. ([Hyperid. p. 58^ ed. Teubner] ; Diod. 4, 
84 ; 1, 36, cf. 3, 16 ; Pint, de orac. defect, p. 438 d., and 
in eccl. writ.)* 

dv-€KT6s, -Of, and in later Grk. also -6s, -r], -ov [cf. W. 
68 (67); B. 25 (22)], (dvexonai to bear, endure); fr. 
Hom. down ; bearable, tolerable : aveKTorepov i'a-Tat the 
lot will be more tolerable, Mt. x. 15; xi. 22, 24; Mk. 
vi. 11 KLbr. ; Lk. x. 12, 14. (In Grk. writ. fr. Hom. 
down.)* 

w-tXeTKJiwv, -ov, gen. -ovos, (a jjriv. and eXerjficov), icitJiouf 
mercji, merciless : Ro. i. 31. ([Aristot. rhet. Alex. 37 
p. 1442% 13] ; Prov. v. 9, etc. ; Sir. xiii. 12, etc. ; Sap. xii. 
5; xix. 1.)* 

6.v-i\io%, -ov, without mercy, merciless: Jas. ii. 13 LT 
Tr Wl\, unusual form for dfiXecof R G. The Greeks 
said avrfKer]s and ai/eXfijs, cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 710 sq. ; 
W. 100 (95).* 

dv€[j.C5(o : (avffios) ; to agitate or drive by the wind; pres. 
pass. ptcp. dveni,(6iJ.6vos, Jas. i. 6. Besides only in schol. 
on Hom. Od. 12, 336 evda fjv aneTTT] npos to pf] dvepi^eadai, 
[Hesych. s. V. d»/a\//-i;£at • dv( picrai; Joannes Moschus 
(in Patr. Graec. Ixxxvii. p. 3044 a.) dvepl^ovTos tov nXolov 
velijicante ?iace]. The Greeks said dvepoco. Cf. icXvdco- 
vi{fi\iai. 

dv6|xos, -ov, 6, (aci, cirjpi to breathe, blow, [but etymolo- 
gists connect aco with Skr. vd, Grk. drjp, Lat. ventus, 
Eng. wind, and uvepos with Skr. an to breathe, etc. ; cf. 
Curtius §§ 419, 587; Vanicek p. 28]), [fr. Hom. down], 
wind, a violent agitation and stream of air, [cf. (Trench 
§ Ixxiii.) nvfiipa, 1 fin.] : Mt. xi. 7 ; xiv. 24 ; Jas. iii. 4, 
etc. ; of a very strong and tempestuous wind : Mt. vii. 
25 ; Mk. iv. 39 ; Lk. viii. 24, etc. ol reacrapfs avepoi, the 
four principal or cardinal winds (Jer. xxv. 15 (xlix. 36)), 
TTjs yijr, Rev. vii. 1 ; hence the four quarters of the 
heavens (whence the cardinal winds blow) : Mt. xxiv. 
31; Mk. xiii. 27; (Ezek. xxxvii. 9; 1 Chr. ix. 24). 
Metaph. avepos tTjs ^tSao-»caXi'af, variability and empti- 
ness [?] of teaching, Eph. iv. 14. 

ilv-tvSeKTos, -ov, (a priv. and evdfKTOs, and this fr. ev8e- 
Xopai, q. v.), that cannot be admitted, inadmissible, unal- 
lowable, improper : dvtvhfKTov eari tov pfj (X6e'iv it cannot 
be but that they will come, Lk. xvii. 1 [W. 328 (308) ; 



B. 269 (231)]. (Artem. oneir. 2, 70 6 dpt^/xoy npos tov 
pfWovTa xpovov dvevSfKTos, [Diog. Laert. 7, 50], and sev- 
eral times in eccl. and Byzant. writ.) * 

avs^epetivTiTOS, T Tr WH -pavvrjTos [cf. 7\Jf. Proleg. p. 
81 ; B. 58 (50) ; Sturz, De dial. Maced. et Alex. p. 117 ; 
see epavvdd}'], -ov, (a priv. and e^epfvvdu), that cannot be 
searched out : Ro. xi. 33. (Symm. Prov. xxv. 3 ; Jer. 
xvii. 9. Dio Cass. 69, 14.)* 

dve^C-KaKos, -ov, (fr. the f ut. of dvixopai, and kqkov ; cf . 
classic dXf^iKaKos, dpvrjcriKaKos), patient of ills and wrongs, 
forbearing: 2 Tim. ii. 24. (Lcian. jud. voc. 9; [Justin 
M. apol. 1, 16 init. ; Pollux 5, 138].)* 

dve^iXviao-Tos, -ov, (a priv. and e^t;^fio'^a) to trace out), 
that cannot be traced out, that caiinot be comprehended, 
[A. V. unsearchabW] : Ro. xi, 33 ; Eph. iii. 8. (Job v. 
9; ix. 10; [xxxiv. 24] ; Or. Manass. 6 [see Sept. ed. 
Tdf., Proleg. § xxix.] ; several times in eccl. writ.)* 

dv-eir-aio-xwTOS, -ov, (a priv. and e7rai(Txvv(o), (Vulg. 
iiiconfusibilis), haritig no cause to be asliunied : 2 Tim. ii. 
15. ([Joseph, antt. 18, 7, 1] ; unused in Grk. writ. [W. 
236 (221)].)* 

dv-eiri-X-TTTTos [L T Tr WH -Xtjptttos; see M, p'],-ov, (a 
priv. and inikap^dvo)), jDrop. not apprehended, that cannot 
be laid hold of; hence that cannot be repi'ehended, not open 
to censure, irreproachable, [Tittmann i. p. 31 ; Trench 
§ ciii.] : 1 Tim. iii. 2 ; v. 7 ; vi. 14. (Freq. in Grk. writ, 
fr. [Eur. and] Thuc. down.)* 

dv-«'pxo|iai : 2 aor. dvrjkOov ; [fr. Plom. down] ; to go 
up : Jn. vi. 3 ; ?o a higher place ; to Jerusalem, Gal. i. 1 7 
[LTrmrg. d7r^'K6ov], 18; (1 K. xiii. 12). [Comp. : 
en-avepxopai.l * 

dv-€(ris, -ecos, fj, (dvirjpi to let loose, slacken, anything 
tense, e. g. a bow),, a loosening, relaxing; spoken of a 
more tolerable condition in captivity : exeiv avtaiv to be 
held in less rigorous confinement [R. V. have indulgence']. 
Acts xxiv. 23, (Joseph, antt. 18, 6, 10 (fivXaKT] ph yap /cat 
TT]pT](Tis f]v, peTo. pevToi aveaews Tjjs fis BiciLrav). relief 
rest, from persecutions, 2 Th. i. 7 ; from the troubles of 
poverty, 2 Co. viii. 13 ; relief from anxiety, quiet, 2 Co. 
ii. 13 (12) ; vii. 5. (Sept.; in Grk. writ. fr. Thuc. [Hdt. 
5, 28] down.) [Syn. see dvanavdis, fin.] * 

dv-erd^w; pres. pass. dveTa^opai.; (fVdfw to examine, 
test); to investigate, examine; Tivd, to examine judicially : 
Acts xxii. 24, 29. (Judg. vi. 29 cod. Alex. ; Sus. [i. e. 
Dan. (Theod.) init.] 14; [Anaph. Pilati A 6 p. 417 ed. 
Tdf.]. Not found in prof, auth.)* 

dv€v, prep, with gen., without : 1 Pet. iii. 1 ; iv. 9. 
with gen. of the pers. without one's trill or intervention, 
(often so in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down) : Mt. x. 29. 
[Compared with x'^P'?' ^^^ Tittm. i. p. 93 sq. ; Ellic. on 
Eph. ii. 12; Green, Crit. Notes, etc. (on Ro. iii. 28).]* 

dv-£VP-6eTos, -ov, not convenient, not commodious, not fit : 
Acts xxvii. 1 2. (Unused by Grk. writ. ; [Moschion 53].)* 

dv-€vpC<rKw : 2 aor. dvevpov, 3 jiers. plur. dvfiipav, Lk. 
ii. 16 (TTrWH; see fiipiaKoo) ; to find out by search: 
Tivd, Lk. ii. 16 ; Acts xxi. 4. (In Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. 
down.) Cf. Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. iii. p. 13 sq.* 

dv-«'x« : in the N. T. only in the mid. dfe'^o/xat ; fut. 



ave'^LO'i 



45 



av 



Opa^ 



UVf^ofiat(W. 8*^ ro^^• iinpf. fjvftxnuvv'i Co. xi. [1 Rec*."'], 
4 [Rec] (GTTrWIImrg. dvtixoixrjv [cf. Moeris ed. 
Piers, p. 176 ; (but L Wlltxt. in vs. 4 aVx-) ; cf- WIJ. 
App. p. 162; W. 72 (70) ; B. 35 (31)]) ; 2 aor. rjVfaxo- 
firjv Acts xviii. 14 (L T Tr WH dvea-xonrjv, reff. u. s.) ; 
<o /ioM up, (e. g. Ke(f)a\rjv, x^tpasj Horn, et al.) ; hence in 
mid. to hold one's self erect and firm (against any pers. 
or thing), to sustain, to bear (with equanimity), to bear 
tvith, endure, with a gen. of the pers. (in Grk. writ, the 
acciis. is more com., both of the pers. and of the thing), 
of his opinions, actions, etc.: Mt. xvii. 17; Mk. ix. 19; 
Lk. ix. 41 ; 2 Co. xi. 19 ; Eph. iv. 2 ; Col. iii. 13. foil, by 
gen. of the thing : 2 Th. i. 4 [WH mrg. eW^-] (ah by 
attraction for o)u, unless ay be preferred [B. 161 (140); 
cf. W. 202 (190)]). foil, by ftiKpov ri with gen. of both 
pers. and thing, 2 Co. xi. 1 (ace. to the reading fiov 
fiiKpov Ti d(f)po(Twr]s [R**" «'^ L T Tr WH] ; cf. Meyer 
ad loc). without a case, 1 Co. iv. 12 (we endure), foil, 
by ft Tis, 2 Co. xi. 20. Owing to the context, to bear 
with i. e. to listen : with gen. of the pers., Acts xviii. 14 ; 
of the tiling, 2 Tim. iv. 3 ; Heb. xiii. 22. [Comp.: irpoa- 
avexcD.^ * 

dv€\)/i6s, -ov, 6, [for d-venr-ios con-nepot-ius, cf. Lat. ne- 
pos, Germ, nickte, Eng. nephew, niece; Curtius § 342], a 
cowsm: Col. iv. 10. (Num.xxxvi.il; Tob. vii. 2.) [Cf. 
Lob. ad Phryn. p. 306 ; but esp. Bp. Lghtft. on Col. 1. c; 
also B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Sister's Son.] * 

avT]6ov, -ov, TO, dill, anise [(?) ; cf. BB.DD. s. v. ; Tris- 
tram, Nat. Hist, of the Bible, p. 419 sq.] : Mt. xxiii. 23. 
(Arstph. nub. 982 ; [Aristot., al.] ; often in Theophr. 
hist, pi.)* 

dv-TJKu ; [impf . dvriKev\ ; in Grk. writ, to have come up 
to, arrived at, to reach to, pertain to, foil, generally by 
el'f Tt ; hence in later writ. dvtjKei ri rivi something apper- 
tains to one, is due to him sc. to be rendered or performed 
by others (1 Mace. x. 42; xi. 35 ; 2 Mace. xiv. 8), and 
then ethically to dviJKov what is due, duty, [R. V. befitting'], 
Philem. 8 ; rd ovk dvfjKovTa unbecoming, discreditable, 
Eph. V. 4 (L T Tr WH A oi/c dvfJKev, W. 486 (452) ; [B. 
350 (301)]) ; impers. as dvi^Ke as teas fitting, sc. ever 
since ye were converted to Christ, Col. iii. 18, [W. 270 
(254) ; cf. B. 217 (187) and Bp. Lghtft. ad loc.].* 

dv-ifl}i€pos, -01' (a priv. and rjpepos), not tame, savage, 
fierce : 2 Tim. iii. 3. (In Gi'k. writ. fr. [Anacr. 1, 7] 
Aeschyl. down.)* 

dv^p, dvbpos, 6, a man, Lat. vir. The meanings of this 
word in the N. T. differ in no respect fr. classic usage ; 
for it is employed 1. with a reference to sex, and 
so to distinguish a man from a woman ; either a. as a 
male: Actsviii. 12; xvii. 12; iTim. ii. 12; or b. as a 
husband : Mt. i. 16 ; Mk. x. 2 ; Jn. iv. 16 sqq. ; Ro. vii. 2 
sqq. ; 1 Co. vii. 2 sqq. ; Gal. iv. 27 ; 1 Tim. iii. 2, 1 2 ; Tit. 
i. 6, etc. ; a betrothed or future husband : Mt. i. 19 ; Rev. 
xxi. 2, etc. 2. with a reference to age, and to dis- 
tinguish an adult man from a boy : Mt. xiv. 21 ; xv. 38 
(where dvBpes, yvvaiKes and naiSia are discriminated) ; 
with the added notion also of intelligence and virtue : 
I Co. xiii. 11 (opp. to vTjnios) ; Eph. iv. 13 ; Jas. iii. 2, (in 



the last two pass. rtXtios dinjp). 3. univ. am/ male 
person, a man ; so where t\s might have been used : 
Lk. viii. 41; ix. 38 ; Acts vi. 11; x. 5, etc. where di/^p 
and Ttf are united: Lk. viii. 27; Acts v. 1 ; x. 1. or 
dvr^p and os he who, etc. : Ro. iv. 8 ; Jas. i. 1 2. where 
mention is made of something usually done by men, not 
by women : Lk. xxii. 63 ; Acts v. 36, where angels or 
other heavenly beings are said to have borne the forms 
of men : Lk. ix. 30 ; xxiv. 4 ; Acts x. 30. where it is so 
connected with an adjective as to give the adj. the force 
of a substantive : dvqp dpiapTwXos a sinner, Lk. v. 8 ; 
Xenpol dv8pes, Lk. xvii. 12 ; or is joined to appellatives : 
dvfjp (povfvs, Acts iii. 14 ; dv. TrpocfifjTrjs, Lk. xxiv. 19, 
(«g: 2;'K, Judg. vi. 8 ; [cf. W. 30 ; § 59, 1 ; B. 82 (72) ; 
other reff. s. v. dvdpMiros, 4 a. fin.]) ; or to gentile names: 
av8p(s Nti/eutrat, Mt. xii. 41 ; dvrjp 'lov8aios, Acts xxii. 3 ; 
dv. AWio\lr, Acts viii. 27 ; au8. Kinrpioi, Acts xi. 20; esp. 
in addresses of honor and respect [W. § 65, 5 d. ; B. 
82 (72)], Acts i. 11 ; ii. 14 ; xiii. 16 ; xvii. 22, etc. ; even 
dvdpes aSeX^ot, Acts i. 16 ; [ii. 29, 37 ; vii. 2] ; xiii. [15], 
26, etc. 4. when persons of e i t h e r sex are included, 
but named after the more important : Mt. xiv. 35 ; Acts 
iv. 4 ; [Meyer seems inclined (see his com. on Acts 
1. c.) to dispute even these examples ; but al. would refer 
several other instances (esp. Lk. xi. 31 ; Jas. i. 20) to 
the same head]. 

dv8-i(rTT](jii : pf. dvdecrrrjKa ; 2 aor. avTtaTTjv, [imj)v. dv- 
TtWi^Tf ], inf. dvTiarrjvai ; Mid., pres. dvdiarapai ; impf. 
dudia-rdprju; (avr l a.nd icttt] pi) ; to set against; as in Grk. 
writ., in the mid., and in the pf. plpf. [having pres. and 
impf. force, W. 274 (257)] and 2 aor. act., to set one's 
self against, to withstand, resist, oppose : pf. act., Ro. ix. 
19 ; xiii. 2 ; 2 Tim. iv. 15 [R G]. 2 aor. act., Mt. v. 39 ; 
Lk.xxi. 15; Acts vi. 10; Gal. ii. 11 ; Eph. vi. 13; 2 Tim. 
iii. 8 ; [iv. 15 L T Tr WH]. impv., Jas. iv. 7 ; 1 Pet. v. 
9. Mid. : pres., 2 Tim. iii. 8. impf., Acts xiii. 8.* 

dv0-O(i.o\o7€'o|xai, -ovpai : [impf. dvOcopoKoyovprju] ; (dvrl 
and opoXojiopai) ; in Grk. writ. (fr. Dem. down) 1. 
to rephj bij professing or by confessing. 2. to agree 
mutually (in turn), to make a compact. 3. to acknowl- 
edge in the presence of (dvri before, over against ; cf. 
f^opoXoyfladai e'vavri Kvpiov, 2 Chr. vii. 6) any one, (see 
Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. iii. p. 19 sq.) : rds apaprlas 
to confess sins, Joseph, antt. 8, 10, 3 [Bekk. reads dfopo- 
Xoyovpepovsl ; cf. 1 Esdr. viii. 88 (90). rivi, to declare 
something in honor of one, to celebrate his praises, give 
thankstohim,'Lk.u.38; (forrriin in Ps. Ixxviii. (Ixxix.) 
13; 3 Mace. vi. 33; [Dan. iv.'31 (34) Sept.; Test. xii. 
Patr. test. Jud. § 1]).* 

av0os, -fos, TO, [fr. Hom. down] ; a fiower : Jas. i. 10 
sq. ; 1 Pet. i. 24.* 

dvOpaKid [on accent cf. Etym. Magn. 801, 21 ; Chand- 
ler § 95], -aj, i\, a heap of burning coals : Jn. xviii. 18 ; 
xxi. 9. (Sir. xi. 32; 4 Mace. ix. 20; Hom. II. 9, 213, 
etc.) [Cf. BB.DD. s. v. Coal.] * 

dv0pa|, -aKos, 6, coal, (also, fr. Thuc. and Arstph. down, 
alive coal), avdp. -rrvpds a coal of fire i. e. a burning or 
live coal ; Ro. xii. 20 au6p. irvpos (rwpeveiv eVt ttjv Kt(i)a\r)v 



avdpo)7rdpeaKO^ 



46 



dvdpcoiro^ 



TWOS, a proverbial expression, fr. Prov. xxv. 22, signify- 
ing to call up, by the favors you confer on your enemy, 
the memory in him of the wrong he has done you (which 
shall pain him as if live coals were heaped on his head), 
that he may the more readily repent. The Arabians 
call things that cause very acute mental pain burning 
coals of the heart and Jire in the liver; cf. (Jesenius in 
Rosenmiiller's Bibl.-exeg. Repert. i. p. 140 sej. [or in his 
Thesaurus i. 280 ; cf. also BB.DD. s. v. Coal]. * 

avdpufir-apta-Kos, -ov, {avdpu>nos and aptaKOi agreeable, 
pleasing, insinuating ; cf. eidpfo-Kos, SvaapeaKos, avrd- 
pta-Kos in Lob. ad Phryn. p. 621) ; only in bibl. and 
eccl. writ. [W. 25] : studying to please men, courting the 
favor of men : Eph. vi. 6 ; Col. iii. 22. (Ps. lii. (liii.) 6 ; 
[Ps. Sal. iv. 8, 10].)* 

dv6puin.vos> -ivT], -ivov, (avOpoonos), [fr. Hdt. down], 
human ; applied to things belonging to men : x*'Pf^> 
Acts xvii. 25 L T Tr Wll ; c^vo-ty, Jas. iii. 7 ; or insti- 
tuted by men : ktIctis, [q. v. 3], 1 Pet. ii. 13 ; adjusted to 
the strength of man : ireipaafios [R. V. a temptation such 
as man can bear}, 1 Co. x. 13 (cf. Neander [and Heinrici] 
ad loc. ; Pollux 3, 27, 131 6 ovk civ tis vnopfvfKv, 6 ovk tiv 
Tis (viynT) . . . TO bk ivavriov, Kov(f)6v, fiK^opov, oiarov, dv- 
BpioTTivov, dveKTov). 0pp. to divine things, with the im- 
plied idea of defect or weakness: 1 Co. ii. 4 Rec. ; 13 
(ao(f)la, originating with man) ; iv. 3 {dvOpoinlvT] fjpepa 
the judicial day of men, i. e. human judgment), dv^/jco- 
nivov Xeyo), Ro. vi. 19 (I say what is human, speak as 
is usual among men, who do not always suitably weigh 
the force of their words ; by this expression the apos- 
tle apologizes for the use of the phrase dovXadrjvai t^ 
diKaiocrvvT]).* 

dvOpwiroKTOvos, -ov, (KTfivco to kill), a vianslayer, mur- 
derer: Jn. viii. 44. contextually, to be deemed equal to 
a murderer, 1 Jn. iii. 15. (Eur. Iph. T. (382) 389.) [Cf. 
Trench § Ixxxiii. and ^oveils.] * 

avOpwiroS) -ov, o, [perh. fr. ai/ijp and <5\//^, i. e. man's face ; 
Curtius§422; Vani(!!ek p. 9. From Horn, down] ; inan. 
It is used 1. univ., with ref. to the genus or nature, 
without distinction of sex, a hmnan being, ichether male 
or female: Jn. xvi. 21. And in this sense a. with the 
article, generically, so as to include all human individ- 
uals : Mt. iv. 4 (eV apra (rjo-frai 6 avdpawos) ; Mt. xii. 35 
(6 dyados livd. every good person) ; i\It. xv. 11, 18 ; JVIk. 
ii. 27 ; vii. 15, 18, 20 ; Lk. iv. 4 ; Jn. ii. 25 [W. § 18, 8] ; 
vii. 51 ; Ro. vii. 1, etc. b. so that a man is distinguished 
from beings of a different race or order ; o. from ani- 
mals, plants, etc. : Lk. v. 10 ; Mt. iv. 19 ; xii. 12 ; 2 Pet. 
ii. 16; Rev. ix. 4, 7, 10, 15, 18 ; xi. 13, etc. p. from 
God, from Christ as divine, and from angels: Mt. x. 32; 
xix. 6 ; Mk. x. 9 ; Lk. ii. 15 [T WH om., L Tr br.] (opp. 
to angels) ; Jn. x. 33 ; Acts x. 26 ; xiv. 11; 1 Th. ii. 13 ; 
Gal. i. 10, 12; 1 Co. iii. 21 ; vii. 23; Phil. ii. 7,7 (8); 1 Tim. 
ii. 5 ; Heb. viii. 2 ; xiii. 6 ; 1 Pet. ii. 4, etc. c. with 
the added notion of weakness, by which man is led 
into mistake or prompted to sin : ovk nvOpconol (R G 
aapKiKoi) eoTf ; 1 Co. iii. 4 ; aocpla dvOpancov, 1 Co. ii. 5 ; 
av6o<j)TT(i)v (TTidvplai, 1 Pet. iv. 2 ; kotc cziAaanrov irfpiiraTtlrt 



ye conduct yourselves as men, 1 Co. iii. 3 ; XaXfli/ or 
Xeyfti' Kara avSpatnov, to speak according to human modes 
of thinking, 1 Co. ix. 8 ; Ro. iii. 5 ; Kara avdpoinov Xc-yo), 
I speak as a man to whom analogies from human affairs 
present themselves, while I illustrate divine things by an 
example drawn from ordinary human life, Gal. iii. 15; 
Kara. av6p. Orjpiopaxf'iv, as man is wont to fight, urged on by 
the desire of gain, honor and other earthly advantages, 
1 Co. XV. 32 ; oiiK tart. Kara avdp. is not accommodated 
to the opinions and desires of men, Gal. i. 11 ; [for exx. 
of Kara av6. in prof. auth. see Wetstein on Rom. u. s.] ; 
with the accessory notion of malignity: Trpoo-/;^* t« 
aTTo TO))/ dvdpanrav, Mt. x. 1 7 ; ds y^flpas dvQpaTTdav, Mt. 
xvii. 22 ; Lk. ix. 44. d. with the adjunct notion of 
contempt, (as sometimes in Grk. writ.) : Jn. v. 1 2 ; the 
address 2) avdpame, or av6pu)nf, is one either of contempt 
and disdainful pity, Ro. ix. 20 (Plat. Gorg. p. 452 b. av 
8( . . . Tis ft, ^ avOponne), or of gentle rebuke, Lk. xxii. 
58, 60. The word serves to suggest commiseration : Ide 
[T Tr WH tSov] 6 iivdp. behold the man in question, mal- 
treated, defenceless, Jn. xix. 5. e. with a reference 
to the twofold nature of man, 6 ('aco and 6 e^co avOpconos, 
soul and body: Ro. vii. 22; Eph. iii. 16; 2 Co. iv. 16, 
(Plat. rep. 9, 589 a. 6 fvroi avdpanos; Plotin. Enn. 5, 1, 
10 6 ft(Tci) avdp. ; cf. Fritzsche on Rom. vol. ii. 61 sq; [Mey. 
on Ro. 1. c. ; EUic. on Eph. 1. c.]) ; 6 KpvnTos t^s Kapbias 
avdp. 1 Pet. iii. 4. f. with a reference to the twofold 
moral condition of man, 6 rraXaios (the corrupt) and 6 
Kaivos (6 vfos) avdp. (the truly Christian man, conformed 
to the nature of God) : Ro. vi. 6 ; Eph. ii. 15 ; iv. 22, 24 ; 
Col. iii. 9 sq. g. with a reference to the sex, (context- 
ually) a male : Jn. vii. 22 sq. 2. indefinitely, without 
the article, av6pu>iros, a. some one, a (certain) 7nan, 
when who he is either is not known or is not import- 
ant : i. q. t\s, Mt. xvii. 14 ; xxi. 28 ; xxii. 11 ; Mk. xii. 1 ; 
xiv. 13 ; Lk. v. 18 ; xiii. 19, etc. with the addition of t\s, 
Mt. xviii. 12 ; Lk. x. 30 ; xiv. 2, 16 ; xv. 11 ; xvi. 1,19; 
Jn. v. 5. in address, where the speaker either cannot 
or will not give the name, Lk. v. 20 ; or where the writer 
addresses any and every reader, Ro. ii. 1,3. b. where 
what is said holds of every man, so that av6p. is equiv. 
to the Germ, indef. man, one : Ro. iii. 28 ; 1 Co. iv. 1 ; 
vii. 1 ; xi. 28 ; Gal. ii. 16. So also where opp. to domes^ 
tics, Mt. X. 36 ; to a wife, Mt. xix. 10 ; to a father, Mt. 
x. 35 ; to the master of a household, Lk. xii. 36 sq., — in 
which passages many, confounding sense and sign if i' 
cation, incorrectly say that the word avdp. signifies/rt/Ae/ 
of a family, husband, son, servant. 3. in the plur. ot 
avdp. is sometimes (the) people, Germ, die Leute : JVIt. 
V. 13, 16; vi. 5, 18; viii. 27; xvi. 13; Lk. xi. 44; Mk. 
viii. 24, 27; Jn. iv. 28; olbtXs dvdpwnav (nemo homi- 
num) no one, Mk. xi. 2; 1 Tim. vi. 16. 4. It is joined 
a. to another substantive, — a quasi-predicate of office, 
or emplojTnent, or characteristic, — the idea of the pred- 
icate predominating [W. § 59, 1]: avdpconos tpnopos a 
merchant (-man), Mt. xiii. 45 [WH txt. om. avdp ] ; oIko- 
bfCTTTOTqs, Mt. xiii. 52; xx. 1; xxi. 33 ; /Sao-iXfvf, Mt. 
xviii. 23; xxii. 2; (f)dyos, Mt. xi. 19. (So in Hebr. 



avdxnraTevoy 



47 



\.vva<; 



6 avd. ovTos, ^Ik. xiv. 
ix. 24 [RGTTrtxt.]: 



0'"iO E^'K a eunuch, Jer. xxxviii. 7 sq., jri3 crK a priest, 
Lev. xxi. 9 ; also in Grk. writ. : av6. 68irqs, Horn. II. 16, 
263, al. ; cf. Matthiae § 430, 6 ; [Kriiger § 57, 1, 1] ; but 
in Attic this combination generally has a contemptuous 
force ; cf. Bnhdy. p. 48 ; in Lat. homo gladiator, Cic. 
epp. ad diversos 12, 22, 1). b. to a gentile noun : av6. 
KvpTjvaiot, Mt. xxvii. 32 ; 'lov8aios, Acts xxi. 39 ; 'P<d- 
fxalos, Acts xvi. 37 ; xxii. 25, (ace. to the context, a Ro- 
man citizen). 5. 6 avdp., with the article, the partic- 
ular man under consideration, who he is being plain 
from the context: Mt. xii. 13 ; xxvi. 72 ; Mk. iii. 5 ; Lk. 
xxiii. 6 ; Jn. iv. 50. ovtos 6 av6-. Lk. xiv. 30 ; Jn. Lx. 16, 
24 [LTrmrg.WH]; xi. 47: 
71 ; Lk. xxiii. 4, 14, 47; Jn 
xviii. 1 7 ; Acts vi. 13 ; xxii. 26 ; xxvi. 31, 32. 6 av6. 
fKflvns. Mt. xii. 45 ; xxvi. 24 ; ^Ik. xiv. 21. 6. Phrases: 
6 avd. TTJf afiapTias (or with T Tr txt.WH txt. t. dvofilas), 
2 Th. ii. 3, see ap-aprla, 1 p. 30 sq. av6. rov 6(ov a man 
devoted to the service of God, God's minister : 1 Tim. 
vi. 11 ; 2 Tim. iii. 17, (of the evangelists, the associates 
of the apostles) ; 2 Pet. i. 21 (of prophets, like DTIVn C?'« 
often in the O. T. ; cf. Geseniu)', Thesaur. i. p. 85). For 
o vlo'! rov av6ptimov and vloi tcov av6p., see under vlos- 

dv6-viraT€v« ; (avri for i. e. in heu or stead of any one, 
and xmarfva to be vTraros. to be supreme, to be consul) ; 
to be proconsul: Acts xviii. 12 [RG; cf. B. 169 (147)]. 
(Plut. comp. Dem. c. Cic. c. 3 ; Hdian. 7, 5, 2.) * 

dv6-v-iraTos, -ou, 6, [see the preceding word], proconsul: 
Acts xiii. 7, 8, 1 2 ; xviii. 1 2 L T Tr WH : xix. 38. The 
emperor Augustus divided the Roman provinces into 
senatorial and imperial. The former were presided 
over by proconsuls; the latter were administered by 
legates of the emperor, sometimes called also proprae- 
tors. (Polyb.,Dion. H^Lcian., Plut., and often in Dio 
Cass.) [B. D. s. V. Proconsul; Alex.'s Kitto s. v. Prov- 
ince; esp. Bp. Lghtft. in The Contemp. Rev. for 1878, 
p. 289 sq.] * 

dv-iT]pii, [ptcp. plur. di/wVres] ; 2 aor. subj. dva, ptcp. 
plur. dv€VTfs ; 1 aor. pass, dvidrjv ; to send back ; to relax ; 
contextually. to loosen : ri, Acts xvi. 26, (rovr beapovs, 
Plut. Alex. M. 73) ; xxvii. 40. trop. tt^v dnfiXrjv, to give 
up, omit, calm [?], Eph. vi. 9 ; (ttjv exOpav, Thuc. 3, 10; 
TTjvopyrjv, Plut. Alex. M. 70). to leave, not to uphold, to 
let sink : Heb. xiii. 5, (Deut. xxxi. 6).* 

dv-(X€ci>s, -0)1', gen. -u, (iXeas, Attic for Tkaos), without 
mercy, merciless: Jas. ii. 13 [R G]. Found nowhere 
else [exc. Hdian. epim. 257]. Cf. dveXtos* 

avi-irros, -cv, (vi-rrray to wash), unwashed: I^It. xv. 20; 
:Mk. vii. 2, and R L mrg. in 5. (Horn. H. 6. 266, etc.)* 

dv-wrrqju : fut. dva(TTT]<ra> ; 1 aor. dvearrjcra : 2 aor. dv- 
((TTTjv, impv. dvdcrrqdi and (Acts xii. 7 : Eph. v. 14 and 
L WH txt. in Acts ix. 11) dvaa~ra (W. § 14. 1 h. : [B. 47 
(40)]); Mid., pres. dviarapai: fut. dvaoTTja-opai; [fr. 
Horn, down]; I. Transitively, in the pres. 1 

aor. and fut. act., to cause to rise, raise up, (D'pn) ; 
a. prop, of one lying down : Acts ix. 41. b. to raise up 
from death: Jn. vi. 39 sq. 44, 54; Acts ii. 32; xiii. 34, 
(so in Grk. writ.). c. to raise up, cause to be bom: 



aitippa offspring (Gen. xxxviii. 8), Mt. xxii. 24, [cf. W. 
33 (32)] ; Tov Xpitrrov, Acts ii. 30 Rec. to cause to ap- 
pear, bring forward, rivd rivi one for any one's succor: 
npo(pT}Ty]v, Acts iii. 22 ; vii. 37 ; t6' nal8a avroi, Acts iii. 
26. II. Intransitively, in the pf. plpf. and 2 
aor. act., and in the mid. ; 1. to rise, stand up ; used 
a. of persons lying down (on a couch or bed) : ^Mk. i. 
35 ; V. 42 ; Lk. viii. 55 ; xi. 7 ; Acts L\. 34, 40. of per- 
sons lying on the ground: Mk. ix. 27; Lk. xvii. 19; 
xxii. 46 ; Acts ix. 6. b. of persons seated: Lk. iv. 16 
{dvfOTT) dvayvavat) ; Mt. xxvi. 62; Mk. xiv. 60 ; Acts 
xxiii. 9. c. of those who leave a place to go elsewhere: 
Mt. Lx. 9 ; Mk. ii. 14 ; [x. 50 R G] ; Lk. iv. 38 ; xxiii. 1 ; 
Acts ix. 39. Hence of those who prepare themselves 
for a journey, (Germ, sich aufmachen) : Mk. vii. 24 ; x. 
1 ; Lk. i. 39 ; xv. 18, 20; Acts x. 20; xxu. 10. In the 
same way the Hebr. Dip (esp. UP\\) is put before verbs 
of going, departing, etc., according to the well 
known oriental custom to omit nothing contributin"^ to 
the full pictorial delineation of an action or event ; hence 
formerly DP'J and dvacrrds were sometimes incorrectlv 
said to be redundant ; cf. W. 608 (565). dvacrTTjvai dno 
to rise up from something, i. e. from what one has been 
doing while either sitting or prostrate on the ground : 
Lk. xxii. 45. d. of the dead ; 2 aor., with e< vfKpw^ 
added : Mt. xvii. 9 R G WH mrg. ; Mk. ix. 9 sq. ; xii. 25 ; 
Lk. xvi. 31 ; xxiv. 46 ; Jn. xx. 9 ; Eph. v. 14 (here fig.) ; 
with (K vfKpSiv omitted : ^Ik. viii. 31 : xvi. 9 ; Lk. ix. 8, 
19, [22 L T Tr mrg. WH mrg.] ; xxiv. 7 ; Ro. xiv. 9 Rec. ; 
so (without (K v(Kp.) in the fut. mid. also : Mt. xii. 41 ; 
[xvii. 23 L WH mrg.] ; xx. 1 9 [R G L Tr mrg. WH mrg.] ; 
]Mk. X. 34 : Lk. xi. 32; xviii. 33 ; Jn. xi. 23 sq. ; 1 Th. iv. 
16. 2. to arise, appear, stand forth ; of kings, proph- 
ets, priests, leaders of insurgents : Acts v. 36 sq. ; vii. 
18. mid., Ro. XV. 12; Heb. vii. 11, 15. of those about 
to enter into conversation or dispute with any one, Lk. 
X. 25 ; Acts vi. 9 ; or to undertake some business, Acts 
V. 6 : or to attempt something against others, Acts v. 1 7. 
Hence dvaarrjuai inl nva to rise up against any one : ^Ik, 
iii. 26, (S>' Dip). [Syn. see iytipa, fin. Comp. : en--, 
i^-avi(TTripi..~\ 

"Awa [WH "Awa, see their Intr. § 408], -as [on this 
gen. cf. B. 17 (15); Ph. Bttm. Ausf. Spr. i. p. 188], j), 
Anna, (nin grace), the prop, name of a woman (so in 
1 S i. 2 sqq. ; ii. 1 Alex. ; Tob. i. 9, 20, etc.), a prophetess, 
in other respects unknown : Lk. ii. 36.* 

"Awas [WH "Awas-. see their Intr. § 408], -a (on this 
gen. cf. W. § 8. 1 p. 60 (59)). 6. (in Joseph. "Avavos: It. 
Hebr. pn to be gracious), a high-priest of the Jews, 
elevated to the pontificate by Quirinius the governor of 
S^Tia c. A. D. 6 or 7; but afterwards, A. D. 15, deposed 
by Valerius Gratus. the procurator of Judjea. who put in 
his place, first Ismael, son of Phabi. and shortly after 
Eleazar, son of Annas. From the latter, the office 
passed to Simon: from Simon c. A. D. 18 to Caiaphas. 
(Joseph, antt. 18, 2. 1 sq.); but Annas, even after he 
had been put out of office, continued to have great influ- 
ence : Jn. xviii. 13, 24. This explains the mistake [but 



av6r)T0<i 



48 



UVOfKOt 



see reff. below (esp. to Schiirer), and cf. apxitpevs, 2] by 
which Luke, in his Gospel iii. 2 (ace. to the true read- 
ing dpxKp (<•>:) and in Acts iv. 6, attributes to him the 
pontificate long after he had been removed from office. 
Cf. Win. RWB. s. V. Annas ; Keim in Schenkel i. p. 
135 sq. ; Schiirer in the Zeitschr. fiir wissensch. Theol. 
for 1876, p. 580 sq. [also in his Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 23 
iv. ; and BB.DD. s. v.].* 

a-v6r\TOS, -ov, {vorjTos fr. pota) ; 1. not understood, 
unintelligible ; 2. generally active, not understanding, 
univise, foolish: Ro. i. 14 (opp. to ao^oi) ; Lk. xxiv. 25; 
Gal. iii. 1,3; Tit. iii. 3. tnidvplai dvorjroi, 1 Tim. vi. 9. 
(Pro v. xvii. 28 ; Ps. xlviii. (xlix.) 13 ; and often in Attic 
writ. ; [cf. Trench § Ixxv. ; EUic. on Gal. iii. 1 ; Schmidt 
ch. 147 § 20].)* 

avoia, -a?, 17, {avovs [i. e. avoos without understand- 
ing]), ivant of understanding, follg : 2 Tim. iii. 9. mad- 
ness expressing itself in rage, Lk. vi. 11, [Siio S' dvolas 
yevrj, to pev pavlav, to Se dpadlav, Plato, Tim. p. 86 b.]. 
([Theogn. 453] ; lldt. 6, 69 ; Attic writ. fr. Thuc. down.)* 

dv-oi*y« ; (dvd, oiyoo i. e. oiywpi) ', fut. dvoi^co ; 1 aor. 
rjvoi^a and (Jn. ix. 14 and as a var. elsewh. also) di/ew^a 
(an earlier form) [and fjvem^a WH in Jn. ix. 17, 32 (cf. 
Gen. viii. 6), so Tr (when corrected), but without iota 
subscr. ; see I, t] ; 2 pf . dvewya (to be or stand open ; cf . 
Bttm. Ausf. Spr. ii. p. 250 sq. ; [^Rutherford, New Phryn. 
p. 247; Veitch s. v.] ; the Attic writ, give this force 
mostly to the pf. pass.) ; Pass., [pres. dvoiyopai Mt. vii. 
8 L Trtxt. Wllmrg. ; Lk. xi. 10 Tr mrg. WH mrg.] ; pf. 
ptcp. dveaypivos and fjvfaypfvos, (T]voiypfvos Acts ix. 8 
Tdf.) ; 1 aor. dveco)(dT)u, Tjvecox^Orjv, and rjvoix^dTjp, inf. dve- 
(pxdrjvai (with double augui. Lk. iii. 21) ; 2 aor. r)voiyr)v 
(the usual later form); 1 fut. dvoixGr](Topai (Lk. xi. 9 
Tdf., 10 LT); 2 fut. dvoiyT]aopai; (on these forms, in 
the use of which both codd. and edd. differ much, cf. 
ITdf Proleg. p. 121 sq.] ; WH. App. pp. 161, 170; Bttm. 
Gram. p. 280 [21st Germ, ed.]; Bttm. N. T. Gr. 63 (55) ; 
W. 72 (70) and 83 (79); [Veitch s. v.])? to open: a 
door, a gate. Acts v. 19; xii. 10, 14; xvi. 26 sq. ; Rev. 
iv. 1 ; very often in Grk. writ. Metaph., to give en- 
trance into the soul, Rev. iii. 20 ; to furnish opportunity 
to do something, Acts xiv. 27; Col. iv. 3; pass., of an 
opportunity offered, 1 Co. xvi. 9; 2 Co. ii. 12; Rev. iii. 
8 ; cf. 6vpa. simply dvo'iyfiv tivI to open (the door [B. 
145 (127)]) to one; prop.: Lk. xii. 36 ; Acts v. 23 ; xii. 
16 ; Jn. x. 3 ; in a proverbial saying, to grant something 
asked for, Mt. vii. 7 s(j. ; Lk. xi. 9 sq. ; parabolically, to 
give access to the blessings of God's kingdom, Mt. xxv. 
11 ; Lk. xiii. 25 ; Rev. iii. 7. tovs drjaavpovs, Mt. ii. 11, 
(Sir. xliii. 14 ; Eur. Ion 923) ; to. pvrjpela, Mt. xxvii. 52; 
Td(f)us, Ro. iii. 13 ; TO (ppeap, Rev. ix. 2. heaven is said to 
be opened and something to descend fr. it, Mt. iii. 16 ; Lk. 
iii. 21 : Jn. i. 51 (52) ; Acts x. 11 ; or something is said 
to be seen there, Acts vii. 56 R G ; Rev. xi. 19 (6 vaos 
. . . 6evT(o ovpava) ; [xv. 5] ; xix. 11. dvoiy. to a-Topa : of 
a fish's mouth, Mt. xvii. 27 ; Hebraistically, of those who 
begin to speak [W. 33 (32), 608 (565)], Mt. v. 2 ; Acts 
viii. 32, 35 ; x. 34 ; xviii. 14 ; foil, by eh ^Xacrcjirjpiav [-plus 



L T Tr WH], Rev. xiii. 6 ; iv 7tapa^o\ais, i. e. to make 
use of (A. V. in), Mt. xiii. 35, (Ps. Ixxvii. (Ixxviii.) 2; 
€i> eneai Lcian. Philops. § 33) ; rrpos Tiva, 2 Co. vi. 11 (to 
(TTopa fjpiou dvfmye npos v/xas our mouth is open towards 
you, i. e. we speak freely to you, we keep nothing back) ; 
the mouth of one is said to be opened who recovers the 
power of speech, Lk. i. 64 ; of the earth yawning. Rev. 
xii. 16. dv. dKods rivoi i. e. to restore the faculty of hear- 
ing, Mk. vii. 35 (L T Tr WH). dv. tovs ocpdaKpois [W. 
33 (32)], to part the eyelids so as to see. Acts ix. 8, 40 ; 
Tivos, to restore one's sight, Mt. ix. 30 ; xx. 33 ; Jn. ix. 

10, 14, 17, 21, 26, 30, 32 ; .x. 21 ; xi. 37; metaph.. Acts 
xxvi. 18 (to open the eyes of one's mind), dvoiyw ttju 
a<ppayi8a, to unseal. Rev. v. 9 ; vi. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12 ; viii. 1 ; 
dv. TO ^ifiXlov, tiiliXapidtov, to unroll, Lk. iv. 17 L TrWH; 
Rev. V. 2-5 ; .x. 2, 8; xx. 12. [Comp. : Bi-avolya.}* 

dv-oiKO-8o|xc(i>, -0) : fut. dvoiKodoprjaco ; to build again, 
(Vulg. reaedifco) : Acts xv. 16. ([Thuc. 1, 89, 3] ; Diod. 

11, 39; Plut. Them. 19; Cam. 31; Hdian. 8, 2, 12 [5 
ed. Bekk.].)* 

avoi|is, -eas, fj, (dvo'iya, q. v.), an opening : iv dvoi^tt. 
Tov (TTopaTos pov as often as I open my mouth to speak, 
Eph. vi. 19. (Thuc. 4, 68, 4 ; Tav nvXwv, id. 4, 67, 3; 
X^fiXav, Plut. mor. [symp. 1. ix. quaest. 2, 3] p. 738 c.)* 

dvofjiia, -as, fj, {avopos) ; 1. prop, the condition of 
one without law, — either because ignorant '^f it, or because 
violating it. 2. contempt and violation of law, iriiquity, 
wickedness: Mt. xxiii. 28; xxiv. 12; 2 Th. ii. 3 (T Trtxt. 
WH txt. ; cf. dpapTia, 1 p. 30 sq.), 7 ; Tit. ii. 14 ; 1 Jn. iii. 
4. opp. to 17 BiKaioa-vvT], 2 Co. vi. 14 ; Heb. i. 9 [not Tdf.], 
(Xen. mem. 1, 2, 24 dvopia paXKov rj diKaioavvr} xpwpevoi) ; 
and to f) 8iKaiocrvvr) and 6 dyiaapos, Ro. vi. 19 (r^ dvopia 
fls TTjv dvopiav to iniquity — personified — in order to icork 
iniquit//) ; iroulv Tr]v dvopiav to do iniquity, act wickedly, 
Mt. xiii. 41 ; 1 Jn. iii. 4 ; in the same sense, ipyd^eadai 
TTjv dv. Mt. vii. 23 ; plur. al dvopiai manifestations of dis- 
regard for law, iniquities, evil deeds : Ro. iv. 7 (Ps. xxxi. 
(xxxii.) 1); Heb. viii. 12 [RGL]; x. 17. (In Grk. 
writ. fr. [Hdt. 1, 96] Thuc. down; often in Sept.) [Syn. 
cf. Trench § Ixvi. ; Tittm. i. 48 ; Ellic. on Tit. ii. 14.]* 

d-vo|ios, -ov, (vopos) ', 1. destitute of (the Mosaic) 
latv : used of Gentiles, 1 Co. ix. 21, (without any sugges- 
tion of ' iniquity ' ; just as in Add. to Esth. iv. 42, where 
avopoi dnepLTpriToi and aXXorpioi are used together). 2. 
departing from the law, a violator of the law, lawless, 
toicked; (Vu\g. in iquiis; [also in just US']) : Mk. xv. 28 [R 
LTrbr.] ; Lk. xxii. 37 ; Acts ii. 23, (so in Grk. writ.) ; 
opp. to 6 diKaios, 1 Tim. i. 9 ; 6 avopos (kut (^oxr]v), he in 
whom all iniquity has as it were fixed its abode, 2 Th. 
ii. 8 ; av. epyov an unlawful deed, 2 Pet. ii. 8 ; free from 
late, not sid>Ject to law, [Vulg. sine lege] : pi] !ov avopos 
6foi [B. 169 (147)] (Rec. ^ew), 1 Co. Lx. 21. (Very 
often in Sept.) [Syn. see dvopia, fin.] * 

df^fius, adv., without the law (see avopos, 1), tvilhout a 
hwtrledge of the laiv : dv. apaprdveiv to sin in ignorance 
of the Mosaic law, Ro. ii. 12; dnoXXvadai to perish, but 
not by sentence of the Mosaic law, ibid, (dvopcos C^u to 
live ignorant of law and discipline, Isoc. panegyr. c. 10 



avopdo 



00) 



49 



avTi 



§ 39 ; dpofxas air6\\vcr6ai, to be slain contrary to law, as 
in wars, seditions, etc., ibid. c. 44 § 168. In Grk. writ, 
generally unjustly, wickedly, as 2 Mace. viii. 1 7.)* 

Qy-op06a>, -a> : f ut. dvopdaaa ; 1 aor. dvapdaxra ; 1 aor. 
pass. dv<i)p6u>6r]v (Lk. xiii. 13 ; without the aug. avopOdod-qv 
LTTr; cL\_WH. App. p. 161]; B. 34 (30); [W. 73] 
(70)) ; 1. to set up, make erect : a crooked person, Lk. 
xiii. 13 (she was made straight, stood erect); drooping 
hands and relaxed knees (to raise them up by restoring 
their strength), Heb. xii. 12. 2. to rear again, build 
anew: aicTjvriv, Acts xv. 16 (Hdt. 1, 19 top vt}6v . . . top 
(vinpTjaav ; 8, 140; Xen. Hell. 4, 8, 12, etc.; in various 
senses in Sept.).* 

dv-^o-ios, -ov, (a priv. and oaios, q. v.), unholy, impious, 
wicked : 1 Tim. i. 9 ; 2 Tim. iii. 2. (In Grk. writ, from 
[Aeschyl. and] Hdt. down.) * 

woxf\, -TJs, T], (compare dvexopai vivos, s. v. dvfx<^ P- 45), 
toleration, forbearance ; in this sense only in Ro. ii. 4 ; 
iii. 26 (25). (In Grk. writ, a holding back, delaying, 
f r. dvfx<o to hold back, hinder.) [Cf . Trench § liii.] * 

avT-a-yuvCtofiai ; to struggle, Jight ; npos rt, against a 
thing, Heb. xii. 4 [cf. W. § 52, 4, 3]. (Xen., Plat., Dem., 
etc.)* 

dvT-d\Xa-y(i.a, -ros, to, (dvri in place of, in turn, and 
aXXay/iu see oLXXaa-aoa), that which is given in place of 
another thing by tvay of exchange ; what is given either in 
order to keep or to acquire anything : Mt. xvi. 26 ; Mk. 
viii. 37, where the sense is, ' nothing equals in value the 
soul's salvation.' Christ transfers a proverbial expres- 
sion respecting the supreme value of the natural life 
(Hom. II. 9, 401 ov yap fpol yj/vxris dvrd^iov) to the hfe 
eternal. (Ruth iv. 7 ; Jer. xv. 13 ; Sir. vi. 15, etc; Eur. 
Or. 1157; Joseph, b. j. 1, 18, 3.)* 

dvT-ava-^Xr)p6«, -at ; (dvri and dpan\t)p6co, q. v.) ; to Jill 
up in turn : Col. i. 24 (the meaning is, ' what is wanting 
of the afflictions of Christ to be borne by me, that I 
supply in order to repay the benefits which Christ con- 
ferred on me by filling up the measure of the afflictions 
laid upon him'); [Mey., Ellic, etc., explain the word 
(with Wetst.) by 'dvrl va-Teprjparos succedit dvanXripajpa' ; 
but see Bp. Lghtft. ad loc, who also quotes the pas- 
sages where the word occurs]. (Dem. p. 182, 22; Dio 
Cass. 44, 48 ; ApoUon. Dysc. de constr. orat. i. pp. 14, 
1 [cf. Bttm. ad loc] ; 114, 8 ; 258, 3 ; 337, 4.)* 

dvT-aiTO-SiSwiii : f ut. dpTano8a>(r<o ; 2 aor. inf. dwaTroSoC- 
vai ; 1 fut. pass. avTaTroBoBrja-opai ; (dpri for something 
received, in return, dnobiSiopi to give back) ; to repay, 
requite ; a. in a good sense : Lk. xiv. 14 ; Ro. xi. 35 ; 
evxapiariap rivi, 1 Th. iii. 9. b. in a bad sense, of 
penalty and vengeance ; absol. : Ro. xii. 1 9 ; Heb. x. 
30, (Dent, xxxii. 35) ; dXiyl^iv rivt, 2 Th. i. 6. (Very 
often in the Sept. and Apocr., in both senses ; in Grk. 
writ. fr. [Hdt.] Thuc. down.)* 

dvT-ainS-Soii.a, -to?, to, (see dpranobi^upi), the thing paid 

back, requital ; a. in a good sense : Lk. xiv. 12. b. 

in a bad sense : Ro. xi. 9. (In Sept. i. q. SlOJ, Judg. ix. 

16 [Alex.], etc. ; the Greeks say dpranodoa-is [cf. W. 25].)* 

dvT-aw6-8o<ris, -fcos, 17, recompense : Col. iii. 24. (Ir 



Sept. i. q. SlDJ, Is. lix. 18, etc ; in Grk. writ. fr. Thuc. 
down.)* 

dvT-airo-Kp(vo|iai ; 1 aor. pass. dpranfKpldrjp [see dno- 
Kpipco, ii.] ; to contradict in reply, to answer by contradict- 
ing, reply against : tiv\ npos n, Lk. xiv. 6 ; (Sept. Judg. 
V. 29 [Alex.]; Job xvi. 8; xxxii. 12; Aesop, fab. 172 
ed. de Furia, [p. 353 ed. Coray]). Hence i. q. to alter- 
cate, dispute : with dat. of pers. Ro. ix. 20. (In a mathe- 
matical sense, to correspond to each other or be parallel, 
in Nicomach. arithm. 1, 8, 11 p. 77 a. [p. 17 ed. Hoche].) 
Cf. Win. De verb. comp. etc Pt. iii. p. 1 7.* 

dvT-tiirov, a 2 aor. used instead of the verb dpriXtytip, 
to speak against, gainsay ; [fr. Aeschyl. down] : Lk. xxi. 
15; Acts iv. 14. Cf. (ittop* 

dvT-6X<i) : Mid., [pres. dprexofiat] ; fut. dpOi^opai. ; to , 
hold before or against, hold back, ivithstand, endure; in 
the N. T. only in Mid. to keep one's self directly opposite 
to any one, hold to him firmly, cleave to, paying heed to 
him : tipos, Mt. vi. 24 ; Lk. xvi. 13 ; twv daOfpuip, to aid 
them, care for them, 1 Th. v. 14 ; toC \6yov, to hold to, 
hold it fast. Tit. i. 9. (Deut. xxxii. 41 ; Is. Ivi. 4, 6 ; Prov. 
iii. 18, etc., and often in Grk. writ.) Cf. Kiihner 
§ 520 b. [2te Aufl. § 416, 2 ; cf. Jelf § 536] ; W. 202 (190) ; 
[B. 161 (140)].* 

ovtC [before hp, dpff ; elsewhere neglecting elision] a 
preposition foil, by the gen. (answering to the Lat. ante 
and the Germ, prefixes ant-, ent-), in the use of which 
the N. T. writ, coincide with the Greek (W. 364 (341)) ; 
1. prop, it seems to have signified over against, opposite 
to, before, in a local sense (Bttm. Gram. p. 412 ; [cf. Cur- 
tius § 204]). Hence 2. indicating exchange, suc- 
cession, /or, ms/earf 0/, in jaZace 0/ (something), a. univ. 
instead of: dprl Ixdvos ocjjip, Lk. xi. 11 ; dvr) nfpi^oXalov 
to serve as a covering, 1 Co. xi. 15 ; dprl rov Xiyeip, Jas. 
iv. 15, (dvT\ tov with inf. often in Grk. writ. [W. 329 
(309); B. 263 (226)]). b. of that /or which any thing 
is given, received, endured : Mt. v. 38 ; xvii. 27 (to 
release me and thyself from obligation) ; Heb. xii. 2 (to 
obtain the joy ; cf. Bleek, Liinemann, or Delitzsch ad 
loc.) ; of the price of sale (or purchase) : Heb. xii. 16 ; 
\vTpop dvTi TToWap, Mt. XX. 28 ; Mk. x. 45. Then c. 
of recompense : kqkop dprl kokov dnodiSovai., Ro. xii. 1 7 ; 
1 Th. V. 15; 1 Pet. iii. 9, (Sap. xi. 16 (15)). dpff S>v 
equiv. to dprl TovTav, on for that, because : Lk. i. 20 ; xix. 
44 ; Acts xii. 23 ; 2 Th. ii. 10, (also in prof. auth. [exx. 
in Wetst. on Luke i. 20] ; cf. Herm. ad Vig. p. 710; [W. 
364 (342), cf. 162 (153) ; B. 105 (92)] ; Hebr. I'^K nnn, 
Deut. xxi. 14 ; 2 K. xxii. 17). d. of the cause : dpff av 
ivherefore, Lk. xii. 3 ; dvrX tovtov for this cause, Eph. v. 
31. e. of succession to the place of another: 'A-px- 
^aaiXivfi dprl 'HpwSou in place of Herod, Mt. ii. 22, (1 K. 
xi. 44 ; Hdt. 1, 108 ; Xen. an. 1, 1, 4). x^P'" ^^'^ X"P'" 
Tos grace in the place of grace, grace succeeding grace 
perpetually, i. e. the richest abundance of grace, Jn. i. 
16, (Theogn. vs. 344 dpr dpiwp dpias [yet cf. the context 
vs. 342 (vss. 780 and 778 ed. Welcker) ; more appro- 
priate are the reff. to Philo, i. 254 ed. Mang. (de poster. 
Caini § 43. vol. ii. 39 ed. Richter), and Chrys. de sacer- 



duTi^dWo) 



50 



^AvTco^eia 



dot. 1. vi. c. 13 § 622]). 3. As a prefix, it denotes 
a. opposite, over against : dvrmepav, dvTLirapepx^eaOai. b. 
the mutual efficiency of two : dvn^aKXfiv, avTiKokflv, 
dvTiXoibopuv. c. requital : dmipicrdia. awaTroSiSw/ii. d. 
hostile opposition : avrlx^piaros- e. official substitution, 
instead of: avOimaTos* 

dvTi-pdXXb) ; to throw in turn, (prop. Thuc. 7, 25 ; Plut. 
Nic. 25) : \6yovs npos dWrjXovs to exchange words witli 
one another, Lk. xxiv. 17, [cf. 2 Mace. xi. 13].* 

dvTt-8ia-^(9i]ni : [pres. mid. awiSiart'^f/iai] ; in mid. to 
place one's self in opposition, to oppose : of heretics, 2 Tim. 
ii. 25, cf. De Wette [or Iloltzm.] ad loc. ; (several times 
in eccl. writ. ; in the act. to dispose in turn, to take in hand 
in turn : rivd, Diod. exc. p. 602 [vol. v. p. 105, 24 ed. 
Dind. ; absol. to retaliate, Philo de spec. legg. § 15 ; de 
concupisc. § 4]).* 

ovtCSikos, -01/, (Si'/crj) ; as subst. 6 duriSiKos a. an op- 
ponent in a suit at law : Mt. v. 25 ; Lk. xii. 58 ; xviii. 3, 
(Xen., Plat., often in the Attic orators). b. univ. an 
adversary, enemy, (Aeschyl. Ag. 41; Sir. xxxiii. 9 ; 1 S. 
ii. 10 ; Is. xli. 11, etc.) : 1 Pet. v. 8 (unless we prefer to 
regard the devil as here called dwidiKos because he ac- 
cuses men before God).* 

dvT£-9€o-is, [(Tldrjpi), fr. Plato down], -ew?, f} ; a. op- 
position, b. that which is opposed : 1 Tim. vi. 20 (di/- 
Ti6e(reis rfjs ylrevSojv. yvaxr. the inventions of false knowl- 
edge, either mutually oppugnant, or opposed to true 
Christian doctrine).* 

dvTt-KaO-CcTTTiiii : 2 aor. duTiKaTforrrjv ; [fr. Hdt. down] ; 
in the trans, tenses 1. to put in place of another. 
2. to place in opposition, (to dispose troops, set an army 
in line of battle) ; in the intrans. tenses, to stand against, 
resist: Heb. xii. 4, (Thuc. 1, 62. 71).* 

dvTi-KoXc'w, -co : 1 aor. avrfKaXtaa ; to invite in turn : 
Tivd, Lk. xiv. 12. [Xen. conviv. 1, 15.]* 

dvT(-K£t|iai ; 1. to be set over against, lie opposite to, 
in a local sense, ([Ilippocr. de aere p. 282 Foes. (191 
Chart.) ; Strab. 7, 7, 5] ; Hdian. 6, 2, 4 (2 Bekk.) ; 3, 15, 
1 7 (8 Bekk.) ; [cf. Aristot. de caelo 1, 8 p. 277% 23]). 2. 
to oppose, be adverse to, withstand : rivl, Lk. xiii. 17 ; xxi. 
15 ; Gal. V. 17 ; 1 Tim. i. 10. simply (6) dvriKdpfvos, an 
adversary, [Tittmann ii. 9] : 1 Co. xvi. 9 ; Phil. i. 28 ; 2 Th. 
ii. 4; 1 Tim. v. 14. (Dio Cass. 39, 8. Ex. xxiii. 22; 2 
Mace. X. 26, etc. ; [see Soph. Lex. s. v.].) * 

dvTiKpv (I TWII AvTiKpvs [Chandler § 881; Treg. 
dvTiKpCs. Cf. Lob. Path. Elementa ii. 283] ; ad Phryn. p. 
444 ; \_Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 500 sq.] ; Bttm. Ausf. 
Spr ii. 366), adv. of place, over against, opposite : with 
gen., Acta xx. 16. (Often in Grk. writ. ; Philo de vict 
off. § 3 ; de vit. Moys. iii. § 7 ; in Place. § 10.) • 

dvTi-X.a|iPdv(i) : Mid., [pres. dvTi\apfidvopai]\ 2 aor. 
dvTfXaliopr^v; to take in turn or in return, to receive one 
thing for another given, to receive instead of; in mid., 
freq. in Attic prose writ., 1. to lay hold of, hold fast 
to, anything : rifdr. 2. to take a person or thing in 
order as it were to be held, to take to, embrace ; with a 
gen. of the pers., to help, succor : Lk. i. 54 ; Acts xx. 35, 
CDiod. 11,13; Dio Cass. 40, 27 ; 46, 45 ; often in Sept.). 



with a gen. of the thing, to be a partaker, partake of: 
T^s tvfpyedias of the benefit of the services rendered by 
the slaves, 1 Tim. vi. 2 ; cf. De Wette ad loc. (/x^^f (<t6[- 
a>v irXdovav {jdovav dvriXTj'^fTai, Porphyr. de abstin. 1, 
46 ; [cf. Euseb. h. e. 4, 15, 3 7 and exx. in Field, Otium 
Norv. pars. iii. ad 1. c.]) [Comp. : avp-apri-Xaii^dvo^icu.^ * 

dvTi-Xe'-yw ; [impf. dpTtXeyov^ ; to speak against, gainsay, 
contradict; absol.: Acts xiii. 45 [L TrWH om.]; xxviii. 
1 9 ; Tit. i. 9. rivi. Acts xiii. 45. foil, by pf) and ace. with 
inf.: Lk. xx. 27 [Lmrg.TrWH Xeyot/rey], (as in Grk. 
writ. ; see Passow [or L. and S.] s. v. ; [W. § 65, 2 /3. ; 
B. 355 (305)]). to oppose one's self to one, decline to obey 
him, declare one's self against him, refuse to have anything 
to do with him, [cf. W. 23 (22)] : rivi, Jn. xix. 12, (Lcian. 
dial, inferor. 30, 3) ; absol, Ro. x. 21 [cf. Meyer] ; Tit. 
ii. 9, (Achill. Tat. 5, 27). Pass. dvTLXiyopai I am dis- 
puted, assent or compliance is refused me, (W. § 39, 1) : 
Lk. ii. 34 ; Acts xxviii. 22.* 

di'Ti-X'n\|/is [L T Tr WII -XrjpyJMs ; see M, pi, -tas, f), (din-t- 
Xapjidvopat), in prof. auth. mutual acceptance (Thuc. 1, 
120), a laying hold of, apprehension, perception, objection 
of a disputant, etc. In bibl. speech aid, help, (Ps. xxi. 
20 [cf. vs. 1] ; 1 Esdr. viii. 27 ; Sir. xi. 12 ; Ii. 7 ; 2 Mace. 
XV. 7, etc.) ; plur., 1 Co. xii. 28, the ministrations of 
the deacons, who have care of the poor and the sick.* 

dvTi\o-yCa,-af, x], {dvriXoyos, and this fr. avriXeyco), [fr. 
Hdt. down] ; 1. gainsaying, contradiction : Heb. vii. 7 ; 
with the added notion of strife, Heb. vi. 16, (Ex. xviii. 
1 6 ; Deut. xix. 1 7, etc.). 2. opposition in act, [this sense 
is disputed by some, e. g. Lun. on Heb. as below, IMey. 
on Ro. X. 21 (see di/riXf-yw) ; contra cf. Fritzsche on Ro. 
I.e.]: Heb. xii. 3; rebellion, Jude 11, (Prov. xvii. 11).* 

dvTi-\oi8op€<i) -o) : [impf. dvTfXoi86povu1 ; to revile in turn, 
to retort railing: 1 Pet. ii. 23. (Lcian. conviv. 40; Plut. 
Anton. 42 ; [de inimic. util. § 5].)* 

dvTC-Xvrpov, -ov, TO, what is given in exchange for another 
as the price of his redemption, ransom : 1 Tim. ii. 6. (An 
uncert. translator in Ps. xlviii. (xlix.) 9 ; Orph. lith. 587 ; 
[cf. W. 25].)* 

dyri-jjitTpta), -w : fut. pass. dvTiptTprj6i](Topai ; to measure 
back, measure in return : Mt. vii. 2 Rec. ; Lk. vi. 38 (|L. 
mrg. WH mrg. /xfrpfw], (in a proverbial phrase, i. q. to 
repay; Lcian. amor. c. 19).* 

dvTip.io-6Ca, -as, f], {dvripKrdoi remunerating) a re- 
ward given in compensation, requital, recompense ; a. in 
a good sense : 2 Co. vi. 13 (rfjv airrjv avTipifrdlav nXarvv- 
6r]T€ Ka\ vpdi, a concise expression for Be ye also en- 
larged i. e. enlarge your hearts, just as I have done (vs. 
11), that so ye may recompense me, — for rb auro, 5 itrriv 
duTipia-ela; cf. W, 530 (493), and § 66, 1 b. ; [B. 190 
(164); 396 (339)]). b. in a bad sense: Ro. i. 27, 
(Found besides only in Theoph. Ant. ; Clem. Al. ; [Clem. 
Rom. 2 Cor. 1, 3. 5 ; 9, 7 ; 11, 6], and other Fathers.)* 

*AvTidx€ia, -as, fj, Antioch, the name (derived fr. various 
monarchs) of several Asiatic cities, two of which are men- 
tioned in the N. T. ; 1. The most celebrated of all, 
and the capital of Syria, was situated on the river Oron- 
tes, founded by Seleucus [I. sometimes (cf. Suidas s. v. 



^ AvTio^ev<i 



61 



avrXeoi 



2fXfVKOs, col. 3277 b. ed. Gaisf.) called] Nicanor [else- 
where (cf. id. col. 2137 b. s. v. Kokaaa-afiis) son of Ni- 
canor; but commonly Nicator (cf. Appian de rebus 
Syr. § 57 ; Spanh. de numis. diss. vii. § 3, vol. i. p. 413)], 
and named in honor of his father Antiochus. Many 
'E\\7]vi(TTai, Greek-Jews, lived in it; and there those 
who professed the name of Christ were first called 
Christians : Acts xi. 19 sqq. ; xiii. 1 ; xiv. 2G ; xv. 22 sqq. ; 
Gal. ii. 11 ; cf. Reuss in Schenkel i. 141 sq. ; [BB. DD. 
s. V. ; Conyb. and Hoxcson, St. Paul, i. 121-126 ; also the 
latter in the Diet, of Geogr. s. v. ; Renan, Les Apotres, 
ch. xii.]. 2. A city of Phrygia, but called in Acts 
xiii. 14 Antioch of Pisidia [or ace. to the crit. texts the 
Pisidian Antioch (see UiaiSios)^ because it was on the 
confines of Pisidia, (more exactly f] npos Ilt(Ti8ia., Strabo 
12, p. 577, 8) : Acts xiv. Ut, 21 ; 2 Tim. iii. 11. This 
was founded also by Seleucus Nicator, [cf. BB. DD. s. v. ; 
Conyb. and Hotvson, St. Paul, i. 168 sqq.].* 

*AvTiox«v's, -fojf, 6, an Antiochian, a native of Antioch : 
Acts vi. 5.* 

dvTi-irap-spxojiai : 2 aor. avTiTraprfKBoV., to pass by op- 
posite to, [A. V. to pass by on the other side'] : Lk. x. 31 sq. 
(where the meaning is, ' he passed by on the side oppo- 
site to the wounded man, showing no compassion for 
him'). (Anthol. Pal. 12, 8; to come to one's assistance 
against a thing, Sap. xvi. 10. Found besides in eccl. and 
Byzant. writ.) * 

'AvrC-iras [Tdf. ' Avrt /jra?, see s. v. f i, t], -a (cf. W. §8, 1 ; 
[B. 20 (18)]), 6, Antipas (contr. fr. 'AvrinaTpos W. 103 
(9 7)), a Christian of Pergamum who suffered martyrdom, 
otherwise unknown: Rev. ii. 13. On the absurd inter- 
pretations of this name, cf. DUsterd. [Alf., Lee, al.] ad 
loc. Fr. Gorres in the Zeitschr. f. wissensch. Theol. for 
1878, p. 257 sqq., endeavors to discredit the opinion 
that he was martyred, but by insufficient arguments.* 

'AvTiTrarpis, -idos, rj, Antipatris, a city situated between 
.Toppa and Csesarea, in a very fertile region, not far 
from the coast ; formerly called Xa^ap^a^a [al. Ka(f)apa-a- 
0a (or -o-<i/3a)] (Joseph, antt. 13, 15, 1), and afterwards 
rebuilt by Herod the Great and named Antipatris in 
honor of his father Antipater (Joseph, b. j. 1,21, 9) : Acts 
xxiii. 31. Cf. Robinson, Researches etc. iii. 45 sq. ; Later 
Researches, iii. 138 sq., [also Bib. Sacr. for 1843 pp. 478- 
498; and for 1853 p. 528 sq.].* 

dvTi-irc'pav, or (ace. to the later forms fr. Polyb. down) 
avTinepa [T WH], dvrnrepa [L Tr ; cf. B. 321; Lob. 
Path. Elem. ii. 206; Chandler § 867], adv. of place, over 
against, on the opposite shore, on the other side, with a gen. : 
Lk. viii. 26.* 

dvTi-ir£irTw ; a. to fall upon, run against, [fr. Aristot. 
down] ; b. to be adverse, oppose, strive against : rivi, 
Acts vii. 51. (Ex. xxvi. 5 ; xxxvi. 12 ed. Com pi. ; Num. 
xxvii. 14 ; often in Polyb., Plut.)* 

dvTi-<rTpaT€iJ0(iai ; 1. to make a military expedition, 
or take the feld, against any one : Xen. Cyr. 8, 8, 26. 
2. to oppose, war against : rivi, Ro, vii, 23. (Aristaenet. 
2, 1, 13.)* 

dvTv^ao-o-w or -ttw : [pres. mid. avTiraaaopiai] ; to range 



in battle against ; mid. to oppose one's self, resist : rivi, 
Ro. xiii. 2 ; Jas. iv. 6 ; v. 6 ; 1 Pet. v. 5 ; cf. Prov. iii. 34. 
absol., Acts xviii. 6. (Used by Grk. writ. fr. Aeschyl. 
down.) * 

avrC-Twiros, -ov, (rinrra), in Grk. writ. 1. prop. a. 

actively, repelling a blow, striking back, echoing, reflecting 
light ; resisting, rough, hard. h. passively, struck back, 
repelled. 2. metaph. rough, harsh, obstinate, hostile. 
In the N. T. language avrirvnov as a subst. means 1. 
a thing formed after some pattern (rvnos [q. v. 4 a.]), 
(Germ. Abbild) : Heb. ix. 24 [R. V. like in pattern']. 
2. a thing resembling another, its counterpart ; something 
in the Messianic times which ansivers to the type (see 
TVTTOs, 4 y.) prefiguring it in the O. T. (Germ. Gegenbild, 
Eng. antitype), as baptism corresponds to the deluge : 

1 Pet. iii. 21 [R. V. txt. after a true like7iess].* 
dvTC-xpKTTos, -ou, 6, (dvTi against and Xpiaros, like 

dvTiOeoi opposing God, in Philo de somn. 1. ii. § 27, etc., 
Justin, quaest. et resp. p. 463 c. and other Fathers ; [see 
Soph. Lex. s. v., cf. Trench § xxx.]), the adversary of the 
Messiah, a most pestilent being, to appear just before the 
Messiah's advent, concerning whom the Jews had con- 
ceived diverse opinions, derived partly fr. Dan. xi. 36 
sqq. ; vii. 25 ; viii. 25, partly fr. Ezek. xxxviii. xxxix. 
Cf. Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenthum, ii. 704 sqq. ; 
Gesenius in Ersch and Gruber's Encycl. iv. 292 sqq. 
s. V. Antichrist ; Bohmer, Die Lehre v. Antichrist nach 
Schneckenburger, in the Jahrbb. f. deutsche Theol. vol. 
iv. p. 405 sqq. The name 6 di/Tixpia-ros was formed 
perhaps by John, the only writer in the N. T. who uses 
it, [five times] ; he employs it of the corrupt power and 
influence hostile to Christian interests, especially that 
which is at work in false teachers who have come from the 
bosom of the church and are engaged in disseminating 
error: 1 Jn. ii. 18 (where the meaning is, 'what ye have 
heard concerning Antichrist, as about to make his ap- 
pearance just before the return of Christ, is now fulfilled 
in the many false teachers, most worthy to be called 
antichrists,' [on the om. of the art. cf. B. 89 (78)]) ; 1 Jn. 
iv. 3 ; and of the false teachers themselves, 1 Jn. ii. 22 ; 2 
Jn. 7. In Paul and the Rev. the idea but not the name 
of Antichrist is found ; yet the conception differs from 
that of John. For Paul teaches that Antichrist will be an 
individual man [cf. B. D. as below], of the very worst 
character (toi' avffp. ttjs apaprlas; see dp-aprla, 1), in- 
stigated by the devil to try to palm himself off as God : 

2 Th. ii. 3-10. The author of the Apocalypse discovers 
the power of Antichrist in the sway of imperial Rome, 
and his p e r s o n in the Emperor Nero, soon to return 
from the dead: Rev. xiii. and xvii. (Often in eccl. 
writ.) [See B. D. s.v. (Am. ed. for additional reff.), also 
B. D. 8. V. Thess. 2d Ep. to the ; Kahler in Herzog ed. 
2, i. 446 sq.; Westcoit, Epp. of St. John, pp. 68, 89. J* 

ovrXco), -M : 1 aor. ffprXTjaa ; pf. ^i/rXrj(ca ; (fr. 6 avrXos, 
or TO avrXov, bilge-water, [or rather, the place in the hold 
where it settles, Eustath. com. in Hom. 1728, 58 6 ronos 
fv6a X)b(i>p avppf'ei, ro Tf avu>6(v Ka\ (K tS>v dp/xoviwi»]) ; a. 
prop, to draw out a ship's bilge-water, to bale or punm 



dvT\r)/jLa 



52 



d^io<; 



out. b. univ. lo draw water : Jn. ii. 8 ; iv. 15 ; vSup, 
Jn. ii. 9; iv. 7. (Gen. xxiv. 13, 20; Ex. ii. 16, 19 ; Is. 
xij. 3. In Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. down.) * 

&VT\T)|ia, Tos, TO ; a. prop, ivhat is drawn, (Dioseor. 4, 
64). b. the act of drawing water, (Plut. mor. [de solert. 
an. 21, 1] p. 974 e. [but this example belongs rather under 
c.]). c. a thing to draw with [cf. W. 93 (89)], bucket 
and rope let down into a well: Jn. iv. 11.* 

dvTo4>0<iX(i,c(i>, -<5 ; (di'Tot^^aX/xor looking in the eye) ; 
1. prop, to look against or straight at. 2. metaph. to 
hear up against, withstand : tw avtiia, of a ship, [cf. our 
* look the wind in the eye,' ' face ' (II. V.) the wind] : Acts 
xxvii. 15. (Sap. xii. 14; often in Polyb. ; in eccl. Avrit.)* 

AwSpos, -ov, (a priv. and vBap), icithout water: nrjyai, 
2 Pet. ii. 1 7 ; ronoi, desert places, Mt. xii. 43 ; Lk. xi. 24, 
(v auvbpos the desert. Is. xliii. 1 9 ; Hdt. 3, 4, etc. ; in Sept. 
often yrj awdpos), [desert places were believed to be the 
haunts of demons; see Is. xiii. 21 ; xxxiv. 14 (in Sept.), 
and Gesen. or Alex, on the former pass. ; cf. further. 
Bar. iv. 35 ; Tob. viii. 3 ; 4 JNIacc. xviii. 8 ; (Enoch x. 4) ; 
Rev. xviii. 2 ; cf. d. Zeitschr. d. deutsch. morgenl. Gesell. 
xxi. 609] ; v((f>€\ai, waterless clouds (Verg. georg. 3, 197 
sq. arida nubila), which promise rain but yield none, 
Jude 12. (In Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. down.)* 

dv-wiroKpiTOs, -ov, (a priv. and viTOKpivop,ai), unfeigned, 
undisguised : Ro. xii. 9 ; 2 Co. vi. 6 ; 1 Tim. i. 5 ; 2 Tim. 
i. 5 ; 1 Pet. i. 22 ; Jas. iii. 1 7. (Sap. v. 19 ; xviii. 16. Not 
found in prof, auth., except the adv. duvnoKpirws in 
Antonin. 8, 5.)* 

dwiroTaKTos, -ov, (a priv. and vnoTacraa)) ; 1. [pas- 
sively] not made subject, unsubjected : Heb. ii. 8, [Artem. 
oneir. 2, 30]. 2. [actively] that cannot be subjected 

to control, disobedient, unruly, refractory : 1 Tim. i. 9 ; Tit. 
i. 6, 10, ([Epict. 2, 10, 1 ; 4, 1, 161 ; Philo, quis rer. div. 
her. § 1 ] ; Sifiyijais awn. a narrative which the reader 
cannot classify, i. e. confused, Polyb. 3, 36, 4 ; 3, 38, 4 ; 5, 
21,4).* 

avo), adv., [fr. Hom. down] ; a. above, in a higher 
place, (opp. to Karoi) : Acts ii. 19; with the article, 6, f), 
TO ava : Gal. iv. 26 (j^ ai/m 'ifpovaaKrjp. the upper i. e. the 
heavenly Jerusalem) ; Phil. iii. 14 (ij avco kXtjo-is the call- 
ing made in heaven, equiv. to enovpdvioi, Heb. iii. 1); 
the neut. plur. to. ava as subst., heavenly things. Col. iii. 
1 sq. ; (K Twv avu) from heaven, Jn. viii. 23. eas ava>, Jn. 
ii. 7 (up to the brim), b. upwards, up, on high : Jn. xi. 
41 (mpu)) ; Ileb. xii. 15 (avu> (fivei).* 

dvo^yaiov and dvwytov, see under dvdymov. 

ov<j)6tv, {(iva), adv. ; a. from above, from a higher place : 
dn-o avaBev (W. § 50, 7 N. 1), Mt. xxvii. 51 [Tdf. om. 
diT6'\ ; Mk. XV. 38 ; eV rmv avatOtv from the upper part, 
from the top, Jn. xix. 23. Often (also in Grk. writ.) 
used of things which come from heaven, or from God as 
dwelling in heaven : Jn. iii. 31 ; xix. 11 ; Jas. i. 17 ; iii. 
15, 17. b. from thefrst: Lk. i. 3; then,y?"om the begin- 
ning on, from the very first: Acts xxvi. 5. Hence c. 
anew, over again, indicating repetition, (a use some- 
what rare, but wrongly denied by many [Mey. among 
them ; cf. his comm. on Jn. and Gal. as below]) : Jn. iii. 3, 



7 av. y{vvr]6Tivai, where others explain it from above, i. e. 
from heaven. But, ace. to this explanation, Nicodemus 
ought to have wondered how it was possible for any one 
to be born from heaven ; but this he did not say ; [cf . 
Westcott, Com. on Jn. p. 63]. Of the repetition of phys- 
ical birth, we read in Artem. oneir. 1, 13 (14) p. 18 
[i. p. 26 ed. Reiff] {dvhp\) (ti tw f)(ovri tyKvov yvvaiKa 
arjpaii'ti ira'iBa avrat yfvvrjtrfaOai ofioiov Kara ndvTa. ovrat 
yap dvcodtu avTOi So^fte yrvvdadai ; cf. Joseph, antt. 1,18, 
3 (fiiXiav nvdidev noidadai, where a little before stands 
irpoTfpa (piXia; add, Martyr. Polyc. 1, 1 ; [also Socrates 
in Stob. flor. cxxiv. 41, iv. 135 ed. Meineke (iii. 438 ed. 
Gaisf.) ; Harpocration, Lex. s. vv. dpabiKda-aa-dai, dvadt- 
adai, dvanobi^optva, duaa-vin-a^is ', Canon, apost. 46 (al. 39, 
Coteler. patr. apost. opp. i. 444) ; Pseudo-Basil, de bapt. 
1, 2, 7 (iii. 1537) ; Origen in Joann. t. xx. c. 12 (opp. iv. 
322 c. De la Rue). See Abbot, Authorship of the Fourth 
Gospel, etc. (Boston 1880) p. 34 sq.]. jraXii' avuOev (on 
this combination of synonymous words cf. Kiihner § 534, 
1 ; [Jelf § 777, 1]; Grimm on Sap. xix. 5 (G)) : Gal. iv. 9 
(again, since ye were in bondage once before).* 

dvwTcpiKOS, -T], -6v, (di/toTfpof), upper: to dvartpKa fifprj, 
Acts xix. 1 (i. e. the part of Asia Minor more remote 
from the Mediterranean, farther east). (The word is 
used by [Hippocr. and] Galen.)* 

dcwTcpoSi -fpa, -(pov, (compar. fr. ava, cf. KarcoTtpos, 
see W. §11, 2 c; [B. 28 (24 sq.)]), higher. The 
neut. dvartpov as adv., higher ; a. of motion, to a higher 
place, {up higher) : Lk. xiv. 10. b. of rest, in a higher 
place, above i. e. in the immediately preceding part of 
the passage quoted, Heb. x. 8. Similarly Polyb. 3, 1, 1 
TpiTT) dvoiTfpov ^I'/SXo). (In Lev. xi. 21, with gen.)* 

dv-w({>c\T|s, -fs, (a priv. and ocpf'Xos) ; f r. Aeschyl. down ; 
unprof table, useless : Tit. iii. 9. Neut. as subst. in Heb. 
vii. 18 (Sta TO avTrjs dvcocfxXts on account of its unprofita- 
bleness').* 

oiJivr\, -Tjs, f), ([perh. fr.] aywpi, fut. a|a), to break), an 
axe : Lk. iii. 9 ; Mt. iii. 10. (As old as Hom. and Hdt.)* 

a|ios, -a, -ov, (fr. ayca, a^a> ', therefore prop, drawing 
down the scale ; hence) a. weighing, having weight ; 
with a gen. having the tveight of (weighing as much as) 
another thing, of like value, worth as much : /3o6f a^ioi, 
Horn. B. 23, 885; with gen. of price [W. 206 (194)], 
as a^. 8tKa pvajv, common in Attic writ. ; ndv Tipiov ovk 
ci^iov aiiTrjs ((To(f>iai) eWt, Prov. iii. 15; viii. 11; ovk 
ea-Ti <TTa6p6s nds a^cos eyKpaTovs ylrvxvs, Sir. xxvi. 15 ; 
OVK a^ia npos r. 86^av are of no weight in comparison 
with the glory, i. e. are not to be put on an equality 
with the glory, Ro. viii. 18; cf. Fritzsche ad loc. and 
W. 405 (378); [B. 340 (292)]. b. befitting, congru- 
ous, corresponding, tivos, to a thing : rrji peravoias, ^It. 
iii. 8 ; Lk. iii. 8 ; Acts xxvi. 20 ; u^lu hv iivpd^apev, Lk. 
xxiii. 41. a^iov e'oTt it is befitting: a. it is meet, 2 Th. 
i. 3 (4 Mace. xvii. 8) ; p. it is worth the ivhilc, foil, by 
Toi) with ace. and inf., 1 Co. xvi. 4 ; — (in both senses very 
com. in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. and Hdt. down, and often 
with ifTTi omitted). c. of one who has merited any- 
thing, worthy, — both in a good reference and a bad ; 



a^Loat 



63 



airaXKaaaa) 



a. in a good sense; with a gen. of the thing: Mt. x. 
10; Lk. vii. 4; [x. 7] ; Actsxiii. 46; iTim. i. 15; iv. 9; 
V. 18 ; vi. 1. foil, by the aor. inf. : Lk. xv. 19, 21 ; Acts 
xiii. 25 ; Rev. iv. 11 ; v. 2, 4, 9, 12 ; foil, by Iva : Jn. i. 27 
(iva Xva-co, a construction somewhat rare ; cf. Dem. pro 
cor. p. 279, 9 d^iovv, Iva ^orjdriay] [(dubious) ; see s. v. Iva, 
II. 2 init. and c.]) ; foil, by os with a finite verb (like Lat. 
dignus, qui) : Lk. vii. 4 [B. 229 (198)]. It stands alone, 
but so that the context makes it plain of what one is 
said to be worthy : Mt. x. 1 1 (to lodge with) ; Mt. x. 1 3 
(sc. TTJs (IpTfvrji) ; Mt. xxii. 8 (sc. of the favor of an invi- 
tation) ; Rev. iii. 4 (sc. to walk with me, clothed in 
white), with a gen. of the person, — worthy of one's 
fellowship, and of the blessings connected with it : Mt. 
X. 37 sq. ; Heb. xi. 38, (rov denv, Sap. iii. 5 ; Ignat. ad 
Eph. 2). p. in a bad sense ; with a gen. of the thing : 
nXTjymv, Lk. xii. 48 ; Gavdrov, Lk. xxiii. 15 ; Acts [xxiii. 
29]; XXV. 11, [25]; xxvi. 31; Ro. i. 32; absol. : Rev. 
xvi. 6 (sc. to drink blood).* 

d|i6<i), -S> ; impf. fj^iow ; 1 aor. fj^icocra ; Pass., pf . ijlt'co- 
fiai; 1 fut. d^iadrfCTOfuit.; (a^tor) ; as in Grk. writ. a. 
to think meet, Jit, right : foil, by an inf., Acts xv. 38 ; 
xxviii. 22. b. to judge worthy, deem deserving : rivd 
with an inf. of the object, Lk. vii. 7 ; rivd rivos, 2 Th. i. 
11 ; pass, with gen. of the thing, 1 Tim. v. 17 ; Heb. iii. 
3 ; X. 29. [COMP. : »car-a|tow.] * 

d^C<i)s, adv., suitably; worthily, in a manner worthy of: 
with the gen., Ro. xvi. 2 ; Phil. i. 27 ; Col. i. 10 ; 1 Th. 
ii. 12 ; Eph. iv. 1 ; 3 Jn. 6. [From Soph, down.] * 

d-6paTos, -ov, (opdai), either, not seen i. e. unseen, or 
that cannot be seen i. e. invisible. In the latter sense 
of God in Col. i. 15 ; 1 Tim. i. 1 7 ; Heb. xi. 27 ; ra dopara 
airov his (God's) invisible nature [perfections], Ro. i. 
20; TO opard Kal rd dopara, Col. i. 16. (Gen. i. 2; Is. 
xlv. 3 ; 2 Mace. ix. 5 ; Xen., Plat., Polyb., Plut., al.)* 

dir-aYYeXXo) ; impf. dnrjyyfWov ; fut. dirayyeXco ; 1 aor. 
aTTTjyyeiXa ; 2 aor. pass. dnrjyyeXrjv (Lk. viii. 20) ; [fr. 
Hom. down] ; 1. dno rivos to bring tidings (from a 
person or thing), bring word, report: Jn. iv. 51 [RGL 
Trbr.]; Acts iv. 23; v. 22; [xv. 27]; with dat. of the pers., 
Mt. ii. 8; xiv. 12; xxviii. 8, [8 (9) Rec], 10; Mk. xvi. 
[10], 13; Acts V. 25; xi. 13; [xxiii. 16, 19]; tivIti, [Mt. 
xi. 4 ; xxviii. 11 (here Tdf. dvayy.)]; Mk. [v. 19 (L mrg. 
R G dvnyy.)] ; vi. 30 ; Lk. [vii. 22 ; ix. 36] ; xiv. 21 ; xxiv. 
9 ; Acts xi. 13 ; [xii. 1 7 ; xvi. 38 L T Tr WH ; xxiii. 1 7] ; 
Tivi foil, by 5ri, Lk. xviii. 37 ; [Jn. xx. 18 R G ; foil, by 
TTco?, Lk. viii. 36] ; tI npos riva, Acts xvi. 36 ; rivi nepi 
Tivos, Lk. vii. 18; xiii. 1 ; ti Trepi vivos, Acts xxviii. 21 ; 
[foil, by Xeycoi' and direct disc, Acts xxii. 26] ; foil, by 
ace. with inf., Acts xii. 14; els with ace. of place, to 
carry tidings to a place, Mk. v. 14 (Rec. dvTjyy.) ; Lk. 
viii. 34 ; with addition of an ace. of the thing announced, 
Mt. viii. 33, (Xen. an. 6, 2 (4), 25 ; Joseph, antt. 5, 11, 
3; els Tovs dvdpii)novs, Am. iv. 13 Sept.). 2. to pro- 
claim (dno, because what one announces he openly lays, 
as it were, off from himself, cf. Germ, nbkiindigen), to 
make known openly, declare : univ., jrepi rivos, 1 Th. i. 9 ; 
Vti't nepl T. Jn. xvi. 25 L T Tr WH]; by teaching, ri, 1 Jn. 



i. 2 sq. ; by teaching and commanding, rtvi rt, Mt. viii. 
33 ; Tivi, with inf., Acts xxvi. 20 ; [xvii. 30 T WH Tr 
mrg.]; by avowing and praising, Lk. viii. 47; rivl rt, 
Heb. ii. 12 (Ps. xxi. (xxii.) 23 [yet Sept. SitjyTjaonai']) ', 
[Mt. xii. 18] ; foil, by on, 1 Co. xiv. 25.* 

dir-a-yxw [cf. Lat. angustus, anxius, Eng. anguish, etc. ; 
Curtius § 166] : 1 aor. mid. dirrjy^dpirjv ; to throttle, stran- 
gle, in order to put out of the way (diro away, cf. dno- 
KTeivu to kill off), Hom. Od. 19, 230 ; mid. to hang one's 
self, to end one's life by hanging : Mt. xxvii. 5. (2 S. xvii. 
23 ; Tob. iii. 10; in Attic from Aeschyl. down.)* 

oir-aYw ; [impf. dnrjyov (Lk. xxiii. 26 Tr mrg. WH 
™rg.)] ; 2 aor. aTTijyayoi/ ; Pass., [pres. dn-ayo/iat] ; 1 aor. 
dizT)xGr)v ; [fr. Hom. down]; to lead away: Lk. xiii. 15 
(sc. dno rfis (jidrvTjs); Acts xxiii. 10 (Lchm. [ed. min.]); 
1 7 (sc. hence) ; xxiv. 7 [R G] (aicay, eK rtov xeipwv ^/xwc) ; 
1 Co. xii. 2 (led astray npos rd elbaiKa). Used esp. of 
those led ofE to trial, prison, punishment : Mt. xxvi. 57 ; 
xxvii. 2, 31 ; Mk. xiv. 44, 53 ; xv. 16 ; Lk. xxi. 12 (T Tr 
WH) ; [xxii. 66 T Tr WH] ; xxiii. 26 ; Jn. xviii. 13 R G 
[^yayoi/ L T Tr WH] ; xix. 16 Rec; Acts xii. 19; (so 
also in Grk. writ.). Used of a way leading to a certain 
end: Mt. vii. 13, 14 (els rfjv dnwXeiav, els rrjv C'^rjv). 
[CoMP. : cvv-aTTayw.] * 

driraCSEVTOSi -ov, (naibevco), without instruction and dis- 
cipline, uneducated, ignorant, rude, [W. 96 (92)] : Cv'V' 
aeis, stupid questions, 2 Tim. ii. 23. (In classics fr. 
[Eurip.,] Xen. down ; Sept. ; Joseph.)* 

dir-a(pci> : 1 aor. pass, dnfjpdrjv ; to lift off, take or carry 
aivay ; pass., dno nvos to be taken away from any one : 
Mt. ix. 15 ; Mk. ii. 20 ; Lk. v. 35. (In Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. 
down.) * 

an-airid}, -m ; to ask back, demand back, exact something 
due (Sir. xx. 15 (14) (rrjfiepov baveiel Kal avpiov dnaiTT](rei) : 
Lk. vi. 30 ; rfjv '^vx'fjv <rov dnairovaiv [Tr WH alTovaiv'] 
thy soul, intrusted to thee by God for a time, is demanded 
back, Lk. xii. 20, (Sap. xv. 8 to rijr ^vx^js dnainjdels 
XRfos)- (In Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. down.)* 

dir-a\-y€<i), -<5 : [pf. ptcp. d7n;Xy»;Kcoj] ; to cease to feel 
pain or grief; a. to bear troubles loith greater equa- 
nimity, cease to feel pain at: Tliuc 2, 61 etc. b. to 
become callous, insensible to pain, apathetic : so those who 
have become insensible to truth and honor and shame 
are called dTrrjXyi-jKOTes [A. V. past feeling'] in Eph. iv. 
19. (Polyb. 1, 35, 5 dmjXyrjKvias -^l^vxas dispirited and 
useless for war, [cf. Polyb. 16, 12, 7].)* 

dir-aX\d(r<r(o : 1 aor. dntjWa^a ; Pass., [pres. dnaWdcr- 
(TOfiai] ; pf. inf. dTrrjXXdxdai ; (aXXdcro-o) to cliange ; dno, 
sc Tivos) ; com. in Grk. writ. ; to remove, release ; pass. 
to be removed, to depart : dn avTwv rds voaovs. Acts xix. 
12 (Plat. Eryx. 401 c el al voaoi dnaWayeiTjaav eK raiv 
(Tapdrmv) ; in a transferred and esp. in a legal sense, 
OTTO with gen. of pers., to be set free, the opponent being 
appeased and withdrawing the suit, to be quit of one : 
Lk. xii. 58, (so with a simple gen. of pers. Xen. mem. 2, 
9, 6). Hence univ. to set free, deliver: rivd, Heb. ii. 15; 
(in prof. auth. the gen. of the thing freed fr. is often 
added; cf. Bleek on Heb. vol. ii. 1, p. 339 sq.).* 



aTTaWorpLOco 



54 



aTra? 



cnr-aXXoTpi6w, -« : pf. pass. ptcp. aTnjXXorptw/x/ vor ; to 
alienate, estrange ; pass, to be rendered aXXorpios, to be 
shut out from one's fellowship and intimacy: rivos, Eph. 
ii. 12; iv. 18; sc. rov 6tov, Col. i. 21, (equiv. to "''f, used 
of those who have estranged themselves fr. God, Ps. 
Ivii. (Iviii.) 4 ; Is. i. 4 [Aid. etc.] ; Ezek. xiv. 5, 7 ; [Test. 
xii. Patr. test. Benj. § 10] ; tcov iraTplatv fioy/xarcoj', 3 Mace. 
i. 3 ; aiToKkoTpiovv riva toO kgXcos e^ovros, Clem. Rom. 1 
Cor. 14,2). (In Grk. writ. fr. [Ilippocr.,] Plato down.)* 

diraXos, -tj, -6v, tender : of the branch of a tree, when full 
of sap, Mt. xxiv. 32; Mk. xiii. 28. [From Horn, down.]* 

dir-avrdti), -m : fut. anavTr}<T<o (Mk. xiv. 13 ; but in better 
Grk. dnavT^aofjLai, cf. W. 83 (79) ; [B. 53 (46)]) ; 1 aor. 
diTTjvTTjaa; to go to meet; in past tenses, to meet : rii/t, Mt. 
xxviii. 9 [T Tr WII lir-'] ; Mk. v. 2 R G; xiv. 13 ; Lk. xvii. 
12 [L WH om. Tr br. dat. ; T WII mrg. read vn-\ ; Jn. iv. 
Jil R G ; Acts xvi. 16 [R G L]. In a military sense of a 
hostile meeting: Lk. xiv. 31 R G, as in 1 S. xxii. 17 ; 2 
S. i. 15; 1 Mace. xi. 15, 68 and often in Grk. writ.* 

dirdvTT]o js> -f o)? , ^, (aTrai/rao)), a meeting; eU aTravrrja-lv 
rivos or T«i^( to meet one : Mt. xxv. 1 R G ; vs. 6 ; Acts 
Kxviii. 15 ; I Th. iv. 17. (Polyb. 5, 26, 8 ; Diod. 18, 59 ; 
very often :u i^ept. equiv. to nXipS [cf. AV. 30].) * 

dira|, adv., once, one time, [fr. Ilora. down] ; a. univ. : 
2 Co. xi. 25 ; heh. ix. 26 sq. ; 1 Pet. iii. 20 Rec. ; ert 
U7ra|, Heb. xii. 2() sq. ; ana^ rov eviavrov, Heb. ix. 7, [Hdt. 
2, 59, etc.]. b. Lks Lat. semel, used of what is so done 
as to be of perpetual validity and never need repetition, 
once for all: Heb. vi. 4; x. 2; iPet. iii. 18; Jude vss. 3, 
5. c. Kal dna^ Koi St's indicates a definite number [the 
double Kai emphasizi.iij; the repetition, both once and 
again i. e.] twice : 1 Th. J, 18 ; Phil. iv. 16 ; on the other 
hand, aira^ koi 8is means [^once and again i. e.] several 
times, repeatedly : Neh. ,iiii. 20 ; 1 Mace. iii. 30. Cf. 
Schott on 1 Th. ii. 18, p. StJ ; [Meyer on Phil. 1. c.].* 

drirapd-Paros, -ov, {napa^i^lixo), fr. the phrase napa^ai- 
ytiv vofiov to transgress i. e. to violate, signifying either 
unclolated, or not to be violaftJ, inviolable : lepcoavvr] un- 
changeable and therefore not liable to pass to a successor, 
Heb. vii. 24 ; cf. Bleek and Delitzsch ad loc. (A later 
word, cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 313 ; in Joseph., Plut., al.)* 

drirapa-o-KtvaoTos, -01/, (napaa Kf^/c^co), unprepared : 2 Co. 
ix. 4. (Xen. Cyr. 2, 4, 15; an. 1, 1, 6 [var.] ; 2,3, 21; 
Joseph, antt. 4, 8, 41 ; Ildian. 3, i, 19 [(11) ed. Bekk.] ; 
adv. dnapa(rK€vd(jTO)s, [Aristot. rheu 4.1ex. 9 p. 1430^ 3] ; 
Clem. hom. 32, 15.)* 

dir-apvtonai, -ovpai : depon. verb ; /ut. dirapvr](Topai ; 1 
aor. diT-qpvqcrdpriv ; 1 fut. pass, dnapvrjbrjcropai with a pass, 
signif. (Lk. xii. 9, as in Soph. Phil. 527, [cf. B. 53 (46)]) ; 
to deny (a b nego) : ni/d, to affirm that on^ has no acf|uaint- 
ance or connection with him ; of Peter denying Christ : 
Mt. xxvi. 34 sq. 75 ; Mk. xiv. 30 sq. 72. [Lk. xxii. 61] ; 
Jn. xiii. 38 R G L mrg. ; more fully ott. ^n ddemi 'IjjctoOi/, 
Lk. xxii. 34 (L Tr WII om. pri, concerning which cf. 
Kuhner ii. p. 761 ; [Jelf § 749, 1 ; W. § 6,3, 2 /3. ; B. 355 
(305)]). tavTov to forget one's self, lose .-iight of one's 
self and one's own interests : Mt. xvi. 24 ^ Mk. viii. 34 ; 
Lk. ix. 23 R WH mrs.* 



dirdpri [so Tdf. in Jn., T and Tr in Rev.], or rather aTr* 
dpri (cf. W. § 5, 2 p. 45, and 422 (393) ; [B. 320 (275), 
Lipsius p. 127]; see dpri), adv., from now, henceforth: 
Mt. xxiii. 39 ; xxvi. 29, 64 (in Lk. xxii. 69 dno rov vvv) ; 
Jn. i. 51 (52) Rec. ; xiii. 19 ; xiv. 7 ; Rev. xiv. 13 (where 
connect an' apri with paKupioi). In the Grk. of the O. T. it 
is not found (for the Sept. render riBjro by dno rov vvv), 
and scarcely [yet L. and S. cite Arstph. PI. 388 ; Plat. 
Com. 2o(f}. 10] in the earlier and more elegant Grk. writ. 
For the similar term which the classic writ, employ is 
to be written as one word, and oxytone (viz. dnapri), 
and has a different signif. (viz. completely, exactly) ; cf. 
Knapp, Scripta var. Arg. i. p. 296 ; Lob. ad Phryn. p. 
20 sq.* 

dirapTio-jios, -ov, 6, (dnapri^co to finish, complete), com- 
pletion : Lk. xiv. 28. Found besides only in Dion. Hal. 
de comp. verb. c. 24 ; [ApoUon. Dysc. de adv. p. 532, 7, 
al. ; cf. W. p. 24].* 

dir-apxTJ, -rjs, fj, (fr. dndpxopai : a. to offer firstlings 
or first-fruits ; b. to take away the first-fruits ; cf. and in 
dnoSeKaroo)), in Sept. generally equiv. to D'UH'^ ; tlie first- 
fruits of the productions of the earth (both those in a 
natural state and those prepared for use by hand), which 
were offered to God ; cf. Win. R W B. s. v. Erstlino-e, 
[BB.DD. s. V. First-fruits] : rj dnapxrj sc. Toil cfivpdparos, 
the first portion of the dough, from which sacred loaves 
were to be prepared (Num. xv. 19-21), Ro. xi. 16. 
Hence, in a transferred use, employed a. of persons 
consecrated to God, leading the rest in time : an-. Tijs 
'Ax^atas the first person in Achaia to enroll himself as a 
Christian, 1 Co. xvi. 15; with ets Xpicrrov added, Ro. 
xvi. 5 ; with a reference to the moral creation effected 
by Christianity all the Christians of that age are called 
dnapxfj r I y (a kind of first-fruits) tcjv tov 6fov KTicrpdratp, 
Jas. I. 18 (see Iluther ad loc), [noteworthy is tikaro vpds 6 
dfos dnapxfjp etc. as frst-fruits~\ 2 Th. ii. 13 L Tr mrg. 
WH mrg. ; Christ is called aTr. tcoi/ KeKOLprjpfixov as the 
first one recalled to life of them that have fallen asleep, 
1 Co. XV. 20, 23 (here the phrase seems also to signify 
that by his case the future resurrection of Christians is 
guaranteed ; because the first-fruits forerun and are, as 
it were, a pledge and promise of the rest of the har- 
vest), b. of persons superior in e x c e 1 1 e n c e to others 
of the same class : so in Rev. xiv. 4 of a certain 
class of Christians sacred and dear to God and Christ 
beyond all others, (Schol. ad Eur. Or. 96 dnapxr] At- 
y€TO ov povov TO npatTov ttj rd^d. dWd koi to nparov rfj 
Tipfj). c. 01 e;^oi/Tfs rfjv dn. tov nuevpaTos who have the 
first-fruits (of future blessings) in the Spirit (tov nv. 
is gen. of apposition), Ro. viii. 23; cf. what Winer § 59, 
8 a. says in opposition to those [e. g. Meyer, but see 
Weiss in ed. 6] who take tov nv. as a partitive gen., 
so that ol (X- T. dn. tov nv. are distinguished from the 
great multitude who will receive the Spirit subsequently. 
(In Grk. writ. fr. [Soph.,] Hdt. down.) * 

d-iras, -aa-a, -av, (fr. dpa [or rather d (Skr. .so ; cf. a 
copulative), see Curtius § 598 ; Vani(!!ek p. 972] and nds; 
stronger than the simple ttoj), [fr. Hom. down] ; quite 



aTTacnrd^ofiat, 



55 



aireipaa-roi} 



all, the whole, all together, all ; it is either placed before 
a subst. having the art., as Lk. iii. 21 ; viii. 37 ; xix. 37 ; 
or placed after, as Mk. xvi. 1 5 (eis roy Koafiov airavra into 
all parts of the world) ; Lk. iv. (> {this dominion wholeAj 
i. e. all parts of this dominion which you see) ; xix. 48. 
used absolutely, — in the masc, as Mt. xxiv. 39; Lk. iii. 
16 [T WH Tr mrg. 7r5tr»'] ; [iv. 40 WH txt. Tr mrg.] ; v. 
26 ; ix. 15 [WH mrg. navras^ ; Mk. xi. 32 [Lchm. Tvavrfs] ; 
Jas. iii. 2; — in the neut., as Mt. xxviii. 11; Lk. v. 28 
[R G] ; Acts ii. 44 ; iv. 32 [L WH Tr mrg. Trdwa] ; x. 8 ; 
xi. 10 ; Eph. vi. 13 ; once in John viz. iv. 2b T Tr AVII; 
[airavTfs ovtoi, Acts ii. 7 L T ; anavrfs (//xeiy. Gal. iii. 28 T 
Tr ; cf. nas, II. 1 fin. Rarely used by Paul ; most fre- 
quently by Luke. On its occurrence, cf. Alford, Grk. 
Test. vol. ii. Proleg. p. 81 ; Ellicott on 1 Tim. i. 16]. 

dir-ao-ird5o(jiai : 1 aor. anr)<nra<rdfir]v ; to salute on leav- 
ing, bid farewell, take leave of: rivd, Acts xxi. 6 L T Tr 
WH. (Himer. eclog. ex Phot. 11, p. 194.)* 

diraToLo),- to ; 1 aor. pass. fjnaTTjdT^v ; {dndrr]) ; f r. Ilom. 
down ; to cheat, deceive, beguile : rrjv KapSlavavrov [RT Tr 
WH mrg., avT. G, eavr. L WII txt.], Jas. i. 26 ; rivd rtw, one 
with a thing, Eph. v. 6 ; pass. 1 Tim. li. 14 (where L T Tr 
WHe|a7raTT;^et(ra),cf. Gen. iii. 13. 4CoMP-- f^-aTrardco.']* 

drrdTT], -rjs, tj, [fr. Horn, down], deceit, deceitfulness : 
Col.'ii. 8 ; roil rrXovrov, Mt. xiii. 22 ; Mk. iv. 19 ; ttjs ddiKias, 
2 Th. ii. 10; ttjs afiapriat, lleb. iii. 13; at fwiOvfJiiai rrjs 
dndTT}! the lusts excited by deceit, i. e. by deceitful influ- 
ences seducing to sin, Eph. iv. 22, (others, ' deceitful 
lusts ' ; but cf. Mey. ad loc). Plur. aTrdrai : 2 Pet. ii. 13 
(where L Tr txt. WH mrg. tv dydnais), by a paragram 
(or verbal play) applied to the agapae or love-feasts (cf . 
dydirq, 2), because these were transformed by base men 
into seductive i-evels.* 

dirdrup, -opos, 6, tj, (narTjp), a word which has almost 
the same variety of senses as dp,r]Ta>p, q. v. ; [fr. Soph, 
down] ; [without father i. e.] whose father is not recorded 
in the genealogies : Heb. vii. 3.* 

d'ir-av'ya(r|ia, -ros, ro, (fr. dnavyd^<o to emit brightness, 
and this fr. avyrj brightness ; cf. diroaKiaap-a, dirtiKafTfia, 
dir€iK6viap.a, dTTr]-)^T]p,a) , refected brightness : Christ is 
called in lleb. i. 3 dnaCy. t7]s 86^r)s rov Seov, inasmuch 
as he perfectly reflects the majesty of God ; so that the 
same thing is declared here of Christ metaphysically, 
which he says of himself in an ethical sense in Jn. xii. 
45 (xiv. 9) : 6 dfcoprnv e'/xe decuptl rov irtpLy^avrd p,€. (Sap. 
vii. 26 ; Philo, mund. opif. § 51 ; plant. Noe § 12 ; de con- 
cup. §11; and often in eccl. writ. ; see more fully in 
Grimm on Sap. 1. c, p. 161 sq.) [Some interpreters still 
adhere to the signif. effulgence or radiance (as distin- 
guished from refulgence or reflection), see Kurtz ad 
loc. ; Soph. Lex. s. v. ; Cremer s. v.] * 

dir-ciSov, (dno and eiSoi/, 2 aor. of obsol. ei'Sw), serves as 
2 aor. of d(popda>, (cf. Germ, absehen); 1. to look 
away from one thing and at another. 2. to look at 

from somewhere, either from a distance or from a certain 
present condition of things ; to perceive : ws av aTri'Sw (L 
T Tr WH d(^i8o) [see dc^tlhov]) ra nepl ifie as soon as I 
shall have seen what issue my affairs will have [A. V. 



how it will go with me], Phil. ii. 23. (In Sept., Jon. iy. 
5, etc.) * 

direteeta [WH -dia, exc. in Heb. as below (see I, t)],-af, 
17. {dneiOris), disobedience, (Jerome, inobedientia), obsti- 
nacy, and in the N. T. particularly obstinate opposition to 
the divine will : Ro. xi. 30, 32 ; Heb. iv. 6, 1 1 ; viol t. dn-ft- 
6eias, those who are animated by this obstinacy (see 
vios, 2), used of the Gentiles: Eph. ii. 2 ; v. 6 ; Col. iii. 
6 [R G L br.]. (Xen. mem. 3, 5, 5 ; Plut., al.) * 

direiOco), -w ; impf. Tjnddovv; 1 aor. Tjnfidija-a ; to be dntiGrji 
(q. V.) ; not to allow one's self to be persuaded ; not to com- 
ply with ; a. to refuse or withhold belief (in Christ, in 
the gospel ; opp. to niaTeCoi) : rw via, Jn. iii. 36 ; r<5 
Xdyo), 1 Pet. ii. 8 ; iii. 1 ; absol. of those who reject the 
gospel, [R. V. to be disobedient ; cf. b.] : Acts xiv. 2 ; 
xvii. 5 [Rec] ; xix. 9 ; Ro. xv. 31 ; 1 Pet. ii. 7 (T Tr WH 
dmoTovaiv). b. to refuse belief and obedience : with dat. 
of thing or of pers., Ro. ii. 8 (rrj d\r]6e[a) ; xi. 30 sq. (t« 
Oem) ; 1 Pet. iv. 1 7 ; absol., Ro. x. 21 (Is. Ixv. 2) ; Heb. iii. 
18 ; xi. 31 ; 1 Pet. iii. 20. (In Sept. com. equiv. to n")0, 
"no ; in Grk. writ, often fr. Aeschyl. Ag. 1049 down ; in 
Horn, et al. dniBelv.) * 

direi6T|s, -es, gen. -oiis, (neldofiai), impersuasible, uncom- 
pliant, contumacious, [A. V. disobedient'^ : absol., Lk. i. 
17 ; Tit. i. 16 ; iii. 3 ; tlvi, 2 Tim. iii. 2 ; Ro. i. 30 ; Acts 
xxvi. 19. (Deut. xxi. 18; Num. xx. 10; Is. xxx. 9; 
Zech. vii. 12 ; in Grk. writ. fr. Thuc. down ; [in Theogn. 
1235 actively not persuasive'].^* 

dirciXeo), -co : impf. riTtfikovv ; 1 aor. mid. r]Trfi\r]adp.r)v ; 
to threaten, menace : 1 Pet. ii. 23 ; in mid., ace. to later 
Grk. usage ([App. bell. civ. 3, 29] ; Polyaen. 7, 35, 2), 
actively [B. 54 (47)]: Acts iv. 17 {dnuifi [L T Tr WH 
om.] aTTfikfladai, with dat. of pers. foil, by firj with inf., 
u'ith sternest threats to forbid one to etc., W. § 54, 3 ; 
[B. 183 (159)]). (From Hom. down.) [Comp.: npoa- 
airfikeco.'] * 

ajTiiXi], -Tjs, T], a threatening, threat : Acts iv. 1 7 R G (cf. 
direiXfOi), 29 ; ix. 1 ; Eph. vi. 9. (From Hom. down.) * 

dir-tifii. ; (eifit to be) ; [fr. Hom. down] ; to be away, be 
absent : 1 Co. v. 3 ; 2 Co. x. 1, 11 ; xiii. 2, 10 ; Col. ii. 5 ; 
Phil. i. 27 ; [in all cases exc. Col. 1. c. opp. to ndpfip.i'].* 

dTr-€in,i : impf. 3 pers. plur. dir^tcrav ; {tipi to go) ; [fr. 
Hom. down]; to go away, depart: Acts xvii. 10.* 

dir-eiirov : (einov, 2 aor. fr. obsol. ena) ; 1. to speak 
out, set forth, declare, (Hom. II. 7, 416 dyyeXlrjp dnteiirfv, 
9, 309 701/ nv6oi> dnoemfiv). 2. to forbid : 1 K. xi. 2, 
and in Attic writ. 3. to give up, renounce : with ace. 
of the thing, Job x. 3 (for DXO), and often in Grk. writ, 
fr. Hom. down. In the same sense 1 aor. raid. dirfiTrdp.tju, 
2 Co. iv. 2 [see WH. App. p. 164], (cf. ala-xvi^, 1) ; so 
too in Hdt. 1, 59 ; 5, 56 ; 7, 14, [etc.], and the later writ, 
fr. Polyb. down.* 

direCpao-TOs, -ov, (nfipd^a), as well untempted as un- 
temptable : dneipaa-Tos kokuv that cannot be tempted by 
evil, not liable to temptation to sin, Jas. i. 13; cf. the 
full remarks on this pass, in W. § 30, 4 [cf. § 10, 3 a. ; B. 
1 70 (148)]. (Joseph, b. j. 5, 9, 3 ; 7, 8, 1, and eccl. writ 
The Greeks said dndparos, fr. ntipda.)* 



airuoo'i 



66 



air €p')(o fiat, 



aircipos, -ov, (irelpa trial, experience), inexperienced in, 
without experience of, with gen. of the thing (as in Grk. 
writ.) : Heb. v. IS. [(Find, and Hdt. down.)] • 

drrr-CK-Bt'xoF^a^ ; [impf. dnf^tSexofii^v]; assiduously and 
patiently to wait for, [cf. Eng. wait it out] : absol, 1 Pet. 
iii. 20 (Rec. UBexonai); ri, Ro. viii. 19, 23, 25; 1 Co. i. 
7 ; Gal. V. 5 (on this pass. cf. eXm's sub fin.) ; with the 
acc. of a pers., Christ in his return from heaven : Phil, 
iii. 20 ; Heb. ix. 28. Cf. C. F. A. Fritzsche in Fritz- 
schiorum Opuscc. p. 155 sq. ; Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. 
iv. p. 14 ; [ElUc. on Gal. 1. c.]. (Scarcely found out of 
the N. T. ; Heliod. Aeth. 2, 35 ; 7, 23.)* 

an^K-Swo|iai : 1 aor. dntKhvaaiiriv ; 1. wholly to put 
off from one's self {airo denoting separation fr. what is 
put off) : Tov ndkaiov avdpanov, Col. iii. 9. 2. wholly 
to strip off for one's self (ior one's own advantage), de- 
spoil, disarm: rivd. Col. ii. 15. Cf. Win. De verb. comp. 
etc. Pt. iv. p. 14 sq., [esp. Bp. Lghtft. on Col. ii. 1 5]. (Jo- 
seph, antt. 6, 14, 2 dnt Kbits [but ed. Bekk. /xere^cSvy] ttjv 
^aaiXiKfju ((rdTJTa.) * 

oTT-tK-Svo-is, -fas, f), (direKdvofiai, q. v.), a putting off, 
laying aside : Col. ii. 11. (Not found in Grk. writ.) * 

dir-€Xavv« : 1 aor. dnrjXaaa ; to drive away, drive off: 
Acts xviii. 16. (Com. in Grk. writ.)* 

dir-«X€-yp.6s. -ov, 6, (tiTreXeyx*^ ^^ convict, expose, refute ; 
fXtyfios conviction, refutation, in Sept. for eXey^is), 
censure, repudiation of a thing shown to be ivorthless : 
fkOf'iv (Is dnfXfyfiov to be proved to be worthless, to be 
disesteemed, come into contempt [R. V. disrepute^, Acts 
xix. 27. (Not used by prof, auth.)* 

aTT-cXcvOcpos, -ov, 6, f), a manumitted slave, a freedman, 
(djro, cf. Germ, los, \_set free from bondage]) : tov Kvpiov, 
presented with (spiritual) freedom by the Lord, 1 Co. 
vii. 22. (In Grk. writ. fr. Xen. and Plat, down.) * 

'AirtXXTis [better -Xkrjs (so all edd.) ; see Chandler 
§§ 59, 60], -ov, 6, Apelles, the prop, name of a certain 
Christian : Ro. xvi. 10. [Cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Philip, p. 
174.]* 

dir-€XirC5« (Lchm. ac^fXTr/fo), [cf. gram. reff. s. v. d^ei- 
Sov]) ; to despair [W. 24] : firjBeu dweXniCovres nothing 
despairing sc. of the hoped-for recompense from God the 
requiter, Lk. vi. 35, [T WIl mrg. fxTjbeva dn-eXTr. ; if this 
reading is to be tolerated it may be rendered despairing 
of no one, or even causing no one to despair (cf. the 
Jerus. Syriac). Tdf. himself seems half inclined to take 
firjdeva as ncut. plur., a form thought to be not wholly un- 
precedented ; cf. Steph. Thesaur. v. col. 962]. (Is. xxix. 
19 ; 2 Mace. ix. 18 ; Sir. xxii. 21 ; [xxvii. 21 ; Judith ix. 
11] ; often in Polyb. and Diod. [cf. Soph. Lex. s. v.].)* 

dir-€'vavTi, adv., with gen. [B. 319 (273)]; 1. over 
against, opposite: rov rd^ov, Mt. xxvii. 61 ; [^rov ya^o(f)v- 
T^oKiov, Mk. xii. 41 Tr txt. WH mrg.]. 2. in sight of, 
before : Mt. xxi. 2 R G ; xxvii. 24 (here L Tr WH txt. 
KarfvavTi); Acts iii. 16; Ro. iii. 18 (Ps. xxxv. (xxxvi.) 
2). 3. in opposition to, against: rav boypdrutv Kai- 

aapos, Acts xvii. 7. (Common in Sept. and Apocr. ; 
Polyb. 1, 86, 3.)* 

dirc'pavTos, -ov, (irfpaifo) to go through, finish ; cf. dpd- 



pavTos), that cannot be passed through, boundless, endless -. 
yfPfaXoyiat, protracted interminably, 1 Tim. i. 4. (Job 
xxxvi. 26 ; 3 Mace. ii. 9 ; in Grk. writ. fr. Pind. down.) * 

dirtpunrdo-Tcds, adv., (Trepioirdw, q. v.), without distrac- 
tion, without solicitude : 1 Co. vii. 35. (The adjective 
occurs in Sap. xvi. 1 1 ; Sir. xli. 1 ; often in Polyb. [the 
adv. in 2, 20, 10; 4, 18, 6; 12, 28, 4 ; cf. W. 463 (431)] 
and Plut.) * 

d-irtpC-Tfi.'qTos, -ov, (TrtpiT(p,va)), uncircumcised ', metaph. 
dnfpirpr}Toi rfj Kapbia (Jer. ix. 26 ; Ezek. xliv. 7) koi t. 
uai (Jer. vi. 10) whose heart and ears are covered, i. e. 
whose soul and senses are closed to divine admonitions,, 
obdurate. Acts vii. 51. (Often in Sept. for S^j? ; 1 Macc- 
i. 48; ii. 46; [Pliilo de migr. Abr. §39];'Plut. am. 
prol. 3.) * 

d'rr-cpxop.ai ; fut. dneXfvcropai (Mt. xxv. 46 ; Ro. xv. 
28 ; W. 86 (82)) ; 2 aor. dTr^X^ov (dn^Tida in Rev. x. 9^ 
[where R G Tr -Oov], dn^XBav L T Tr WH in Mt. xxii. 
22 ; Rev. xxi. 1, 4 [(but here WH txt. only), etc., and 
WH in Lk. xxiv. 24]; cf. W. § 13, 1 ; Mullach p. 17 sq. 
[226] ; B. 39 (34) ; [Soph. Lex. p. 38 ; 7^6?/. Proleg. p. 123 ; 
WH. App. p. 1 64 sq. ; Kuenen and Cobet, N. T. p. Lxiv. ; 
Scrivener, Introd. p. 562 ; Collation, etc., p. liv. sq.]) ; 
pf. diriKiiKvBa (Jas. i. 24) ; plpf. dn(kj}\v6(i.v (Jn. iv. 8) ; 
[fr. Hom. down]; to go away (fr. a place), to depart:, 
1. properly, a. absol. : Mt. xiii. 25 ; xix. 22 ; Mk. v. 
20; Lk. viii. 39; xvii. 23; Jn. xvi. 7, etc. Ptcp. dirtXdmv 
with indie, or subj. of other verbs in past time to go 
(away) one? etc. : Mt. xiii. 28, 46 ; xviii. 30; xxv. 18, 25; 
xxvi. 36; xxvii. 5; Mk.vi. 27 (28), 37 ; Lk. v. 14. b. with 
specification of the place into which, or of the per- 
son to whom or from whom one departs: els with 
acc. of place, Mt. v. 30 LTTrWH; xiv. 15; xvi. 21 ; 
xxii. 5 ; Mk. vi. 36 ; ix. 43 ; Jn. iv. 8 ; Ro. xv. 28, etc. ; 
els obov eBvuiv, Mt. x. 5 ; els to iripav, Mt. viii. 18 ; Mk. 
viii. 13; [bi vp.wv els MoKeb. 2 Co. i. 16 Lchm. txt.]; e'ni 
with acc. of place, Lk. [xxiii. 33 R G T] ; xxiv. 24 ; eni 
with acc. of the business which one goes to attend to : 
eni (the true reading for R G els) ttjv e'pnopiav avrov, Mt. 
xxii. 5; cVft, Mt. ii. 22; e^w with gen.. Acts iv. 15; npos 
Tiva, Mt. xiv. 25 [Rec] ; Rev. x. 9 ; dno tivos, Lk. i. 38 ; 
viii. 37. Hebraistically (cf. "'^IlK '=]7^') direpx- 6nia(i> 
tivos to go away in order to follow any one, go after him 
figuratively, i. e. tofolloio Ms party, follow him as a leader : 
Mk. i. 20 ; Jn. xii. 1 9 ; in the same sense dnepx- npos Tiva, 
Jn. vi. 68; Xen. an. 1, 9, 16 (29); used also of those 
who seek any one for vile purposes, Jude 7. Lexicog- 
raphers (following Suidas, ' dir(\6]] ■ dvT\ tov enaveXOr} ') 
incorrectly ascribe to dne'pxfo-dai also the idea of return- 
ing, going bad; — misled by the fact that a going away 
is often at the same time a going bad: But where this 
is the case, it is made evident either by the connection, 
as in Lk. vii. 24, or by some adjunct, as els tov oikov 
avTov, Mt. ix. 7 ; Mk. vii. 30, (o'lKabe, Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 6) ; 
irpos eavTov [Treg. np- aurot/] home, Lk. xxiv. 12 [R G, 
but L Tr br. T WH reject the vs.] ; Jn. xx. 10 [here T 
Tr npbs avTovs, WH tt. avr. (see avrov)'] ; ft? to. 6ni(Ta>, 
Jn. vi. 66 (to return home) ; xviii. 6 (to draw back, re- 



aTre-)((i} 



67 



atro 



treat). 2. trop. : of departing evils and sufferings, 
Mk. i. 42; Lk. v. 13 (J) \iiTpa dTrrjXdev ott avrov) ; Rev. 
ix. 12 ; xi. 14 ; of good things taken away from one, Rev. 
xviii. 14 [R G] ; of an evanescent state of things, Rev. 
xxi. 1 (Rec. irap^\de), 4 ; of a report going forth or 
spread €is, Mt. iv. 24 [Treg. mrg. f^iiXdeu]. 

dir-ex» ; [impf. dnelxov Mt. xiv. 24 Tr txt. WH txt. ; 
pres. mid. dnexofJ-ai^ i 1- trans, a. to hold back; 
keep off, prevent, (Horn. H. 1, 97 [Zenod.] ; 6, 96; Plat. 
Crat. c. 23 p. 407 b.). b. to have wholly or in full, to 
have received (what one had a right to expect or de- 
mand ; cf . dnobidovai, cmokafi^avfiv, [ Win. De verb. comp. 
etc. Pt. iv. p. 8; Gram. 275 (258) ; B. 203 (176) ; ace. to 
Bp. Lghtft. (on Phil. iv. 18) ano denotes correspon- 
dence, i. e. of the contents to the capacity, of the pos- 
session to the desire, etc.]): ni/a, Philem. 15; fiicrdov, 
Mt. vi. 2, 5, 16; napaKXTjaiv, Lk. vi. 24 ; ndvra, Phil. iv. 
18; (often so in Grk. writ. [cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Phil. 
1. c.]). Hence c. dnex^h impers., it is enough, suffi- 
cient: Mk. xiv. 41, where the explanation is 'ye have 
slept now long enough ' ; so that Christ takes away the 
permission, just given to his disciples, of sleeping longer; 
cf. Meyer ad loc. ; (in the same sense in (Pseudo-) 
Anacr. in Odar. (15) 28, 33; Cyril Alex, on Hag. ii. 
9 [but the true reading here seems to be direxa, see P. E. 
Pusey's ed. Oxon. 1868]). 2. intraus. to be away, 

absent, distant, [B. 144 (126)]: absol., Lk. xv. 20; dno, 
Lk. vii. 6; xxiv. 13; Mt. [xiv. 24 Tr txt. WH txt] ; xv. 
8; Mk. vii. 6, (Is. xxix. 13). 3. Mid. to hold one's self 
off, abstain : diro tlvos, from any thing, Acts xv. 20 
[R G] ; 1 Th. iv. 3 ; v. 22, (Job i. 1 ; ii. 3 ; Ezek. viu. 6) ; 
Tivos, Acts XV. 29; 1 Tim. iv. 3 ; 1 Pet. ii. 11. (So in 
Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down.) * 

dirwrrew, -oJ; [impf. ^n-t'o-roui/] ; 1 aor. fjTricrTTjcra; (ani- 
aros) ; 1. to betray a trust, be unfaithful : 2 Tim. ii. 13 
(opp. to TTia-Tos fifvei) ; Ro. iii. 3 ; [al. deny this sense in 
the N. T. ; cf. Morison or Mey. on Rom. 1. c. ; EUic. on 
2 Tim. 1. c.]. 2. to have no belief, disbelieve : in the 

news of Christ's resurrection, Mk. xvi. 1 1 ; Lk. xxiv. 
41 ; with dat. of pers., Lk. xxiv. 11 ; in the tidings con- 
cerning Jesus the Messiah, Mk. xvi. 16 (opp. to wi- 
oreuo)), [so 1 Pet. ii. 7 T Tr WH] ; Acts xxviii. 24. (In 
Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down.)* 

dirioTTio, -as, 17, (fr. aniaTos), want of faitli and trust; 
1. unfaithfulness, faithlessness, (of persons betraying a 
trust) : Ro. iii. 3 [cf. reff. s. v. dTna-Tew, 1]. 2. tvant of 
faith, unbelief: shown in withholding belief in the divine 
power, Mk. xvi. 14, or in the power and promises of 
God, Ro. iv. 20; Heb. iii. 19 ; in the divine mission of 
Jesus, Mt. xiii. 58 ; Mk. vi. 6 ; by opposition to the gos- 
pel, 1 Tim. i. 15; with the added notion of obstinacy, 
Ro. xi. 20, 23; Heb. iii. 12. contextually, iveakness of 
faith : Mt. xvii. 20 (where L T Tr WH oXiyoniaTiau) ; 
Mk. ix. 24. (In Grk. writ. fr. Hes. and Hdt. down.)* 

a-irio-TOf, -ov, (incrTos), [fr. Hom. down], without faith 
or trust ; 1. unfaithful, faithless, (not to be trusted, 
perfidious) : Lk. xii. 46 ; Rev. xxi. 8. 2. incredible, 
of things: Acts xxvi. 8; (Xen. Hiero 1, 9; symp. 4, 



49 ; Cyr. 3, 1, 26 ; Plat. Phacdr. 245 c. ; Joseph, antt. 6, 
10, 2, etc.). 3. unbelieving, incredulous: of Thomas 
disbelieving the news of the resurrection of Jesus, Jn. 
XX. 27 ; of those who refuse behef in the gospel, 1 Co. 
vi. 6 ; vii. 12-15 ; x. 27 ; xiv. 22 sqq. ; [1 Tim. v. 8] ; 
with the added idea of impiety and wickedness, 2 Co. 
iv. 4 ; vi. 14 sq. of those among the Christians them- 
selves who reject the true faith. Tit. i. 15. without 
trust (in God), Mt. xvii. 1 7 ; Mk. ix. 19 ; Lk. ix. 41.* 

dirXorrjs, -r)Tos, fj, singleness, simplicity, sincerity, men- 
tal honesty; the virtue of one who is free from pretence 
and dissimulation, (so in Grk. writ. fr. Xen. Cyr. 1, 4, 
3 ; Hell. 6, 1, 18, down) : ev d.n\6rrjTt. (L T Tr WH dyio- 
TT/Tt) KoL flXiKpivfia 6toii i. e. infused by God through the 
Spirit [W. § 3G, 3 b.], 2 Co. i. 12; eV dnX. rfis Kapdias 
(33"? "IK;% 1 Chr. xxix. 17), Col. iii. 22; Eph. vi. 5, (Sap. 
i. 1) ; fls Xpiarov, sincerity of mind towards Christ, i. e. 
single-hearted faith in Christ, as opp. to false wisdom 
in matters pertaining to Christianity, 2 Co. xi. 3 ; ev 
dTrXoTTfTi in simplicity, i. e. without self-seeking, Ro. xii. 
8. openness of heart manifesting itself by benefactions, 
liberality, [Joseph, antt. 7, 13, 4; but in opposition see 
Fritzsche on Rom. vol. iii. 62 sq.] : 2 Co. viii. 2; ix. 11, 
13 (rrjs Koivavias, manifested by fellowship). Cf. Kling 
s. V. ' Einfalt ' in Herzog iii. p. 723 sq.* 

dirXovs, -rj, -ovv, (contr. fr. -60s, -or), -6ov), [fr. Aeschyl. 
down], simple, single, (in which there is nothing compli- 
cated or confused; without folds, [cf. Trench § hi.]) ; 
tvhole ; of the eye, good, fulfilling its office, sound : Mt. 
vi. 22 ; Lk. xi. 34, — [al. contend that the moral sense 
of the word is the only sense lexically warranted ; cf . 
Test. xii. Patr. test. Isach. § 3 ov KmeXaXr^crd tivos, etc. 
iTopevopevos iv cnrXoTrjTi ocpGaXpdv, ibid. § 4 navra Spa 
iv dnXoT-qTi., prj i7ri.8exopevus ocpdaXpois irovrjpias otto t^? 
nXdvrjs rov Kocrp-ov ; yet cf. Fritzsche on Ro. xii. 8].* 

dirXwS) adv., [fr. Aeschyl. down], siinply, openly, frank- 
ly, sincerely : Jas. i. 5 (led solely by his desire to bless).* 

diro, [fr. Hom. down], preposition with the Genitive, 
(Lat. a, ab, abs, Germ, von, ab, weg, [cf. Eng. of, off^), 
from, signifying now Separation, now Origin. On 
its use in the N. T., in which the influence of the Hebr. 
|P is traceable, cf. W. 364 sq. (342), 369 (346) sqq. ; B. 
321 (276) sqq. [On the neglect of elision before words 
beginning with a vowel see Tdf Proleg. p. 94 ; cf. W. 
§ 5, 1 a.; B. p. 10 sq. ; WH. App. p. 146.] In order 
to avoid repetition we forbear to cite all the examples, 
but refer the reader to the several verbs followed by 
this preposition, otto, then, is used 

I. of Separation; and 1. of local separation, 
after verbs of motion fr. a place, (of departing, fleeing, 
removing, expelling, throwing, etc., see alpa, dnepxopai, 
diTOTivaa-a-a), diroxoipeo), d(f>i(rTripi, (f)fvy<o, etc.) : dirfo-rrd- 
(tBtj dn avTav, Lk. xxii. 41 ; (idXe diro uov, Mt. v. 29 sq. ; 
iK^dXco TO Kdpcf)os dirb [L T Tr WH c'k] toii ufpdaXpov, Mt. 
vii. 4 ; d0' [L WH Tr txt. irap (q. v. I. a.)] jjs eV/3e/3Xi7Kf i 
Saipovta, ]Mk. xvi. 9 ; KadelXfdTro dpovav, Lk. i. 52. 2. of 
the separation of apart from the whole; where of 
a whole some part is taken : dno tov l^iaTiov, Mt. ix. 16 ; 



airo 



58 



airo 



ano nfKuTcriov Kj^piov, Lk. xxiv. 42 [RG, butTrbr. the 
clause] ; 0776 raiv u\lfapioiv, Jn. xxi. 10; ra ano roii ttXoi'ow 
fraf^ments of the ship, Acts xxvii. 44 ; (vo(T<^iaaTo ano 
T^r rifxr^i. Acts v. 2 ; fV;^fa) ano rov nvfvp.aTos, Acts ii. 
17 ; €K\f^dfXfvoi an avToiv, Lk. vi. 13 ; riva ano tu)i> 8vo, 
Mt. xxvii. 21 ; ov trtfirjcravTo ano vicov 'lapar/X, sc. rives [R. 
V. whom certain of the children of Israel did price (cf. 
Ttf, 2 c.) ; but al. refer this to II. 2 d. aa. fin. q. v.], Mt. 
xxvii. 9, ((^^\6ov dnb rwv Upiav, sc. rivis, 1 Mace. vii. 
33) ; after verbs of eating and drinking (usually joined 
in Grk. to the simple gen. of the thing [cf. B. 159 (139) ; 
W. 198 (186) sq.]) : Mt. xv. 27; Mk. vii. 28 ; nlveiv ano, 
Lk. xxii. 18 (elsewhere in the N. T. «). 3. of any 
kind of separation of one thing from another by which 
the union or fellowship of the two is destroyed; 
a. after verbs of averting, loosening, liberating, ransom- 
ing, preserving : see dyopafco, anaKKd(T(Ta>, aTrooTpe^o), 
f\(vd(p6co, dtpanfCoi, Kadapi^ai, Xovco, Xurpdw, Xva, pvofiai, 
(Tw^o), (pvXaa-ao), etc. b. after verbs of desisting, abstain- 
ing, avoiding, etc. : see dne\a>, nava, Karanavo), ^Xenco, 
irpoo-t'xw, (pv\d(Ta-op.ai, etc. c. after verbs of concealing 
and hindering : see KpvnTa, KtoXixo, napaKokimTa. d. 
Concise constructions, [cf. esp. B. 322 (277)]: dvdBepia 
dno rov XpicrToiJ, Ro. ix. 3 (see avdOejia sub fin.) ; Xovftv 
ano rSiv nXrjyav to wash away the blood from the stripes. 
Acts xvi. 33 ; p.fTavof2v ano rrji KQKias by repentance to 
turn away from wickedness, Acts viii. 22 ; dno6vTjaKeiv 
ano ri.vos by death to be freed from a thing, Col. ii. 20 ; 
<f>dfipta-6ai dno rrjs anXorTjros to be corrupted and thus 
led away from singleness of heart, 2 Co. xi. 3 ; etcraKov- 
(T6f\s dno T. evXa/Sfi'ay heard and accordingly delivered 
from his fear, Heb. v. 7 (al. heard for i. e. on account of 
Ais godly /ear [cf. II. 2 b. below]). 4. of a state of 
separation, i. e. of distance; and a. of distance of 
Place, — of the local terminus from which : Mt. xxiii. 
34; xxiv. 31, etc.; after fiaKpdv, Mt. viii. 30; Mk. xii. 
34 ; Jn. xxi. 8 ; after dne^f^v, see dnex'^ 2 ; dno ava6(v 
(COS Kara), Mk. XV. 38 ; otto fxaKpodev, Mt. xxvii. 55, etc. 
[cf. B. 70 (62) ; W. § 65, 2]. Ace. to later Grk. usage 
it is put before nouns indicating local distance : Jn. xi. 
18 (^1/ tyyvs w? dno crrabldju dfKantvre about fifteen fur- 
longs off) ; Jn. xxi. 8 ; Rev. xiv. 20, ( Diod. i. 51 indva rrfs 
noKfas dno btKa axoivani 'K'ip.vr)v copv^f, [also 1,97; 4, 56 ; 
16,46; 17,112; 18,40; 19,25, etc.; cf. Soph. Lex. 
s. V. 5] ; Joseph, b. j. 1,3, 5 rovro dcf)" i^aKoalcov crTa8ia>v 
ivrevBev tariv, Plut. Aem. Paul. c. 18, 5 Sxrrf rovs npay 
rovs vtKpoxis dno hvolv crrablutv Karantcrtiv, vit. 0th. c. 11, 
1 KartarparontSfvaev dno nfvrrjKovra oraS/wj/, vit. Philop. 
C. 4, 3 T]ii yap dypos avra dno oraSiwi/ e'lKocri rrjs noXecus) ', 
cf. W. 557 (518) scj. ; [B. 153 (133)]. b. of distance 
of Time, — of the temporal terminus from which, (Lat. 
inde a) : dno r^s iopas tKfivrjs, Mt. ix. 22; xvii. 18; Jn. 
xix. 27 ; an' e\- r^r rjpepas, Mt. xxii. 46 ; Jn. xi. 53 ; [ajro 
npatrrjs 17/iepar,] Acts xx. 18 ; Phil. i. 5 [L T Tr WH r^s np. 
fift.'] ; d(f> r)fifpu)v dpxaio)v. Acts xv. 7 ; an' irwv, Lk. viii. 
43 ; Ro. XV. 23 ; an alcivos and dno r. ala>va>v, Lk. i. 70, 
etc. ; an dpxrjs, Mt. xix. 4, 8, etc. ; dno Kara^oXrjs Koa-fjLov, 
Mt. xiii. 35 [L T Tr WII om. Kovp-I, etc. ; dno Krla-tas 



Koa-fiov, Ro. i. 20 ; dno ^p(<^ovs from a child, 2 Tim. iii. 
15 ; dnb rfjs napdtvias, Lk. ii. 36 ; d^' r^s (sc. rjptpas) since, 
Lk. vii. 45 ; Acts xxiv. 11; 2 Pet. iii. 4 ; d<^' t]s fjp.€pas, 
Col. i. 6, 9 ; d<j) ov equiv. to dno rovrov ore [cf. B. 82 
(71); 105 (92)], Lk. xiii. 25; xxiv. 21; Rev. xvi. 18, 
(Hdt. 2, 44 ; and in Attic) ; dcj)' ov after rpia trq, Lk. xiii. 
7 T Tr WH ; dno rov vvv from the present, henceforth, Lk. i. 
48 ; V. 10 ; xii. 52 ; xxii. 69 ; Acts xviii. 6 ; 2 Co. v. 16 ; 
dno rare, Mt. iv. 17 ; xvi. 21 ; xxvi. 16 ; Lk. xvi. 16 ; aTro 
ntpvai since last year, a year ago, 2 Co. viii. 10; ix. 2 ; 
dnb npa>t, Acts xxviii. 23 ; cf. W. 422 (393) ; [B. 320 
(275)] ; Lob. ad Phryn. pp. 47, 461. c. of distance of 
Order or Rank, — of the terminus from which in any 
succession of things or persons : dnb durovs (sc. nai86s) 
Kai Karciirepu), Mt. ii. 16, (roiis Afviras dnb (iKoaaeroiis 
Ka\ (ndua). Num. i. 20 ; 2 Esdr. iii. 8) ; aTro 'AjSpaa/i ews 
Aatif (d, Mt. i. 1 7 ; f^8op,os dnb 'Afid/i, Jude 14 ; aTro puKpov 
cwf p.eyd\ov. Acts viii. 10; Heb. viii. 11 ; apxta-dai dno 
rivos, Mt. XX. 8 ; Lk. xxiii. 5 ; xxiv. 27 ; Jn. viii. 9 ; Acts 
viii. 35; x. 37. 

II. of Origin; whether of local origin, the place 
whence ; or of causal origin, the cause from which. 1. 
of the Place whence anything is, comes, befalls, is 
taken ; a. after verbs of co7ning ; see tpxopai, fJKo), etc. : 
dnb [LTr WH djr'] dyopas sc. i\66vrfs,Mk. vii. 4 ; ayyeXos 
dn (roil) ovpavov, Lk. xxii. 43 [Lbr. WH reject the pass.] ; 
rbv an ovpavmv SC. \a\ovvTa, Heb. xii. 25, etc. ; of the 
country, province, town, village, from which any one has 
originated or proceeded [cf. W. 364 (342); B. 324 
(279)] : Mt. ii. 1 ; iv. 25 ; Jn. i. 44 (45) ; xi. 1 ; p.'ia dnb 
opovs Sim, Gal. iv. 24. Hence 6 or ol dno rivos a native of, 
a man of, some place : 6 aTro Na^apid the Nazarene, Mt. 
xxi. 11 ; 6 dnb ' Apip-adalas, Mk. xv. 43 ; Jn. xix. 38 [here 
G L Tr AVH om. 6] ; ol dnb 'IoVttt??, Acts x. 23 ; ol aTro 
'iraXias the Italians, Heb. xiii. 24 [cf. W. § 66, 6]. A 
great number of exx. f r. prof. writ, are given by Wieseler, 
LFntersuch. lib. d. Hebraerbr. 2te Halfte, p. 14 sq. b. 
of the party or society from which one has proceeded, 
i. e. a member of the sect or society, a disciple or votary 
of it : 01 OTTO rrjs fKK\T](rias, Acts xii. 1 ; ol dnb rrjs aipi- 
(Teas rav ^api.aaiwv, Acts xv. 5, (as in Grk. writ. : ol dnb 
rrjs 2roas, 01 aTro rrjs 'AKa8r]p.ias, etc.). C. of the material 
from which a thing is made : aTro rpix^" KaprjXov, Mt. 
iii. 4 [W. 370 (347) ; B. 324 (279)]. d. trop. of that 
from or by which a thing is known : djro ra>v Kapnav 
tniyivcdo-Kfiv, Mt. vii. 16, 20 [here Lchm. « r. k. etc.] 
(Lys. in Andoc. § 6 ; Aeschin. adv. Tim. p. 69 ed. 
Reiske) ; p.av6dv(iv dno rivos to learn from the example 
of any one, Mt. xi. 29 ; xxiv. 32 ; Mk. xiii. 28 ; but in 
Gal. iii. 2 ; Col. i. 7 ; Heb. v. 8, p.av6. dno rivos means 
to learn from one's teaching or training [cf. B. 324 
(279) c. ; W. 372 (348)]. e. after verbs of seeking, in- 
quiring, demanding : dnairelv, Lk. xii. 20 [Tr WH atV.] ; 
IriTflv, 1 Th. ii. 6 (alternating there with « [cf. W. § 50, 
2]) ; fK^Tjrt'iv, Lk. xi. 50 sq. ; see alrf<a. 2. of c au s al 
origin, or the C ause ; and a. of the material cause, 
so called, or of that which supplies the material for the 
maintenance of the action expressed by the verb : so 



airo 



59 



aTTo/SaiVQ) 



ytfjii^taBai, j^opra^ftrdai, irXovrtlv, bioKovflv airo Ttfof^ — see 
those verbs, b. of the cause on account of which 
anything is or is done, where commonly it can be ren- 
dered for (Lat. prae, Germ, vor) : oIk fjdvvaro ano rov 
S)(\ov, Lk. xix. 3 ; ovk€ti icr^vcrav aivb rov nXfjdovs, Jn. 
xxi. 6, (Judith ii. 20) ; dwo r. 86^t]s rov (fxaros, Acts xxii. 
11 ; [here many would bring in lleb. v. 7 (W. 371 (348) ; 
B. 322 (276)), see I. 3 d. above], c. of the m o v i n g or 
impelling cause (Lat. ex, prae; Germ, aus, vor), for, 
out of: dno ttjs x^^po^^ avrov virdyfi, JNIt. xiii. 44 ; diro rov 
(f>6^ov for fear, Mt. xiv. 26 ; xxviii. 4 ; Lk. xxi. 26. 
Hebraistically : (polSelcrdai dno rivos (jD K^'^), Mt. x. 28 ; 
Lk. xii. 4 ; (ptvytiv dno rivos ( p D'J), to flee for fear of 
one, Jn. x. 5 ; Mk. xiv. 52 (R G, but L Tr mrg. br. ott' 
airav) ; Rev. ix. 6 ; cf. (j)e{iy(a and W. 223 (209 sq.). d. 
of the efficient cause, viz. of t h i n g s from the force of 
which anything proceeds, and of persons from whose 
will, power, authority, command, favor, order, influence, 
direction, anything is to be sought ; aa. in general : dno 
rov vnvov by force of the sleep. Acts xx. 9 ; dno a-ov 
<Tr)fifiou, ^It. xii. 3S ; otto So^rjs tls do^av, 2 Co. iii. 18 
(from the glory which we behold for ourselves [cf. W. 
254 (238)] in a mirror, goes out a glory in which we 
share, cf. Meyer ad loe. ) ; dno Kvplov nvev^aros by the 
Spirit of the Lord [yet cf. B. 343 (295)], ibid. ; oXedpov 
dno npoaainov rov Kvp'iov destruction proceeding from the 
(incensed, wrathful) countenance of the Lord, 2 Th. 
i. 9 (on this passage, to be explained after Jer. iv. 26 
Sept., cf. Ewald) ; on the other hand, dvd'^v^i^ dno npo- 
(Toinov r. K. Acts iii. 20 (19) ; dnetcTavdrjaav dno (Rec. vtto) 
Tffli/ TrXijyo)!', Rev. ix. 18. d(f) iavTou, d(f)' eavrcop, dn (fiav- 
Tov, an expression esp. com. in John, of himself {myself 
etc.), from his own disposition or judcpnent, as distin- 
guished from another's instruction, [cf. W. 372 (348)] : 
Lk. xii. 57 ; xxi. 30 ; Jn. v. 19, 30 ; xi. 51 ; xiv. 10 ; xvi. 
13; xviii. 34[LTrWHa7roo-eai;T-.]; 2Co. iii. 5; x. 7 [T 
Tr Wll €^' e. (see inl A. I. 1 c'.)] ; of one's own will and 
motion, as opp. to the command and authority of another : 
Jn. vii. 1 7 sq. 28 ; viii. 42 ; x. 18, (Num. xvi. 28) ; hy one's 
own power: Jn. xv. 4 ; hy one's power and on one's own 
judgment : Jn. viii. 28 ; exx. fr. prof. auth. are given in 
Kypke, Observ. i. p. 391. [Cf. flxh'" fX°^^^ ^4^' (^^- *''^' ^^® 
inl A. L 1 f.) eavTcov, Acts xxi. 23 Wll txt.] after verbs 
of learning, knowing, receiving, dno is used of him to whom 
we are indebted for what we know, receive, possess, [cf . W. 
370 (347) n., also De verb. comp. etc. Pt. ii. p. 7 sq. ; B. 324 
(279); Mey. on 1 Co. xi. 23; per contra Bp. Lghtft. 
on Gal. i. 12] : dKoveiv, Acts ix. 13 ; 1 Jn. i. 5; yivoxTKeiv, 
Mk. XV. 45 ; \ap^dvfiv, Mt. xvii. 25 sq. ; 1 Jn. ii. 27 ; iii. 
22 L T Tr AVH ; e'veif, 1 Jn. iv. 21 ; 2 Co. ii. 3, etc. ; 
napaXafi^dveiv, 1 Co. xi. 23 ; bexfcrdai, Acts xxviii. 21 ; 
respecting fiavBdvuv see above, II. 1 d. ; Xarpeva t<b 6e(a 
dno npoyovatv after the manner of the Xarpela received 
from my forefathers [cf. W. 372 (349) ; B. 322 (277)], 2 
Tim. i. 3. ylvfral fxoi, 1 Co. i. 30 ; iv. 5 ; X'^P'f "^^ deov 
or roil 6fov, from God, the author, bestower, Ro. i. 7 ; 1 
Co. i. 3 ; Gal. i. 3, and often ; <ai rovro dno 6(ov, Phil. i. 28. 
ilirooToXof dno etc., constituted an apostls by authority 



and commission, etc. [cf. W. 418 (390)], Gal. i. 1. after 
nda-xfiv, Mt. xvi. 21 ; [akin to this, ace. to many, is Mt. 
xxvii. 9 ov fTtp-TjaauTO dno rav vlav 'lapaTJX, R. V. mrg. 
whom they priced on the part of the sons of Israel ; but see 
in I. 2 above], bb. When dno is used after passives 
(which is rare in the better Grk. auth., cf. Bnhdy. p. 222 
sqq. ; [B. 325 (280) ; W. 371 (347 sq.)]), the connection 
between the cause and the effect is conceived of as looser 
and more remote than that indicated by vno, and may 
often be expressed by on the pari of (Germ, von Seiten), 
[A. V. generally o/] : dno rov Beov dnobtbeiy^ifvov ap- 
proved (by miracles) according to God's will and ap- 
pointment. Acts ii. 22 ; dno Beov neipa(onai the cause of 
my temptation is to be sought in God, Jas. i. 13; dTre- 
arepTjfMfvos [T Tr WH dcfyvcrrep.^ d(j> vfxau by your fraud, 
Jas. V. 4 ; dno8oKip.d(fadai, Lk. xvii. 25 ; [t'StKaiw^j; 17 cro(f)ia 
dno Ttov TfKvayv, Lk. vii. 35 acc. to some ; see diKatow, 2] ; 
Tonov TiToip.aap.evov dno rov Ofov by the will and direction 
of God, Rev. xii. 6 ; dxXovpifvoi. dno (Rec. Ino, [see o;(Xt'<<)]) 
nvf vpdruiv aKaddpr. Lk. vi. 18 (whose annoyance by dis- 
eases [(?) cf. vs. 17] proceeded from unclean spirits 
[A. V. vexed (troubled) loith etc.]) ; dno r. crapKos f<jni\a>- 
pevov by touching the flesh, Jude 23 ; [add Lk. i. 26 T Tr 
WH dneaToXr] 6 ayytXos dno (R G L vno} rov 6(ov'\. As 
in prof. auth. so also in the N. T. the Mss. sometimes 
vary between dno and vno : e. g. in Mk. viii. 31 ; [Lk. viii. 
43] ; Acts iv. 36; [x. 17, 33; xv. 4]; Ro. xiii. 1 ; [xv. 
24]; Rev ix. 18; see W. 370 (347) sq. ; B. 325 (280) 
sq. ; [cf. Vincent and Dickson, Mod. Grk. 2d ed. App. 
§41J. 

III. Phrases having a quasi-adverbial force, and in- 
dicating the manner or degree in which anything is 
done or occurs, are the following : dno r. Knpdicov vpStv 
from your hearts, i. e. willingly and sincerely, Mt. xviii. 
35 ; OTTO ptpovi in part, 2 Co. i. 14 ; ii. 5 ; Ro. xi. 25 ; xv. 
24 ; dno pids sc. either cficovrjs with one voice, or yvdtprji or 
^vxrjs >cith one consent, one mind, Lk. xiv. 18 (cf. Kuinoel 
ad loc. ; [W. 423 (394) ; 591 (549 sq.) ; yet see Lob. Par- 
alip. p. 363]). 

IV. The extraordinary construction dno 6 o)v (for Rec. 
dno ToO 6) KOi 6 rjv Koi 6 epxopevos, Rev. i. 4, finds its ex- 
planation in the fact that the writer seems to have used 
the words 6 Syv ktX. as an indeclinable noun, for the 
purpose of indicating the meaning of the proper name 
niH' ; cf. W. § 10, 2 fin. ; [B. 50 (43)]. 

V. In composition dno indicates separation, liberation, 
cessation, departure, as in dno^dWco, dnoKonTca, dnoKvXio), 
dnoXvo), dnoXvTpaxns, dnaXyeco, dne'pxopai ; finishing and 
completion, as in dnapri^o), dnorfXt'co ; refers to the pat- 
tern from which a copy is taken, as in dnoypdcpeiv, d(popoi' 
ovv, etc. ; or to him from whom the action proceeds, as 
in dT!o8fiKvvpi, dnoToXpdo), etc. 

diro-Paivw : fut. dno^rjcrop^i ; 2 aor. dnt^rjv ; 1. to 

come down from : a ship (so even in Horn.), dno, Lk. v. 2 
[Tr mrg. br. dn avrcbvl ; tls rffv yijv, Jn. xxi. 9. 2. 
trop. to turn out, ' eventuate,' (so fr. Hdt. down) : dno^rj- 
(Terai v^Ii' els paprvpiov it vnll issue, turn out, Lk. xxi. 13; tls 
aaTTjpiav, Phil. i. 19. (Job xiii. 16 ; Artem. oneir. 3, 66.) • 



aTTO/SaWo) 



60 



diroSiBtofAi 



diro-PoXXw : 2 aor. dnf^aXov ; [fr. Horn, down] ; to throw 
off, cast away : a garment, Mk. x. 50. trop. confidence, 
Heb. X. 35.* 

diro-pXeTTw : [impf. dnf^Xfirov^ ; to turn the eyes away 
from other things and Jix them on some one thing ; to look 
at attentively : ctj n, (often in Grk. writ.) ; trop. to look 
with steadfast mental gaze : tls t. ixia-danoSocrlav, Heb. xi. 
26 [W. § 66, 2 d.].* 

dir6-p\TjTos, -01', thrown away, to be thrown aivay, re- 
jected, despised, abominated : as unclean, 1 Tim. iv. 4, 
(in Hos. ix. 3 Symm. equiv. to X3L3 unclean ; Horn. II. 2, 
361; 3, 65; Lcian., Plut.).* 

diro-Po\'^, -Tji, fj, a throwing away; 1. rejection, re- 
pudiation, (a7ro)3dXXeo-5at to throw away from one's self, 
cast off, repudiate) : Ro. xi. 15 (opp. to Trp6a\TjiJL\lris avrwu, 
objec. gen.). 2. a losing, loss, (fr. aTro/SaXXo) in the 
sense of lose) : Acts xxvii. 22 dno^oXfj "^vx^s ovBf^la 
earai e| vfiwp no one of you shall lose his life [W. § 67, 
1 e.]. (Plat., Pint., al.) * 

dTro-^tvojiai : [2 aor. dneyevofitjv^ ; 1. to be removed 
from, depart. 2. to die, (often so in Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. 
down); hence trop. oTroy. rivl to die to any thing: rais 
i^apTiais dnoyfvofievoi i. e. become utterly alienated from 
our sins, 1 Pet. ii. 24 [W. § 52, 4, 1 d.; B. 178 (155)].* 

d'iro--ypa<j)T|, -ijs, fj, {dnoypdcjxo) ; a. a writing off, trans- 
cript (from some j)attern). b. an enrolment (or regis- 
tration) in the public records of persons together with their 
property and income, as the basis of an dnoTiiJirjtns (^census 
or valuation), i. e. that it might appear how much tax 
should be levied upon each one: Lk. ii. 2; Acts v. 37; 
on the occurrence spoken of in both pass. cf. Schiirer, 
Ntl. Zeitgesch. § 17, pp. 251, 262-286, and books there 
mentioned ; [McClellan i. 392-399 ; B. D. s. v. Taxing].* 

d'iro-7pd<|)w : ]Mid., [pres. inf. dncyypd<pea-6ai^ ; 1 aor. 
inf. dTToypd^aadai. ; [pf. pass. ptcp. diroyeypapixivos ; fr. 
Hdt. down] ; a. to write off, copy (from some pattern). 
b. to enter in a register or records ; spec, to enter in the 
public records the names of men, their property and income, 
to enroll, (cf . dnoypacfyrj, b.) ; mid. to have one's self registered, 
to enroll one's self [W.§ 38, 3] : Lk. ii. 1, 3, 5 ; pass, oi iv 
ovpnvols dnoyeypapiJifvoi those whose names are inscribed 
in the heavenly register, Heb. xii. 23 (the reference is 
to the dead already received into the heavenly city, the 
figure being drawn from civil communities on earth, 
whose citizens are enrolled in a register).* 

diro-8€CKW|xi ; 1 aor. ciTrtSft^a ; pf. pass. ptcp. aTroSfSeiy- 
fiivos; (freq. in Grk. writ. fr. Pind. Nem. 6, 80 down); 
1. prop, to point away from one's self, to point out, show 
forth; to expose to view, exhibit, (Hdt. 3, 122 and often) : 
1 Co. iv. 9. Hence 2. to declare : ni/d, to show, prove 
what kind of a person any one is, Acts ii. 22 (where cod. 
D gives the gloss [868oKt/i]a(r/ieVof) ; 2 Th. ii. 4 [Lchm. mrg. 
d-nobfiyvvovra^ to prove by arguments, demonstrate : Acts 
XXV. 7. Cf. Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. iv. p. 16 sq.* 

diro-Sti^is, -ewf, i], {dTTobelKvypn, q. v.), [fr. Hdt. down] ; 
a. a making inanifcst, shoiving forth, b. a demonstration, 
proof: dnobd^is irvfi/fiaroi koi dvvdpeats a proof by the 
Spirit and power of God, operating in me, and stirring in 



the minds of my hearers the most holy emotions and 
thus persuading them, 1 Co. ii. 4 (contextually opposed 
to proof by rhetorical arts and philosophic arguments, 
— the sense in which the Greek philosophers use the 
word ; [see Heinrici, Corinthierbr. i. p. 103 sq.]).* 

diro-SeKarcvu, Lk. xviii. 12, for aTroSe xardw q. v. ; [cf. 
WH. App. p. 171]. 

diro-8€KaT6w, -w, inf. pres. dirobeKaroiv, Heb. vii. 5 T 
Tr WH (cf. DeUtzsch ad loc. ; B. 44 (38) ; [Tdf.'s note 
ad loc. ; WH. Intr. § 410]) ; (SeKardo) q. v.) ; a bibl. and 
eccl. word ; Sept. for ity;^; to tithe i. e. 1. with ace of 
the thing, to give, pay, a tenth of any thing : Mt. xxiii. 23 ; 
Lk. xi. 42 ; xviii. 12 where T WH, after codd. N* B only, 
have adopted dnoheKarexxx), for which the simple SfKarevo) 
is more common in Grk. writ. ; (Gen. xxviii. 22 ; Deut. 
xiv. 21 (22)). 2. Tivd, to exact, receive, a tenth from any 
one : Heb. vii. 5 ; (1 S. viii. 15, 1 7). [B. D. s. v. Tithe.] • 

dir6-5€KTos [so L T WH accent (and Rec. in 1 Tim. ii. 
3) ; al. dnobeKTos, cf. Lob. Parahp. p. 498 ; Gdttling p. 313 
sq. ; Chandler § 529 sq.], -ov, (see dnobixopiai), a later 
word, accepted, acceptable, agreeable : 1 Tim. ii. 3 ; v. 4.* 

d-iro-Se'xoiiai; depon. mid. ; impf. aTreSf^oA"?" > 1 ^^r. dnc 
be^dp.r}v; 1 aor. pass, dirfbix^^v 'i common in Grk. writ., 
esp. the Attic, fr. Hom. down ; in the N. T. used only by 
Luke ; to accept what is offered from without (otto, cf. Lat. 
excipio), to accept from, receive: rivd, simply, to give 
one access to one's self, Lk. ix. 11 L T Tr WH ; Acts 
xxviii. 30 ; with emphasis [cf . Tob. vii. 1 7 and Fritzsche 
ad loc], to receive with joy, Lk. viii. 40 ; to receive to 
hospitaUty, Acts xxi. 17 L T Tr WH ; to grant one ac- 
cess to one's seK in the capacity m which he wishes to be 
regarded, e. g. as the messenger of others. Acts xv. 4 (L 
T Tr WH TrapeSe'x^'jo-ai') ; as a Christian, Acts xviii. 27 ; 
metaph. t'i, to receive into the mind with assent : to ap- 
prove, Acts xxiv. 3 ; to believe, TovXoyov, Acts ii. 41 ; (so 
in Grk. writ. esp. Plato ; cf. Ast, Lex. Plat. i. p. 232).* 

diroST]|jie(i>, -S) ; 1 aor. dnebrjfxrjaa ; (dTrodrjfios, q. v.) ; to 
go away to foreign parts, go abroad : Mt. xxi. 33 ; xxv. 14 
sq. ; ]VIk. xii. 1 ; Lk. xv. 1 3 (ety ^^wpai/) ; xx. 9. (In Grk. 
writ. fr. Hdt. down.) * 

diro-Siiixos, -Of, (fr. diro and diipos the people), away 
from one's jieople, gone abroad : Mk. xiii. 34 [R. V. so- 
journing in another country']. [From Pind. down.]* 

diro-SiSwp.i, pres. ptcp. neut. oTroStSovj' (fr. the form 
-StSo'co, Rev. xxii. 2, where T Tr WH mrg. -8i8ovs [see 
WII. App. p. 167]) ; impf. 3 pers. plur. dntbidovu (for the 
more com. aTrfSlBoa-av, Acts iv. 33 ; cf. W. § 14, 1 c.) ; fut. 
diTo8<j)<Ta> ; 1 aor. dTre^axa ; 2 aor. dneScov, impv. dnoBos, 
subj. 3 pers. sing. dnoSo) and in 1 Thess. v. 15 Tdf. dtTobol 
(see di8copi), opt. 3 pers. sing, dnodo)]] [or rather, -8(ot] ; for 
-dar] is a subjunctive form] (2 Tim. iv. 14, for dwodoiri, 
cf. W. § 14, 1 g. ; B. 46 (40) ; yet L T Tr WH dnodaxrei) ; 
Pass., 1 aor. inf. aTroSodrjvai ; j\Iid., 2 aor. dnfSoprjv, 3 pers. 
sing. dnedoTo (Heb. xii. 16, where L WH dnfdeTo ; cf. B. 
47 (41) ; DeUtzsch on Hebr. p. 632 note ; [ WH. App. p. 
167]) ; a common verb in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down, and 
the N. T. does not deviate at all from their use of it ; 
prop, to put away by giving, to give up, give over, (Germ. 



diroSiopt^fo 



61 



aTroOvrja-KQ) 



abgeben, [cf. Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. iv. p. 12 sq. 
who regards airo as denoting to give /ro??J some reserved 
store, or to give over something wliioh might have been 
retained, or to lay off some burden of debt or duty ; cf . 
Cope on Aristot. rhet. 1, 1, 7]) ; 1. to dellcer, relinquish 
what is one's own : to aujixa rov 'irjaoii, Mt. xxvii. 58 ; hence 
in mid. to give away for one^s own profit what is one's own, 
i. e. to sell [W. 253 (238)] : r/. Acts v. 8 ; Heb. xii. 16 ; 
Tiva, Acts vii. 9, (often in this sense in Grk. writ., esjj. 
the Attic, fr. Hdt. 1, 70 down ; in Sept. for "IDO, Gen. 
XXV. 33 etc. ; Bar. vi. [i. e. Ep. Jer.] 27 (28)). 2. to 
pay off, discharge, what is due, (because a debt, like a 
burden, is thrown off, arro, by being paid) : a debt (Germ. 
abtragen), Mt. v. 26 ; xviii. 25-30, 34 ; Lk. vii. 42 ; x. 35 ; 
xii. 59 ; wages, Mt. xx. 8 ; tribute and other dues to the 
government, Mt. xxii. 21 ; Mk. xii. 17 ; Lk. xx. 25 ; Ro. 
xiii. 7 ; produce due, Mt. xxi. 41 ; Heb. xii. 11 ; Rev. xxii. 
2 ; opKovs tilings promised under oath, Mt. v. 33, cf. 
Num. XXX. 3, {fvxrjv a vow, Deut. xxiii. 21, etc.) ; con- 
jugal duty, 1 Co. vii. 3 ; dfioi^ds grateful requitals, 1 Tim. 
V. 4 ; Xoyoi/ to render account : Mt. xii. 36 ; Lk. xvi. 2 ; 
Acts xix. 40 ; Ro. xiv. 12 L txt. Tr txt. ; Heb. xiii. 17 ; 
1 Pet. iv. 5 ; ixaprvpiov to give testimony (as something 
officially due). Acts iv. 33. Hence 3. to give back, re- 
store : Lk. iv. 20 ; [vii. 15 Lchm. mrg.] ; Lx. 42 ; xix. 8. 
4. to requite, recompense, in a good or a bad sense : Mt. 
vi. 4, 6, 18 ; xvi. 27 ; Ro. ii. 6 ; 2 Tim. iv. [8], 14 ; Rev. 
xviii. 6 ; xxii. 12 ; kokou uvtI KaKov, Ro. xii. 17 ; 1 Th. v. 
15; 1 Pet. iii. 9. [Comp.: ai/r-aTroSi'Sw/it.] * 

airo-Si-opi^o) ; (Siopifoj, and this fr. opos a limit) ; by 
drawing boundaries to disjoin, part, separate from anoth- 
er : Jude 19 (ot dnoSiopl^ovTes eavrovs those who by 
their wickedness separate themselves from the living 
fellowship of Christians ; if eavr. be dropped, with Rec?* 
G L T Tr WH, the rendering is making divisions or sep- 
arations). (Aristot. pol. 4, 4, 13 [p. 1290% 25].)* 

diro-SoKip.d^o) : (see doKLpd^o)); 1 aor. dTredoKipaaa; Pass., 
1 aor. dneboKipdadrjv ; pf. ptcp. dnobeboKmaa-pivos ; to dis- 
approve, reject, repudiate : Mt. xxi. 42 ; Mk. viii. 31 ; xii. 
10 ; Lk. ix. 22 ; xvii. 25 ; xx. 1 7 ; 1 Pet. ii. 4, 7 ; Heb. xii. 
1 7. (Equiv. to DKO in Ps. cxvii. (cxviii.) 22 ; Jer. viii. 9, 
etc.; in Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. 6, 130 down.)* 

diro-SoxTi, -jjy, ^, (dirobexopai, q. v.), reception, admis- 
sion, acceptance, approbation, [A. V. acceptation'] : 1 Tim. 
i. 15 ; iv. 9. (Polyb. 2, 56, 1 ; 6, 2, 13, etc. ; 6 Xoyof otto- 
boxr}i Tvyxdvei. id. 1, 5, 5 ; Diod. 4, 84 ; Joseph, antt. 6, 14, 
4 ; al. [cf. Field, Otium Norv. pars iii. p. 124].) * 

diro-Oeo-is, -ea>s, fj, [^diroTidrjpiJ, a putting off or atvay. 2 
Pet. i. 14 ; 1 Pet. iii. 21. [In various senses fr. Hippoc. 
and Plato down.] * 

diro-O^iKT), -?;j, 17, (anoTidripi), a place in which any thing 
is laid by or up ; a storehouse, granary, [A. V. garner, 
harn] : Mt. iii. 12; vi. 26; xiii. 30; Lk. iii. 17; xii. 18, 
24. (Jer. xxvii. (1.) 26; Thuc. 6, 97.)* 

diro-Orfcravpi^b) ; to put away, lay by in store, to treasure 
aivay, [seponendo thesaurum colligere. Win. De verb, 
comp. etc . Pt. iv. p. 10]; to store up abundance for future 
use : 1 Tim. vi. 19. [Sir. iii. 4 ; Diod., Joseph., Epict., al.] * 



d-iro-OXCPw ; to press on all sides, squeeze, press hard : Lk. 
viii. 45. (Num. xxii. 25 ; used also of pressing out grapes 
and olives, Diod. 3, 62; Joseph, antt. 2, 5, 2 ; [al.].) * 

diro-evT|o-Kw, impf. nTTfOvrjaKov (Lk. viii. 42) ; 2 aor. 
dntdavou ; fut. dnodavoiipai, Ro. v. 7 ; Jn. viii. 21, 24, 
(see OvrjdKco) ; found in Grk. writ. fr. Horn, down ; to die 
{dno, so as to be no more ; [cf . Lat. e morior ; Eng. die 
off or u t, pass away'] ; Germ, a b sterben, ver sterben) ; 
I. used properly 1. of the natural death of men: 
Mt. ix. 24 ; xxii. 24 ; Lk. xvi. 22; Jn. iv. 47 ; Ro. vii. 2, 
and very often ; dTro6vr](TKovTfs avdpooTroi subject to death, 
mortal, Heb. vii. 8 [B. 206 (178)]. 2. of the violent 
death — both of animals, Mt. viii. 32, and of men, Mt. 
xxvi. 35 ; Acts xxi. 13 etc. ; 1 Pet iii. 18 L T Tr WH txt. ; 
ev (pdvo) paxaipai, Heb. xi. 37; of the punishment of 
death, Heb. x. 28 ; often of the violent death which 
Christ suffered, as Jn. xii. 33; Ro. v. 6, etc. 3. 
Phrases : dTrodvfja-K. eic rivos to perish by means of some- 
thing, [cf. Eng. to die of], Rev. viii. 11 ; eV tjj dpaprla, 
ev Tois dpapriaii, fixed in sin, hence to die unreformed, 
Jn. viii. 21, 24 ; «V ra 'Addp. by connection with Adam, 

1 Co. XV. 22 ; €v Kvpia> in fellowship with, and trusting in, 
the Lord, Rev. xiv. 13; aTroOvfjaK. n to die a certain 
death, Ro. vi. 10, (Sdvarov paKpov, Charit. p. 12 ed. D'Or- 
ville [1. i. c. 8 p. 1 7, 6 ed. Beck ; cf. W. 227 (213) ; B. 149 
(130)]); rfi apapria, used of Christ, 'that he might 
not have to busy himself more with the sin of men,' Ro. 
vi. 10 ; eavra to become one's own master, independent, 
by dying, Ro. xiv. 7 [cf . Meyer] ; tw Kvpia to become 
subject to the Lord's will by dying, Ro. xiv. 8 [cf. Mey.] ; 
8id Tiva i. e. to save one, 1 Co. viii. 11 ; on the phrases otto- 
6vr](TK. TTfpl and virtp rivos, see mpi I. c. 8. and inrtp L 

2 and 3. Oratorically, although the proper signification 
of the verb is retained, ko^' fjpepav dirodvija-Ka I meet 
death daily, live daily in danger of death, 1 Co. xv. 31, 
cf. 2 Co. vi. 9. 4. of trees which d7-y up, Jude 12 ; of 
seeds, wliich while being resolved into their elements in 
the ground seem to perish by rotting, Jn. xii. 24 ; 1 Co. xv. 
36. II. tropically, in various senses ; 1. of eternal 
death, as it is called, i. e. to be subject to eternal misery, 
and that, too, already beginning on earth: Ro. viii. 13; 
Jn. vi. 50; xi. 26. 2. of moral death, in various 
senses ; a. to be deprived of real life, i. e. esp. of the 
power of doing right, of confidence in God and the hope 
of future blessedness, Ro. vii. 10; of the spiritual torpor 
of those who have fallen from the fellowship of Christ, 
the fountain of true life, Rev. iii. 2. b. with dat. of the 
thing [cf. W. 210 (197); 428 (398); B. 178 (155)], to 
become wholly alienated from a thing, and freed from 
all connection with it: rw vopa. Gal. ii. 19, which must 
also be supplied with dTTodavovr e s (for so we must read 
for Rec«!^ dnodavovros) in Ro. vii. 6 [cf. W. 159 (150)] ; 
Tjj dpapTia, Ro. vi. 2 (in another sense in vs. 10; see I. 

3 above) ; and roov (ttoix^Imv tov Kocrpov so that your re- 
lation to etc. has passed away, Col. ii. 20, (diro Ta>v ira6a>v, 
Porphyr. de abst. animal. 1, 41 [cf. B. 322 (277) ; W. 370 
(347)]) ; true Christians are said simply dirodavflv, as hav- 
ing put off all sensibility to worldly things that draw them 



aTOKa6l(TT7]/jLl, 



62 



UTTi 



oKapat, 



Kid 



away from God, Col. iii. 3 ; since they owe this habit of 
mind to the death of Christ, they are said also ajroOavdv 
(Tvv Xpiara, Ro. vi. 8 ; Col. ii. 20. [Comp. : avv-ano- 

d'iro-Ka6-t<r'n]p.i, ajroKa^tordoj (Mk. ix. 12 aTi0Ka6i(TTa 
R G), and anoKaeiaTavat (Mk. Lx. 12 L T Tr [but WH 
aTTOKariGTavf^, .'<ee their App. p. 168]; Acts i. 6 ; cf. W. 
78 (75); [B. 44 sq. (39)]); fut. aTToKaTa(TTr](T<i>; 2 aor. 
dneKaTeaTrjv (with double augm., [ff. Ex. iv. 7 ; Jer. xxiii. 
8], Mk. viii. 25 T Tr WH) ; 1 aor. pass. airoKaTeaTadrjv 
or, ace. to the better reading, with double augm. atKnarf- 
arddriv, Mt. xii. 13 ; i\lk. iii. 5 ; Lk. vi. 10 (Ignat. ad Smyrn. 
11 ; ci.lWH. App. p. 162]; W. 72 (69 sq.) ; [B. 35 (31)]; 
Mullach p. 22) ; as in Grk. writ, to restore to its former state ; 
2 aor. act. to be in its former state : used of parts of the 
body restored to health, jNIt. xii. 13 ; Mk. iii. 5 ; Lk. vi. 
10 ; of a man cured of blindness, Mk. viii. 25 ; of the 
restoration of dominion, Acts i. 6 (1 Mace. xv. 3) ; of 
the restoration of a disturbed order of affairs, Mt. xvii. 
11 ; Mk. ix. 12 ; of a man at a distance from his friends 
and to be restored to them, Heb. xiii. 19.* 

diro-KoXvirroi): fut. an-OKaXu\|/a); 1 aur.d7rf/caXii\//'a; [Pass., 
pres. dTroKuXiiTrro/iai] ; 1 aor. aneKakv(^dr]v\ 1 fut. airo- 
Ka\v(f)dTjao^j.ai ] in Grk. writ. fr. [Hdt. and] Plat, down ; in 
Sept. equiv. to rhl ; 1. prop, to uncover, lay open what 
has been veiled or covered up ; to disclose, make hare : Ex. 
XX. 26; Lev. xviii. 11 sqq. ; Num. v. 18; Sus. 32; ra 
arridr], Plat. Prot. p. 352 a. ; rfjv KfcpaXfju, Plut. Crass. 6. 
2. metaph. to make known, make manifest, disclose, 
what before teas unknotcn; a. pass, of any method 
whatever by which something before unknown becomes 
evident: Mt.x. 26; Lk. xii. 2. b. pass, of matters which 
come to light from things done: Lk. ii. 35 [some 
make the verb mid. here] ; Jn. xii. 38 (Is. liii. 1) ; Ro. i. 
18; from the gospel: Ro. i. 17. c. dTroKaXvTTTfiv tI 
Tivi is used of God revealing to men things unknown 
[Dan. ii. 19 Theod., 22, 28 ; Ps. xcvii. (xcviii.) 2 ; 1 S. ii. 
27, cf. iii. 21], especially those relating to salvation: — 
whether by deeds, Mt. xi. 25 ; xvi. 1 7 ; Lk. x. 21 (by in- 
timacy with Christ, by his words and acts) ; — or by the 
Holy Spirit, 1 Co. ii. 10 ; xiv. 30 ; Eph. iii. 5 ; Phil. iii. 15 ; 
1 Pet. i. 12; t6v viov nvrov iv efioi who, what, how great 
his Son is, in my soul, Gal. i. 16. Of Christ teaching men: 
Mt. xi. 27; Lk. x. 22. d. pass, of things, previously 
non-existent, coming into being and to view : as, fj 86§a, 
Ro. viii. 18 (fij 17/ias to be conferred on us); 1 Pet. v. 
1 ; f] awTripia, 1 Pet. i. 5 ; 17 iria-Tis, Gal. iii. 23 ; the day 
of judgment, 1 Co. iii. 13. e. pass, of persons, previ- 
ously concealed, making their appearance in public : of 
Christ, who will return from heaven where he is now 
hidden (Col. iii. 3) to the earth, Lk. xvii. 30 ; of Anti- 
christ, 2 Th. ii. 3, 6, 8.* 

[On this word (and the foil.) cf. Westcott, Introd. to the 
Study of the Gospels, p. 9 sq. (Am. ed. 34 sq.) ; Liirke, Eiul. 
in d. Offenb. d. Johan. 2d ed. p. 18 sqq. ; esp. F. (i. Ii. van 
Bell, Disput. theolog. de vocabulis <pavepovv et airoKaKv-rrTdv in 
N. T., Lugd. Bat., 1849. <pavtp6ti> is thought to describe an ex- 
ternal manifestation, to the senses and hence open to all, but 
single or isolated ; anoKaKvirTu an internal disclosure, to the 



believer, and abiding. The airoKd.\v\f/is or unveiling precedes 
and produces the (pav^pwais or manifstution ; the former looks 
toward the object revealed, the latter toward the persons to 
whom the revelation is made. Others, however, seem to 
question the possibility of discrimination ; see e. g. Fritz- 
sclie on Eom. vol. ii. 149. Cf. 1 Co. iii. 13.] 

diro-KdX\)\|;is, -fws, r}, (^diroKakinrTO), q. v.), an uncovering', 

1. prop, a laying bare, making naked (1 S. xx. 30). 

2. tropically, in N. T. and eccl. language [see end], a. 
a disclosure of truth, instruction, concerning divine 
things before unknown — esp. those relating to the 
Christian salvation — given to the soul by God himself, 
or by the ascended Christ, esp. through the operation of 
the Holy Spirit (1 Co. ii. 10), and so to be distinguished 
from other methods of instruction ; hence, /card oVoKa- 
Xvyj/iv yvcopi^eo'dai, Eph. iii. 3. nvevfia ciTroKaXvyj/fdis, a 
spirit received from God disclosing what and how great 
are the benefits of salvation, Eph. i. 1 7, cf. 18. with gen. 
of the obj., Tov fivar-qpiov, Ro. xvi. 25. with gen. of the 
subj., Kvpiov, 'irjaov XpicrTov, 2 Co. xii. 1 (revelations by 
ecstasies and visions, [so 7]) ; Gal. i. 12 ; Rev. i. 1 (rev- 
elation of future things relating to the consummation of 
the divine kingdom) ; kqt dnoKaXv^iv, Gal. ii. 2 ; XaXeli/ 
ev anoK. to speak on the ground of [al. in the form of] 
a revelation, agreeably to a revelation received, 1 Co. 
xiv. 6 ; equiv. to dTroKfKoXvfipivov, in the phrase dnoKa- 
"Kvyj/iv e;^fti', 1 Co. xiv. 26. b. equiv. to to diroKoXv- 
TTTeadai as used of events by which things or states or 
persons hitherto withdrawn from view are made visible 
to all, manifestation, appearance, cf. dnoKaXxmrai, 2, d. 
and e. : 0ajj eU diroKaX. iOvwv a light to appear to the 
Gentiles [al. render ' a light for a revelation (of divine 
truth) to the Gentiles,' and so refer the use to a. above], 
Lk. ii. 32 ; dnoK. BcKaioKpiaias 6eov, Ro. ii. 5 ; tup vIojp 
TOV 6eov, the event in which it will appear who and what 
the sons of God are, by the glory received from God at 
the last day, Ro. viii. 1 9 ; ttjs 86^t]s tov XpiaTov, of the 
glory clothed with Avhich he will return from heaven, 1 
Pet. iv. 13 ; of this return itself the phrase is used dno- 
KaXv^is TOV Kvp'iov 'l. XpKTTov '. 2 Th. i. 7 ; 1 Co. i. 7 ; 1 Pet. 
i. 7, 13. (Among Grk. writ. Plut. uses the word once. 
Cat. maj. c. 20, of the denudation of the body, [also in 
Paul. Aemil. 14 d. vbdrav; in Quomodo adul. ab amic. 32 
d. d/iiapr/as ; cf. Sir. xi. 27; xxii. 22 etc. See Trench 
§ xciv. and reff. s. v. dTroKaXuTrro), fin.]) * 

diro-KapaSoKia, -as, r],(fv. aTvoKapaboKfiv, and this fr. dno, 
Kapa the head, and doKe'iv in the Ion. dial, to watch ; 
hence KupadoKelv [Hdt. 7. 163, 168; Xen. mem. 3, 5, 6; 
Eur., al.] to watch with head erect or outstretched, to 
direct attention to anything, to wait for in suspense ; 
dnoKapaSoKflv (Polyb." 16, 2, 8; 18, 31, 4; 22. 19, 3; 
[Plut. parall. p. 310, 43, vol. vii. p. 235 ed. Reiske] ; 
Joseph, b. j. 3, 7, 26, and in Ps. xxxvi. (xxxvii.) 7 Aq. for 
SVirijiri), anxiously [?] to look forth from one's post. 
But the prefix dTrd refers also to time (like the Germ. 
ab in abwarten, [cf. Eng. wait it out]), so that it signifies 
constancy in expecting ; hence the noun, found in Paul 
alone and but twice, denotes), anxious [?] and persistent 
expectation: Ro. viii. 19; Phil. i. 20. This word is very 



uTTOKaTaW.aaa'Oi 



63 



aTTOKpVTTTta 



fully discussed by C. F. A. Fritzsche in Fritz schiorum 
Opuscc. p. 150 sqq. ; [cf. Ellic. and Lghtft. on Phil. 1. c.].* 

diro-KaT-aXXd<r<rw or -ttco : 1 aor. aTroKaTrjWa^a ; 2 aor. 
pass. dnoKarrj'K'KdyTjTe (Col. i. 22 (21) L Tr mrg. Wll nirg.); 
to reconcile completely (dno), [al. to reconcile hack again, 
bring back to a former state of harmony ; Ellic. on Eph. 
ii. 16 ; Bp. Lghtft. or Bleek on Col. i. 20 ; Win. De verb, 
comp. etc. Pt. iv. p. 7 sq. ; yet see INley. on Eph. 1. c. ; 
Fritzsche on Rom. vol. i. p. 278 ; (see diro V.)], (cf. kutoX- 
Xda-a-w): Col. i. 22 (21) [cf. Bp. Lghtft. ad loc] ; rivd 
Tivi, E[)h. ii. 16; concisely, iravra ety avrou [better aiirov 
with edd. ; cf. B. p. Ill (97) and s. v. avrov], to draw to 
himself by reconciliation, or so to reconcile that they 
should be devoted to himself. Col. i. 20 [W. 212 (200) 
but cf. § 49, a. c. 8.]. (Found neither in prof, autli. nor 
in the Grk. O. T.)* 

diro-KaTcL-a-Taij-is, -ews, ^, (dTTOKadicTTTifii, q. v.), restora- 
tion : TMv TraiTwi/, the restoration not only of the true 
theocracy but also of that more perfect state of (even 
physical) things wliich existed before the fall, Acts iii. 
21 ; cf. Meyer ad loc. (Often in Polyb., Diod., Plut., al.)* 

[diro-KaT-WTTttvw, see dnoKadi<TTriiii..~\ 

dir6-K6ifjiai ; to he laid aicaij, laid Inj, reserved, (d7rd as in 
dTTodr](Tavpi(w [q. v.], dTrodrjKT]) ; a. prop. : Lk. xix. 20. 
b. metajjh., with dat. of pers., reserved for one, awaiting 
Mm : Col. i. 5 {eknis hoped-for blessedness) ; 2 Tim. iv. 
8 {(TTe(f)avos) ; Heb. ix. 27 (dnodavelv, as in 4 Mace. viii. 
10). (In both senses in Grk. writ. fr. Xen. down.)* 

diroK6(})a\i'iw : 1 aor. an-eKf c^dXtcra ; ((cet^aXjj); to cut off 
the head, hehead, decapitate : jNIt. xiv. 10; Mk. vi. 16, 27 
(28) ; Lk. ix. 9. A later Grk. word: [Sept. Ps. fin.] ; 
Epict. diss. 1, 1, 19; 24; 29; Artem. oneir. 1. 35; cf. 
Fischer, De vitils lexx. N. T. p. 690 sqq. ; Lob. ad Phryn. 
p. 341.* 

diro-KXeio) : 1 aor. dneKXeKra ; to shut up : rr^v dvpav, Lk. 
xiii. 25. (Gen. xix. 10; 2 S. xiii. 17sq. ; often in Ildt. ; 
in Attic prose writ. fr. Thuc. down.) * 

diro-KOirrw : 1 aor. dn-«Ko\//-a ; f ut. mid. dTroKoy^ofiai ; to 
cut off, amputate: Mk. ix. 43, [45]; Jn. xviii. 10, 26; 
Acts xxvii. 32 ; ocfxXov Ka\ dTroKo-^ovrai I would that they 
(who urge the necessity of circumcision would not only 
circumcise themselves, but) would even mutilate them- 
selves (or cut off their privy parts). Gal. v. 12. dnoKo- 
TTTfuBai occurs in this sense in Deut. xxiii. 1 ; [Philo de 
alleg. leg. iii. 3 ; de vict. off. § 13 ; cf.de spec. legg.i.§7] ; 
Epict. diss. 2, 20, 19 ; Lcian. Eun. 8 ; [Dion Cass. 79, 11 ; 
Diod. Sic. 3, 31], and other pass, quoted by Wetst. ad 
loc. [and Soph. Lex. s. v.]. Others incorrectly : I would 
that they would cut themselves off from the society of 
Christians, quit it altogether ; [cf. Mey. and Bp. Lghtft. 
ad loc.].* 

diro-Kpiixa, -ro^, to, (aTroKplvofj-ai, q. v. in anoKpivai), an 
answer : 2 Co. i. 9, where the meaning is, ' On asking 
myself whether I should come out safe from mortal peril, 
I answered, "I must die.'" (Joseph, antt. 14, 10, 6 of 
an answer (rescript) of the Roman senate; [similarly in 
Polyb. excpt. Vat. 12, 2(3\ 1].)* 

d-iro-tcptvft) : [Pass., 1 aor. dneKpibTju ; 1 fut. dnoKpid-qcro- 



fiai^ ; i- to part, separate ; Pass, to be parted, separated, 
(1 aor. dirtKpiOTjv teas separated, Horn. II. v. 12 ; Thuc. 
2, 49 ; [4, 72] ; Theoph. de cans, plant. 6, 14, 10 ; [other 
exx. in Veitch s. v.]). ii. to give sentence against one, de- 
cide that he has lost ; hence Mid., [pres. dnoKpivofiai ; 1 aor. 

3 pers. sing, dn-f K/jtVaro] ; {to give forth a decision from 
7ngse/f[\V. 253 (238)]), to give ansiver, to repb/; so from 
Thuc. down (and even in Hdt. 5, 49 [Gaisf.] ; 8, 101 
[Gaisf., Bekk.], who generally uses vno Kpivofiai). But 
the earlier and more elegant Grk. writ, do not give this 
sense to the pass, tenses dneKpldTjv, dnoKpidrjcro^ai. " The 
example adduced from Plat. Alcib. Secund. p. 149 b. [cf. 
Stallb. p. 388] is justly discredited by Sturz, De dial. Alex, 
p. 148, since it is without parallel, the author of the diar 
logue is uncertain, and, moreover, the common form is 
sometimes introduced by copyists." Loheck ad Phryn. p. 
108 ; [cf. Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 186 sq. ; Veitch 
s. V. ; W. 23 (22)]. But from Polyb. down dnoKptSrjvai 
and dnoKpivaa-dat. are used indiscriminately, and in the 
Bible the pass, forms are by far the more common. In the 
N. T. the aor. middle dirfKplvaTo is found only in ]Mt. 
xxvii. 12; Mk. xiv. 61 ; Lk. iii. 16; xxiii. 9; -In. v. 17, 
19 ; xii. 23 [R G L Tr mrg.] ; Acts iii. 12 ; in the great 
majority of places dneKpldrj is used; cf. W. § 39, 2 ; [B. 
51 (44)]. 1. /(7 ryu-e a« o?i.s7i'e/- to a question proposed, 
to answer ; a. simply : KoXas, Mk. xii. 28 ; vowexas, 34 ; 
6p6a>s. Lk. x. 28 ; np6s ri, Mt. xxvii. 14. b. with ace. : 
Xoyoi/, Mt. xxii. 46 ; ovhiv, Mt. xxvii. 12 ; Mk. xiv. 61 ; xv. 

4 sq. c. with dat. etc. : ei/i iKaaTw, Col. iv. 6 ; together 
with the words which the answerer uses, Jn. v. 7, 1 1 ; vi. 
7, 68, etc. ; the dat. omitted : Jn. vii. 46 ; viii. 1 9, 49, etc. 
■npos riva. Acts xxv. 16. joined with (f)dvai, or Xiytw, or 
elnfiv, in the form of a ptcp., as dTTOKpiBeh fine or f(f)r) 
or Xeyft : Mt. iv. 4 ; viii. 8 ; xv. 13 ; Lk. ix. 19 ; xiii. 2 ; 
Mk. X. 3, etc.; or dirtKpidr] Xeycov: Mt. xxv. 9, 37, 44; 
Lk. iv. 4 [R G L] ; viii. 50 [R G Tr mrg. br.] ; Jn. i. 26 ; 
x. 33 [Rcc] ; xii. 23. But John far more frequently says 
dneKpidri Kai fine : Jn. i. 48 (49) ; ii. 19 ; iv. 13 ; vii. 16, 20 
[R G], 52, etc. d. foil, by the inf. : Lk. xx. 7 ; foil, by 
the ace. with inf. : Acts xxv. 4 ; foil, by ort : Acts xxv. 1 6. 
2. In imitation of the Hebr. HJJ' {Gesenius, Thesaur. 
ii. p. 1047) to hegin to speak, but always where something 
has preceded (either said or done) to which the I'emarka 
refer [W. 19] : Mt. xi. 25 ; xii. 38 ; xv. 15 ; xvii. 4 ; xxii. 
1 ; xxviii. 5 ; Mk. ix. 5, [6 T Tr WH] ; x. 24; xi. 14 ; xii. 
35 ; Lk. xiv. 3 ; Jn. ii. 18 ; v. 1 7 ; Acts iii. 12 ; Rev. vii. 
13. (Sept. [Deut. xxvi. 5]; Is. xiv. 10; Zech. i. 10-, 
iii. 4, etc. ; 1 Mace. ii. 17; viii. 19; 2 Mace. xv. 14.) 
[Comp. : dvT-anoKplvoixai..~\ 

diro-Kpwris, -fwy, ij, (dnoKpifofiai, see dnoKpivai), a reply- 
ing, an anstcer: Lk. ii. 47; xx. 26; Jn. i. 22; xix. 9. 
(From [Theognis, 1167 ed. Bekk., 345 ed. Welck., and] 
Hdt. down.) * 

diro-KpvTTTw : 1 aor. dnfKpv^a ; pf. pass. ptcp. dnoKfKpv)!- 
fifvos ; a. to hide : ri, Mt. xxv. 18 (L T Tr WII fKpv\f/f). 
b. Pass, in the sense of concealirtg, keeping secret : o-o^i'a, 
1 Co. ii. 7 ; fivarrjpiov. Col. i. 26 (opp. to ipavepovadai) ; 
with the addition of eV riu 6em, Eph. iii. 9 ; ri dno rivos, 



a.TroKpvc^o's 



64 



dTToWb/At 



Lk. X. 21 ; Mt. xi. 25 (L T Tr WH eKpv^as), in imitation 
of the Ilebr. p, Ps. xxxvii. (xxxviii.) 10 ; cxviii. (cxix.) 
ID; Jer. xxxix. (xxxii.) 17; cf. Kpvirra, [B. 149 (130); 
189 (163) ;W. 227 (213)]. (Tn Grk. writ. fr. Horn, 
down.) * 

dir6Kpv(j)os,-oi', (a7roKpviTTa>),Jiidden, secreted : Mk. iv. 22 ; 
Lk. viii. 1 7. stored up : Col. ii. 3. (Dan. xi. 43 [Theod.] ; 
Is. xlv. 3 ; 1 Mace. i. 23 ; Xen., Eur. ; [cf. Bp. Lghtft. on 
the word, Col. 1. c, and Ign. i. 351 sq.].)* 

diro-KT€£v», and Aeoi. -icrewo) (Mt. x. 28LTTr; INIk. 
xii. 5 G L T Tr ; Lk. xii. 4 L T Tr; 2 Co. iii. 6 T Tr ; 
cf. Fritzsche on Mk. p. .507 sq. ; ITdf. Proleg. p. 79] ; W. 
83 (79) ; [B. Gl (54)]), dnoKreuco (Grsb. in Mt. x. 28; Lk. 
xii. 4), dnoKTaivco (Lchni. in 2 Co. iii. G ; Rev. xiii. 10), 
dnoKTevvvirres (i\Ik. xii. 5 WIl) ; fnt. dnoKTevo); 1 aor. 
dnfKTeiva; Pass., pres. inf. djroKTeuvfcrBai. (Rev. vi. 11 
G L T Tr WH) ; 1 aor. dweKTciverjv {Bttm. Ausf. Spr. ii. 
227 ; W. 1. c. ; [B. 41 (35 sq.)]) ; [fr. Horn, down] ; 1. 
prop, to kill in any way whatever, (otto i. e. so as to put 
out of the way; cf. [Eng. to kill o//], Germ, abschlach- 
ten) : Mt. xvi. 21 ; xxii. 6 ; Mk. vi. 19 ; ix. 31 ; Jn. v. 18 ; 
viii. 22; Acts iii. 15 ; Rev. ii. 13, and very often ; [(ittokt. 
cV eavdrco, Rev. ii. 23 ; vi. 8, cf. B. 184 (159) ; W. 339 
(319)]. to destroy (allow to perish) : Mk. iii. 4 [yet al. 
take it here absol., to kill]. 2. metaph. to extinguish, 
abolish : rrjvexdpav, Eph. ii. 16 ; to inflict moral death, Ro. 
vii. 11 (see dnodurja-KO), TL. 2) ; to deprive of spiritual life 
and procure eternal misery, 2 Co. iii. G [Lclim. dnoKTalvfi ; 
see above]. 

diro-Kvtw, -o). or dnoKvco, (hence 3 pers. sing. pres. either 
dnoKvel [so AVIl] or dnoKvei, Jas. i. 15 ; cf. W. 88 (84) ; 
B. 62 (54)) ; 1 aor. drreKVTjaa; (kvu, or Kvia, to be preg- 
nant ; cf. eyKvos) ; to bring forth from the womb, give 
birth to: rivd, Jas. i. 15; to produce, ibid. 18. (4 Mace. 
XV. 17; Dion. Hal. 1, 70; Plut., Lcian., Ael. v. h. 5, 4 ; 
Hdian. 1, 5, 13 [5 ed. Bekk.] ; 1, 4, 2 [1 ed. Bekk.].) * 

diTO-KvXCw : f ut. aTroKuXicra) ; 1 aor. dTreKvKiaa ; pf. pass. 
[3 pers. sing. diroKfKvXi(TTai Mk. xvi. 4 R G L but T Tr 
WIl dvoKfK.], ptcp. dnoKeKvXiirpevos ; to roll off or away : 
Mt. xxviii. 2 ; Mk. xvi. 3 ; Lk. xxiv. 2. (Gen. xxix. 3, 8, 
10; Judith xiii. 9; Joseph, antt. 4, 8, 37; 5, 11, 3; 
Lcian. rhet. praec. 3.) But see dvaKvXlco.* 

d-iro-\a(i.pdv(o ; fut. dnoXfjyjropai (Col. iii. 24 ; L T Tr 
WH dno\T]p\f/((T6f ; see Xaix^dva) ; 2 aor. direXa^ov ; 2 aor. 
mid. dTrfXalSoprju ; fr. Hdt. down ; 1. to receive (from 
another, dno [cf. Mey. on Gal. iv. 5 ; Ellic. ibid, and Win. 
De verb. comp. etc. as below]) what is due or promised 
(cf. dnobibapi, 2 ) : t. vlodeaiav the adoption promised to 
believers. Gal. iv. 5 ; rd dyadd aov thy good things, " which 
thou couldst expect and as it were demand, which seemed 
due to thee" {Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. iv. p. 13), 
Lk. xvi. 25. Hence 2. to take again or back, to recover : 
Lk. vi. 34 [T Tr txt. WH Xa/Sfti/] ; xv. 27 ; and to receive 
by way of retribution : Lk. xviii. 30 (L txt. Tr mrg. WH 
txt. Xd^ji); xxiii. 41 ; Ro. i. 27; 2 Jn. 3; Col. iii. 24. 
3. to take from others, take apart or aside; Mid. rivd, to 
take a person with one aside out of the view of others : 
with the addition of dwo tov ox>^ov Kar I8iav in Mk. vii. 



33, (Joseph, b. j. 2, 7, 2 ; and in the Act., 2 Mace. vi. 21 ; 
'Y(jTd(rnea dnoKa^av povvov, Hdt. 1, 209; Arstph. ran. 
78 ; I8ia eva twv rpicov dnoXa^oiu, App. b. civ. 5, 40). 
4. to receive any one hospitably : 3 Jn. 8, where L T Tr 
WH have restored vnoXap^dveiv.* 

dirdXavo-ts, -ewf, fj, (fr. dnoXavo) to enjoy), enjoyment 
(Lat. fructus) : 1 Tim. vi. 1 7 (els drroKavaiv to enjoy) ; 
Heb. xi. 25 (dpaprias cttoX. pleasure born of sin). (In 
Grk. writ. fr. [Eur. and] Thuc. down.)* 

diro-XeCirw : [impf. direXfinov, WH txt. in 2 Tim. iv. IS, 
20;Tit. i. 5]; 2 aor. aTreXtTroi' ; [fr. Horn, down] ; 1. to 
leave, leave behind: one in some place, Tit. i. 5 L T Tr 
WH ; 2 Tim. iv. 13, 20. Pass. dnoXelnfTai it remains, is 
reserved : Heb. iv. 9 ; x. 26 ; foil, by ace. and inf., Heb. 
iv. 6. 2. to desert, forsake : a place, Jude 6.* 

diro-XeCx" • [impf. dTTi\eixov] ; to lick off, lirk up : Lk. 
xvi. 21 RG; cf. emXeixa. ([Apollon. Rhod. 4, 478]; 
Athen. vi. c. 13 p. 250 a.) * 

dTT-oXXxim and aTroXXvo) ([ciTroXXvet Jn. xii. 25 T TrWH], 
impv. dnoXXve Ro. xiv. 15, [cf. B. 45 (39) ; WH. App. p. 
168 sq.]) ; fut. dnoXeaco and (1 Co. i. 19 dnoXio fr. a pass, 
in the O. T., where often) ottoXw (cf. W. 83 (80) ; [B. 
64 (56)]) ; 1 aor. aTrtaXeo-a ; to destroy; 3Iid., pres. arroX- 
\vpai ; [impf. 3 ])ers. plur. dnoiXkvvTo 1 Co. x. 9 T Tr 
WH] ; fut. dnoXovpai ; 2 aor. dnociXoprjv; (2 pf. act. ptcp. 
a'TToXcoXcos) ; [fr. Hom. down] ; to perish. 1. to destroy 
i. e. to put out of the way entirely, abolish, put an end to, 
ruin : Mk. i. 24 ; Lk. iv. 34; xvii. 27, 29; Jude 5; Tfjv 
(Totplav render useless, cause its emptiness to be perceived, 
1 Co. i. 19 (fr. Sept. of Is. xxix. 14) ; to kill: Mt. ii. 13; 
xii. 14; Mk. ix. 22; xi. 18; Jn. x. 10, etc.; conte.xtually, 
to declare that one must be put to death: Mt. xxvii. 20; 
metaph. to devote or give over to eternal misery : Mt. x. 
28; Jas. iv. 12; contextually, by one's conduct to cause 
another to lose eternal salvation: Ro. xiv. 15. Mid. to 
perish, to be lost, ruined, destroyed ; a. of jiersons ; a. 
properly : Mt. viii. 25 ; Lk. xiii. 3, 5, 33 ; Jn. xi. 50 ; 2 
Pet. iii. 6; Jude 11, etc.; diroWvpai Xipa, Lk. xv. 17; ev 
paxaipq, Mt. xxvi. 52 ; Kara^aWopevoi, dXX' ovk dnoWi- 
pevoi, 2 Co. iv. 9. p. tropically, to incur the loss of true 
or eternal life ; to be delivered up to eternal misery : Jn. 
iii. 15 [R L br.], 16 ; x. 28 ; xvii. 12, (it must be borne in 
mind, that ace. to John's conception eternal life begins 
on earth, just as soon as one becomes united to Christ by 
faith); Ro. ii. 12; 1 Co. viii. 11; xv. 18; 2 Pet. iii. 9. 
Hence o\ acd^opevoi they to whom it belongs to partake of 
salvation, and ol dnoXXvpevoi. those to whom it belongs to 
perish or to be consigned to eternal misery, are con- 
trasted by Paul : 1 Co. i. 18 ; 2 Co. ii. 15 ; iv. 3 ; 2 Th. ii. 
10, (on these pres. ptcps. cf. W. 342 (321); B. 206 
(178)). b. of things; to be blotted out, to vanish aioay: 
fj fvirpeTTfia, Jas. i. 11 ; the heavens, Heb. i. 11 (fr. Ps. ci. 
(cii.) 27) ; to perish, — of things which on being thrown 
away are decomposed, as ptXos roO awparos, Mt. v. 29 
sq. ; remnants of bread, Jn. vi. 12; — or which perish in 
some other way, as ^pSxris, Jn. vi. 27 ; xpvarlov, 1 Pet. i. 7 ; 
— or which are ruined so that they can no longer subserve 
the use for which they were designed, as ol da-Koi : Mt. 



^AttoWikov 



65 



airoXvco 



Lx. 1 7 ; Mk. ii. 22 ; Lk. v. 37. 2. to destroy i. e. to lose ; 

a. prop. : Mt. x. 42 ; Mk. ix. 41 (t6j/ fiiadov avrov) ; Lk. 
XV. 4, 8, 9 ; ix. 25 ; xvii. 33 ; Jn. xii. 20 ; 2 Jn. 8, etc. 

b. metaph. Christ is said^o lose any one of liis followers 
(whom the Father has drawn to discipleship) if such a 
one becomes wicked and faUs of salvation : Jn. vi. 39, cf. 
xviii. 9. Mid. to he lost : 6p\^ sk ttjs K€(f)aXfjs, Lk. xxi. 
18 ; ^. OTTO rfjs K€(paXiis, Acts xxvii. 34 (Kec. Trecreirat) ; 
TO. XanTrpa aTrcoXcro airo aov, Rev. xviii. 14 (Rec. dTtfjXBf). 
Used of sheep, straying from the flock : prop. Lk. xv. 4 
(to dnoXwXos, in Mt. xviii. 12 ro nXavatfjievov). Metaph. 
in accordance with the O. T. comparison of the people 
of Israel to a flock (Jer. xxvii. (1.) 6 ; Ezek. xxxiv. 4, 
16), the Jews, neglected by their rehgious teachers, left 
to themselves and thereby in danger of losing eternal sal- 
vation, wandering about as it were without guidance, are 
called TO. irpo^ara ra diroXcoXoTa tov oikov 'laparjX : Mt. x. 
6 ; XV. 24, (Is. liii. 6 ; 1 Pet. ii. 25) ; and Christ, reclaim- 
ing them from wickedness, is likened to a shepherd and 
is said ^rjrflv kol (Toi^fLv to qttoXwXos : Lk. xix. 10; Mt. 
xviii. 1 1 Rec. [Comp. : avv-aivoXXvpi..'] 

'AiroXXviwv, -ovTos, 6, (ptcp. fr. aTroXXuca), ApoUyon (a 
prop, name, formed by the author of the Apocalypse), 
i. e. Destroyer: Rev. ix. 11; cf. 'A/SaSScoi/, [and B. D. 

s. V.].* 

'AiroXXwvCa, -as, 17, Apollonia, a maritime city of Mace- 
donia, about a day's journey [ace. to the Antonine Itiner- 
ary 32 Roman miles] from Amphipolis, through which 
Paul passed on his way to Thessalonica [36 miles fur- 
ther] : Acts xvii. 1. [See B. D. s. v.] * 

'AiroXXws [ace. to some, contr. fr. 'ATroXXcoi'tos, W. 102 
(97) ; ace. to others, the is lengthened, cf. Fick, Griech. 
Personennamen, p. xxi.], gen. -a (cf. B. 20 (18) sq. ; [W. 
62 (61)]), accus. -co (Acts xix. 1) and -toi/ (1 Co. iv. 6 T 
Tr WH ; Tit. iii. 13 T WH ; cf. {WH. App. p. 157] ; 
Kiihner i. p. 315), 6, Apollos, an Alexandrian Jew who 
became a Christian and a teacher of Christianity, 
attached to the apostle Paul : Acts xviii. 24 ; xix. 1 ; 1 
Co. i. 12; iii. 4 sqq. 22; iv. 6; xvi. 12; Tit. iii. 13.* 

dTro\o7€'o|iai, -ovpat; impf. dn iXoy ovpr]v (Acts xxvi. 1); 
1 aor. diveXoyr)(TdpT]v\ 1 aor. pass. inf. diToXoyT]6rivat., in a 
reflex, sense (Lk. xxi. 14) ; a depon. mid. verb (fr. Xoyos), 
prop, to speak so as to absolve (dno) one's self, talk one's 
self ofoi a charge etc. ; 1, to defend one's self make 
one's defence : absol., Lk.xxi. 14 ; Acts xxvi. 1 ; foil, by 
on, Acts XXV. 8 ; W, to bring forward something in de- 
fence of one's self, Lk. xii. 11 ; Acts xxvi. 24, (often so 
in Grk. writ, also) ; rot TTfpt ipavTov an. either I bring for- 
ward what contributes to my defence [?], or I plead my own 
cause [R. V. make my defence'}, Actsxxiv. 10 ; Trtpi with 
gen. of the thing and firl with gen. of pers., concerning a 
thing before one's tribunal. Acts xxvi. 2 ; with dat. of 
the person whom by my defence I strive to convince that 
I am innocent or upright, to defend or Justify myself in 
one's etjes [A. V. unto}, Acts xix. 33 ; 2 Co. xii. 19, (Plat. 
Prot. p. 359 a. ; often in Lcian., Plut. ; [cf. B. 1 72 (149)]). 
2. to defend a person or a thing (so not infreq. in 
prof, auth.): Ro. ii. 15 (where ace. to the context the 



deeds of men must be understood as defended) ; to. irepi 
(fxov, Acts xxvi. 2 (but see under 1).* 

diroXo-yCa,-as, t], (see aTtoXoyeopxii), verbal defence, speech 
in defence : Acts xxv. 16; 2 Co. vii. 11 ; Phil. i. 7, 17 
( 1 6) ; 2 Tim. iv. 1 6 ; with a dat. of the pers. who is to hear 
the defence, to whom one labors to excuse or to make 
good his cause : 1 Co. ix. 3 ; 1 Pet. iii. 15 ; in the same 
sense t) dtroX. 17 irpos Tiva, Acts xxii. 1, (Xen. mem. 4, 8, 5).* 

diro-Xovw : to wash off or away ; in the N. T. twice in 
1 aor. mid. figuratively [cf. Philo de mut. nom. § 6, i. p. 
585 ed. Mang.] : dTrfXova-aade, 1 Co. vi. 11 ; ^dnTiaai koi 
diroXova-ai rcis dpaprias aov, Acts xxii. 16. For the sin- 
ner is unclean, polluted as it were by the filth of his sins. 
Whoever obtains remission of sins has his sins put, so to 
speak, out of God's sight, — is cleansed from them in 
the sight of God. Remission is [represented as] ob- 
tained by undergoing baptism ; hence those who have 
gone down into the baptismal bath [^lavacrum, cf. Tit. 
iii. 5 ; Eph. v. 26] are said dTroXovaaadai to have washed 
themselves, or ras apapT. diroXoixTacrdai. to have washed 
away their sins, i. e. to have been cleansed from their 



sms.' 



dwro-XvTpaxris, -ems, f], (fr. aTToXtirpoo) signifying a. to 
redeem one by paying the price, cf. XvTpov : Plut. Pomp. 
24 ; Sept. Ex. xxi. 8 ; Zeph. iii. 1 ; b. to let one go 
free on receiving the price : Plat. legg. 11 p. 9 1 9 a. ; 
Polyb. 22, 21, 8; [cf.] Diod. 13, 24), areleasing effected 
by payment of ransom ; redemption, deliverance, liberation 
procured by the payment of a ransom; 1. prop. : TroXfcoi/ 
alxpaXu)T(t}v, Plut. Pomp. 24 (the only pass, in prof. writ, 
where the word has as yet been noted ; [add, Joseph, 
antt. 12, 2, 3 ; Diod. frag. 1. xxxvii. 5, 3 p. 149, 6 Dind.; 
Philo, quod omn. prob. lib. § 17]). 2. everywhere in 
the N. T. metaph., viz. deliverance effected through the 
death of Christ from the retributive wrath of a holy God 
and the merited penalty of sin : Ro. iii. 24 ; Eph. i. 7 ; 
Col. i. 14, (cf. e'^ayopa^m, dyopd^a, XvTpoa, etc. [and 
Trench § Ixxvii.]) ; dnoXiirp. twv 7rapa/3ao-ecoi/ deliverance 
from the penalty of transgressions, effected through 
their expiation, Heb. ix. 15, (cf. Delitzsch ad loc. and 
Fritzsche on Rom. vol. ii. p. 178) ; fjpepa aTrnXvTpwaeois, 
the last day, when consummate liberation is experienced 
from the sin still lingering even in the regenerate, and 
from all the ills and troubles of this life, Eph. iv. 30 ; in 
the same sense the word is apparently to be taken in 1 
Co. i. 30 (where Christ himself is said to be redemption, 
i. e. the author of redemption, the one without whom we 
could have none), and is to be taken in the phrase dno- 
Xvrp. T^s nfpmoi^a-fws, Eph. i. 14, the redemption which 
will come to his possession, or to the men who are God's 
own through Christ, (cf. Meyer ad loc.) ; toC aaparos, 
deliverance of the body from frailty and mortality, Ro. 
viii. 23 [W. 187 (176)]; deliverance from the hatred 
and persecutions of enemies by the return of Christ 
from heaven, Lk. xxi. 28, cf. xviii. 7 sq. ; deliverance or 
release from torture, Heb. xi. 35.* 

diro-Xv(i> ; [impf. aTreXvov] ; fut. dnoXiKToi ; 1 aor. an-e- 
Xv(ra; Pass., pf. dnoXtXvpxn; 1 aor. djifXCdrii/; [fut. dn-o- 



airofiaacrco 



6*6 



airoppnrru} 



\vbTf(TOfiai.'\ ; impf. mid. anf\v6iir)v (Acts xxviii. 25) ; used 
in the N. T. only in the historical books and in lleb. 
xiii. 23; to loose from, sever by loosening, undo, [see otto, 
v.] ; 1. to set free : rivd tivos (so in Grk. Avrit. even 
fr. Horn, down), to liberate one from a thinji; (as from a 
bond), Lk. xiii. 12 {diroXfXvaai [thou hast been loosed 
i. e.] be thou free from [cf . W. § 40, 4] rijs daBeveias [L T 
dno T. dad.^). 2. to let go, dlsrniss, (to detain no longer) ; 
Ttvd, a. a suppliant to whom liberty to depart is given 
by a decisive answer : Mt. xv. 23 ; Lk. ii. 29 (* me whom 
thou hadst determined to keep on earth until I had seen 
the salvation prepared for Israel, cf. vs. 26, thou art now 
dismissing with my wish accomplished, and this dismis- 
sion is at the same time dismission also from life ' — in ref- 
erence to which dnoXiifiv is used in Num. xx. 29 ; Tob. 
Ui. 6 ; [cf. Gen. xv. 2 ; 2 Mace. vii. 9 ; Plut. consol. ad 
ApoU. § 13 cf. 11 fin.]) ; [Acts xxiii. 22]. b. to bid de- 
part, send aioay : Mt. xiv. 15, 22 sq. ; xv. 32, 39 ; Mk. vi. 
36,45; viii. 3, 9 ; Lk. viii. 38; ix. 12 ; xiv. 4 ; Acts xiii. 3 ; 
xix. 41 (rriv eKKXrjaiav) ; pass. Acts xv. 30, 33. 3. to 

let go free, to release ; a. a captive, i. e. to loose his bonds 
and bid him depart, to give him liberty to depart : Lk. 
xxii. 68 [R G L Tr in br.] ; xxiii. 22 ; Jn. xix. 10 ; Acts 
xvi. 35 sq. ; xxvi. 32 {dTvokeXvadai fBCvaro [might have 
beensetat liberty, cf.B. 217 (187), § 139, 27 c.; AV. 305 
(286) i. e.] migJd be free ; pf. as in Lk. xiii. 1 2 [see 1 above, 
and W. 334 (313)]) ; Acts xxviii. 18 ; Heb.xiii. 23 ; dnoX. 
Tivd Tivi to release one to one, grant him his liberty : Mt. 
xxvii. 15, 17, 21, 26 ; Mk. xv. 6, 9, 11, 15 ; Lk. xxiii. [16], 
1 7 [R L in br.], 18, 20, 25 ; [Jn. xviii. 39]. b. to acquit 
one accused of a crime and set him at liberty : Jn. xix. 
12 ; Acts iii. 13. c. indulgently to grant a prisoner leave 
to depart : Acts iv. 21, 23 ; v. 40; xvii. 9. d. to release a 
debtor, i. e. not to press one's claim against him, to remit 
his debt: Mt. xviii. 27 ; metaph. to pardon another his 
offences against me : Lk. vi. 37, (r^j dfiaprias dnoXvecrBai, 
2 Mace. xii. 45). 4. used of divorce, as diroXvoirriv 
yvvaiKa to dismiss from the house, to repudiate : Mt. i. 
19; v. 31 sq. ; xix. 3, 7-9; Mk. x. 2, 4, 11 ; Lk. xvi. 18; 
[1 Esdr. ix. 36] ; and improperly a wife deserting her 
husband is said rbv avhpa dnoXveiu in Mk. x. 1 2 [cf . Diod. 
12, 18] (unless, as is more probable, Mark, contrary to 
historic accuracy [yet cf. Joseph, antt. 15, 7, 10], makes 
Jesus speak in accordance with Greek and Roman usage, 
ace. to which wives also repudiated their husbands [reff. 
in Mey. ad 1.]) ; (cf. X^h'd, Jer. iii. 8 ; Deut. xxi. 14 ; xxii. 
19, 29). 5. Mid. dnoXvofiai, prop, to send one's self 
away ; to depart [W. 253 (238)] : Acts xxviii. 25 (re- 
turned home; Ex. xxxiii. 11).* 

diro-jiao-o-w : (/ido-fro) to touch with the hands, handle, 
work with the hands, knead), to wipe off; Mid. dnonda-- 
<ro/iac to wipe one's self off, to wipe off for one's self: t6v 
Kovioprov vfiiv, Lk. x. 11. (In Grk, writ. fr. Arstph. 
down.) * 

diro-v£(iw ■) (vefict) to dispense a portion, to distribute), to 
assign, portion out, (dno as in aTroStSoj/Lii [q. v., cf. a7ro,V.]) : 
Tivi Ti viz. Tinfjv, showing honor, 1 Pet. iii. 7, (so Ildian. 
1, 8, 1 ; rrjv riuf)v koX ttjv flxapiariav, Joseph, antt. 1, 7, 



1 ; Tw (TTKTKonu) ndaai/ ivrpoTT-qv, Ignat. ad Magnes. 3 ; 
first found in [Simon. 9 7 in Anthol. Pal. 7, 253, 2 (vol. i. 
p. 64 ed. Jacobs)] ; Pind. Isthm. 2, 68 ; often in Plat., 
Aristot., Plut., al.).* 

diro-viTTTw : to wash off; 1 aor. mid. dnevi'^dfiTju ; in 
mid. tu irash one's self off, to tvash off for one's self: raj 
X^ipas, Mt. xxvii, 24, cf. Deut. xxi. 6 sq. (The earlier 
Greeks say dnovi^o} — but with f ut. dTroviyj^a, 1 aor. dwe- 
vf^a ; the later, as Theophr. char. 25 [30 (1 7)] ; Plut. 
Plioc. 18; Athen. iv. c. 31 p. 149 c, dTroviTrTa, although 
this is found [but in the mid.] even in Hom. Od. 18, 
179.)* 

d-iro-TriiTTw : 2 aor. dTrerrea-ov ; [(cf. ttitttu)) ; fr. Ilom. 
down] ; to fall off] slip down from : Acts ix. 18 [W. § 52, 
4,1a.].* 

diro^irXavdw, -co ; 1 aor. pass. dTTenXcwfjdrjv ; to cause to 
go astray, trop. to lead away from the truth to error : nvd, 
Mk. xiii. 22 ; pass, to go astray, stray away from : drro ttjs 
TTia-Teuis, 1 Tim. vi. 10. ([Hippocr.] ; Plat. Ax. p. 369 d, ; 
Polyb. 3, 57, 4; Dion. Ilal., Plut., al.) * 

diro-ir\€« ; 1 aor. direTrXeva-a ; [fr. Hom. down] ; to sail 
away, depart by ship, set sail : Acts xiii. 4 ; xiv, 26 ; xx. 
15 ; xxvii. 1.* 

diro-irXvvw : [1 aor. dwiTrXwa (?)] ; to wash off: Lk. v. 2 
(where L Tr WII txt. i'TrXwov, T WH mrg. -av, for R G 
dirinXwav [possibly an impf. form, cf. B. 40 (35); 
Soph. Glossary, etc. p. 90]). (Hom. Od. 6, 95 ; Plat., 
Plut., and subseq. writ. ; Sept. 2 S, xix. 24, [cf. Jer. ii. 22 , 
iv. 14 ; Ezek. xvi. 9 var.].) * 

dTTO-irvCYw : 1 aor. dnenvi^a ; 2 aor. pass. dnfTrvLyrjv ; 
(dno as in dnoKTflvo) q. v. [cf. to choke off^) ; to choice : 
Mt. xiii. 7 (T WH mrg. (nvi^av) ; Lk. viii. 7 (of seed over- 
laid by thorns and killed by them) ; to suffocate with 
water, to drown, Lk. viii. 33 (as in Dem. 32, 6 [i. e. p. 
883, 28 etc.; schol. ad Eur. Or. 812]).* 

diropEu, -dj : impf. 3 pers. sing. ^Trdpei (^Ik. vi. 20 T WH 
Tr mrg.) ; [pres. mid. dnopovpai] ; to be anopos (fr. a priv. 
and TTopos a transit, ford, way, revenue, resource), i. e. 
to be without resources, to be in straits, to be left toanting, 
to he embarrassed, to be in doubt, not to know ivJiich way 
to turn ; [impf. in Mk. vi. 20 (see above) noXXli rjnopei he 
was in perplexity about many things or much perplexed 
(cf. Thuc. 5, 40,3 ; Xen. Hell. 6, 1, 4 ; Hdt. 3, 4 ; 4, 1 79 ; 
Aristot. meteorolog. 1, 1) ; elsewhere] INIid. to he at a loss 
with one's self, be in doubt ; not to Inow how to decide or 
tvhat to do, to be perplexed : absol. 2 Co. iv. 8 ; nepi tivos, 
Lk. xxiv. 4 L T Tr WH ; nepl tivos tis Xe'yd, Jn. xiii. 22 ; 
dnopovpai iv vplv I am perplexed about you, I know not 
how to deal with you, in what style to address you. Gal. 
iv. 20 ; dnopovpievos eya els [T Tr WII om. etf] rfjv nepl 
TovTov [-TCOV L T Tr WH] Cr]Tri(nv I being perplexed how 
to decide in reference to the inquiry concerning him [or 
these things'], Acts xxv. 20. (Often in prof. auth. fr. Hdt. 
down ; often also in Sept.) [Comp. : 8i-, f^anopfw.'] * 

diropia, -as, fj, (dnoptu), q. v.), the slate of one who is 
anopos, perplexity : Lk. xxi. 25. (Often in Grk. writ. fr. 
[Pind. and] Hdt. down : Sept.) * 

diro-ppCiTTc* : 1 aor. dntppL^a [T WII write wirh onep; 



a7rop<f)avl^(o 



67 



aTroo-reXXft) 



see P, p] ; [f r. Horn, down] ; to throw away, cast down ; re- 
flexively, to cast one's self down : Acts xxvii. 43 [R.V. cast 
themselves ovcrboarrQ. (So in Lcian. ver. hist. 1, oO var. ; 
[Chariton 3, b, see D'Orville ad loc.].; cf. W. 251 (23G) ; 
[B. 145 (127)].)* 

dir-op<j)avi5« : [1 ^or. pass. ptcp. d7rop(})avi(xdeis'\; (fr. 
6p(f>av6s bereft, and aTro sc. rivos), to bereave of a parent or 
parents, (so Aeschyl. choeph. 247 (24!J)) ; hence metaph. 
d'iTopcf)avi(TdiVT(s d(p' vfiav bereft of your intercourse and 
society, 1 Th. ii. 1 7 [here Rec''!^ (by mistake) dno(f)avt- 

diro-o-Keva^w : 1 aor. mid. dne a KevacrdfjLrjv; (er/Cfva^o) to 
prepare, provide, fr. a-Kfvos a utensil), to carry ojf goods 
and chattels ; to pack up and carry off; mid. to carry off 
one's personal property or provide for its carrying away, 
(Polyb. 4, 81, 11 ; Diod. 13, 91 ; Dion. Hal. 9, 23, etc.) : 
dTTocTKevaadyLfvoL having collected and removed our bag- 
gage. Acts xxi. 15 ; but L T Tr WII read enia-Kevaa-dne- 
poi (q. V.).* 

an-o-o-Kia(r|xa, -roi, to, ((TKid^co, fr. aKLa), a shade cast hy 
one object upon another, a shadow : Tponrjs diroaKinapa 
shadow caused by revolution, Jas. i. 1 7. Cf. hiravyaa-pa* 

diro-<rTrdw, -o) ; 1 aor. dnea-naa-a ; 1 aor. pass. dTreaTrdadrjv ; 
to draw off, tear away : r. pdxaipav to draw one's sword, Mt. 
xxvi. 51 (eKo-Trdv r. pax- (or pop(f)aiav), 1 S. xvii. 51 [Alex, 
etc.] ; a-rrdv, 1 Chr. xi. 11 ; Mk. xiv. 47) ; dTroaTrdv tovs 
p.a6r]Tas oTria-co iavrav to draw away the disciples to their 
own party, Acts xx. 30, (very similarly, Ael. v. h. 13, 32). 
Pass, reflexively : dnoanaa-divTes dir avroiv having torn 
ourselves from the embrace of our friends, Acts xxi. 1 ; 
dTrea-Trda-6rj dn avrmv he parted, tore himself, from them 
about a stone's cast, Lk. xxii. 41 ; cf . Meyer ad loc. (In 
prof. auth. fr. [Find, and] Hdt. down.) * 

aTTocTTao-ia, -as, rj, {d(f)i(TTapai,), a falling away, defection, 
apostasy ; in the Bible sc. from the true religion : Acts 
xxi. 21 ; 2 Th. ii. 3 ; ([Josh. xxii. 22 ; 2 Chr. xxLx. 19 ; 
xxxiii. 19] ; Jer. ii. 19 ; xxxvi. (xxix.) 32 Compl. ; 1 Mace, 
ii. 15). The earlier Greeks say aTrocrrao-is ; see Lob. ad 
Phryn. p. 528 ; [W. 24].* 

diroerTdo-iov, -ov, to, very seldom in native Grk. writ., 
defection, of a freedman from his patron, Dem. 35, 48 
[940, 16] ; in the Bible 1. divorce, rejjudiation: Mt. 
xix. 7 ; Mk. x. 4 {^i^X'iov dnoa-Taaiov, equiv. to IDp 
r\jT13 book or bill of divorce, Deut. xxiv. 1, 3 ; [Is. 1. 1 ; 
Jer. iii. 8]). 2. a bill of divorce: Mt. v. 31. Grotius 
ad loc. and Lightfoot, Horae Hebr. ad loc, give a copy 
of one.* 

diro-(rT€7d5w : 1 aor. dTreo-rcyatra ; (o-Teydfo), fr. ore'-yr;) ; 
to uncover, take off the roof: Mk. ii. 4 (Jesus, with his 
hearers, was in the vTrepmov q. v., and it was the roof of 
this which those who were brinfjins; the sick man to Jesus 
are said to have ' dug out ' ; [cf. B. D. s. v. House, p. 
1104]). (Strabo 4, 4, 6, p. 303 ; 8, 3, 30, p. 542.) * 

diro-o-Te'\\(o ; fut. aTTOOTeXaJ ; 1 aor. dnfaTeiXa; pf. dne- 
araXna, [3 pers. plur. dTvicTTokKav Acts xvi. 36 L T Tr WH 
(see ytVo/iot init.) ; Pass., pres. divoa-TeWopai] ; pf. dneaToK- 
fuu ', 2 aor. dneoTaXrjv ; [f r. Soph, down] ; prop, to send 
off, send away ; 1. to order (one) to go to a place ap- 



pointed; a. either persons sent with commissions, 
or thi n g s intended for some one. So, very frequently, 
Jesus teaches that God sent him, as Mt. x. 40; I\Ik. ix. 
37 ; Lk. x. 16 ; Jn. v. 36, etc. he, too, is said to have sent 
his apostles, i. e. to have appointed them : Mk. vi. 7 ; Mt. 
X. 16 ; Lk. xxii. 35 ; Jn. xx. 21, etc. messengers are sent : 
Lk. vii. 3 ; ix. 52 ; x. 1 ; servants, Mk. vi. 27 ; xii. 2 ; Mt. 
xxi. 36 ; xxii. 3 ; an embassy, Lk. xiv. 32; xix. 14; an- 
gels, Mk. xiii. 27; Mt. xxiv. 31, etc. Things are said 
to be sent, which are ordered to be led away or con- 
veyed to any one, as Mt. xxi. 3 ; Mk. xi. 3 ; to dptnavov 
i. e. reapers, Mk. iv. 29 [al. take aTroo-reXXco here of 
the " putting forth " of the sickle, i. e. of the act of reap- 
ing ; cf. Joel (iii. 18) iv. 13 ; Rev. xiv. 15 (s.v.TTfpTT(o,h.)^; 
TOP Xoyou, Acts X. 36 ; xiii. 26 (L T Tr WII e^anea-TdXij) ; 
TrjV inayyiXiav (equiv. to rb eirrjyytXpevov, i. e. the prom- 
ised Holy Spirit) e^' vpds, Lk. xxiv. 49 [T Tr WII e'^a- 
TTOCTreXXo)] ; t\ 8ia x^i-pos tivos, after the Hebr. T3, Acts 
xi. 30. b. The P 1 a c e of the sending is specified : aTTooT. 
e'is Tiva tottov, jMt. xx. 2 ; Lk. i. 26 ; Acts vii. 34 ; x. 8 ; 
xix. 22 ; 2 Tim. iv. 12 ; Rev. v. 6, etc. God sent Jesus eis 
Tov Koapov: Jn. iii. 17; x. 36; xvii. 18; 1 Jn. iv. 9. ety 
\_unto i.e.] among : Mt. xv. 24 ; Lk. xi. 49 ; Acts [xxii. 21 
WII mrg.] ; xxvi. 1 7 ; [«V (by a pregnant or a Lat. con- 
struction) cf. AV. ^ 50, 4 ; B. 329 (283) : Mt. x. 16 ; Lk. 
X. 3 ; yet see 1 a. above] ; onia-oi tivos, Lk. xix. 14 ; fp.iTpo- 
a6iv TIVOS, Jn. iii. 28 ; and npb npoaaTrov tivos, after 
the Ilebr. "'JijS, before (to precede) one: Mt. xi. 10; 
Mk. i. 2 ; Lk. vii. 27 ; x. 1. Trpos Tiva, to one : Mt. xxi. 
34, 37; Mk. xii. 2 sq. ; Lk. vii. 3, 20; Jn. v. 33; Acts 
viii. 14; 2 Co. xii. 17, etc. Whence, or by or from 
whom, one is sent: vno tov 6eov, Lk. i. 26 (T Tr 
WII drro) ; napa 6eov, Jn. i. 6 (Sir. xv. 9) ; dno with gen. 
of pers., from the house of any one : Acts x. 17 [T WH 
Tr mrg. vtto], 21 Rec. ; ex with gen. of place : Jn. i. 19. 

c. The Object of the mission is indicated by an infin. 
following: IMk. iii. 14 ; Mt. xxii. 3 ; Lk. i. 19 ; iv. 18 (Is. 
Ixi. 1, [on the pf. cf. W. 272 (255) ; B. 197 (171)]) ; Lk. 
ix. 2 ; Jn. iv. 38 ; 1 Co. i. 1 7 ; Rev. xxii. 6. [foil, by els for. 
fls BiaKoviav, Heb. i. 14. foil, by tva : Mk. xii. 2, 13 ; Lk. 
XX. 10, 20 ; Jn. i. 19 ; iii. 17 ; vii. 32 ; 1 Jn. iv. 9. [foil, by 
oTTcos : Acts ix. 1 7.] foil, by an ace. with inf. : Acts v. 21. 
foil, by Tiva with a pred. ace. : Acts iii. 26 (evXoyovvra 
vpds to confer God's blessing on you [cf. B. 203 (176) 
sqq.]) ; Acts vii. 35 (apxovTa, to be a ruler) ; 1 Jn. iv. 10. 

d. oTrooreXXeti' by itself, without an ace. [cf. W. 594 
(552); B. 146 (128)]: as dmaTiXXeiv irpos Tiva, Jn.V 
33 ; with the addition of the ptcp. Xeya^v, Xeyovaa, X# 
yovres, to say through a messenger : Mt. xxvii. 19 ; Mk. iiL 
31 [here (jxavoivTes avTov R G, KoXovvTes air. L x Tr 
WH] ; Jn. xi. 3 ; Acts xiii. 15 ; [xxi. 25 Trepi Tav Tren-iarev- 
KoTwv edvav fjpels direareiXapfv (L Tr txt. W II txt.) Kpi- 
vavres etc. we sent word, giving judgment, etc.]. Wlieil 
one accomplished anything through a messenger, it is ex- 
pressed thus : diTO(TT('i.Xas or 776V^/'as• he did so and so; as, 
diTOdTeiXas dveiXe, Mt. ii. 16; Mk. vi. 17; Acts vii. 14; 
Rev. i. 1 ; (so also the Greeks, as Xen. Cyr. 3, 1, 6 Trep-^as 
fjpara, Plut. de liber, educ. c. 14 Trepyjras dved^e tov Geo- 



a7ro(JTep€(o 



68 



a7ro(TVva<y(oyo<i 



KpiTov, and Sept. 2 K. vi. 13 aTroa-relXas \f)f^ofiai avrov). 

2. to send away i. e. to dismiss ; a. to allow one to de- 
part : Tiva iv d(f)(aei, that he may be in a state of liberty, 
Lk. iv. 18 (19), (Is. Iviii. 6). b. to order one to depart, 
send off: Mk. viii. 26 ; riva Kfvov, IVIk. xii. 3. c. to drive 
away : Mk. v. 10. [Comp. : e'^-, (Tvv-anocrTfXXa. Syn. see 
nffinco, fin.] 

diro-o-Tepe'o), -w ; 1 aor. dnearfprjaa ; [Pass., pres. ano- 
OTf povfiai'] ; pf. ptcp. aTrearep-qfievos ; to defraud, rob, de- 
spoil: absol., Mk. X. 19; 1 Co. vi. 8 ; dXXT]\ovs to with- 
hold themselves from one another, of those who mutually 
deny themselves cohabitation, 1 Co. vii. 5. Mid. to allow 
one's self to be defrauded [W. § 38, 3] : 1 Co. vi. 7 ; rivd 
TWOS (as in Grk. writ.), to deprive one of a thing ; pass. 
dnfcrrfprjixivoi r?js dXTjdfias, 1 Tim. vi. 5 [W. 196 (185) ; B. 
158 (138)] ; Tt to defraud of a thing, to withdraw or keep 
back a tliin<!; by fraud : pass. niaBw dTre(TTepT)p.tvos, Jas. 
V. 4 (T Tr WH dipvareprjuevos, see d(f)va-Tfpea> ; [cf. also 
aTTo, II. 2 d. bb. p. 59"]), (Deut. xxiv. 14 [(16) Alex.]; 
Mai. iii. 5).* 

diro-o-roX^, -^j, fj, (aTroo-reXXo)) ; 1. a sending away : 
TtpokfovTos fts 2iKf\iav, Plat. Timol. 1, etc.; of the 
sending off of a Heet, Thuc. 8, 9 ; also of consuls with an 
army, i. e. of an expedition, Polyb. 26, 7, 1. 2. a send- 
ing away i. e. dismission, release : Sept. Eccl. viii. 8. 

3. a thing sent, esp of gifts : 1 K. ix. 16 [Alex.] ; 1 Mace. 
ii. 18 etc. cf. Grimm ad loc. 4. in the N. T. the office 
and dignity of the apostles of Christ, (Vulg. apostolatus), 
apostolate, apostleship : Acts i. 25 ; Ro. i. 5 ; 1 Co. ix. 2 ; 
Gal. ii. 8.» 

dirooToXos, -ov, 6 ; 1. a delegate, messenger, one sent 
forth with orders, (Ildt. 1, 21 ; 5, 38; for n^V^ in 1 K. xiv. 
6 [Alex.] ; rabbin, ri'^ty) : Jn. xiii. 16 (where 6 aTrdor. and 
6 TTfpxj/as avTov are contrasted) ; foil, by a gen., as ra>v eV 
Kkr}<Tia>v, 2 Co. viii. 23 ; Phil. ii. 25 ; aTrdcrr. r^s ofioXoyias 
Tjiiav the apostle whom we confess, of Christ, God's chief 
messenger, who has brought the xXijo-t? inovpdvio<:, as 
compared with Moses, whom the Jews confess, Heb. iii. 
1. 2. Specially applied to the twelve disciples whom 
Christ selected, out of tlie multitude of his adherents, to 
be his constant companions and the heralds to proclaim to 
men the kingdom of God : Mt. x. 1-4 ; Lk. vi. 13 ; Acts i. 
26 ; Rev. xxi. 14, and often, but nowhere in the Grospel 
and Epistles of John; ["the word drtoa-Tokos occurs 79 
times in the N. T., and of these 68 instances are in St. 
Luke and St. Paul." Bp. Lghtft.]. With these apostles 
Paul claimed ecjuality, because through a heavenly inter- 
vention he had been appointed by the ascended Christ 
himself to preach the gospel among the Gentiles, and 
owed his knowledge of the way of salvation not to man's 
instruction but to direct revelation from Christ himself, 
and moreover had evinced his apostolic qualifications by 
many signal proofs : Gal. i. 1, 11 sq. ; ii. 8 ; 1 Co. i. 1 7 ; 
ix. 1 sq. ; xv. 8-1 ; 2 Co. iii. 2 sqq. ; xii. 1 2 ; 1 Tim. ii. 7 ; 
2 Tim. i. 11, cf. Acts xxvi. 12-20. According to Paul, 
apostles surpassed as well the various other orders of 
Christian teachers (cf. btbdcrKakos, fiayyfXtoT^f, Trpo- 
<f)fjTr}s), as also the rest of those on whom the special 



gifts (cf. xapio-fia) of the Holy Spirit had been bestowed, 
by receiving a richer and more copious conferment of 
the Spirit : 1 Co. xii. 28 sq. ; Eph. iv. 11. Certain false 
teachers are rated sharply for arrogating to themselves 
the name and authority of apostles of Christ : 2 Co. xi. 
5, 13; Rev. ii. 2. 3. In a broader sense the name is 
transferred to other eminent Christian teachers ; as 
Barnabas, Acts xiv. 14, and perhaps also Timothy and 
Silvanus, 1 Th. ii. 7 (6), cf. too Ro. xvi. 7 (?). But in 
Lk. xi. 49 ; Eph. iii. 5 ; Rev. xviii. 20, ' apostles ' is to be 
taken in the narrower sense. [On the application of 
the term see esp. Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. pp. 92-101; Har- 
nack on 'Teaching' etc. 11,3; cf BB.DD. s. v.] 

diroo-ToiiaTCtco ; ( (TTOfiaTi^fa — not extant — from a-Topa) ; 
prop, to speak uTro (TTOfiaros, (cf. aTTOcTTrjdi^ai) ; 1. to 
recite from memory : Tliemist. or. 20 p. 238 ed. Hard. ; 
to repeat to a pupil (anything) _/br him to commit to mem- 
ory: Plat. Eutliyd. p. 276 c, 277 a.; used of a Sibyl 
prophesying, Plut. Thes. 24. 2. to ply rclth questions, 
catechize, and so to entice to [off-hand] answers : nvd, Lk. 
xi. 53.* 

dTro-(rTpec|>(o ; fut. aTroaTpeyf/co ; 1 aor. direarpe^a ; 2 aor. 
pass. aTTea-Tpucfirjv ; [pres. mid. dTTO(TTpe(j)op.ai ; f r. Horn, 
down] ; 1. to turn away : riva or tl diro tivos, 2 Tim. iv. 
4 (rrjv dxofjv dno ttjs dXrjdeias) ; to remove anything from 
any one, Ro. xi. 26 (Is. lix. 20) ; dTroaTpecpeiv nvd simply, 
to turn him away from allegiance to any one, tempt to 
defection, [A. V. pervert'\, Lk. xxiii. 14. 2. to turn 
back, return, bring hack: Mt. xxvi. 52 (put back thy 
sword into its sheath) ; Mt. xxvii. 3, of Judas bringing 
back the shekels, where T Tr WH fo-rpeyf/e, [cf. Test. xii. 
Patr. test. Jos. § 1 7]. (In the same sense for 2''li7T\, Gen. 
xiv. 16; xxviii. 15; xliii. 11 (12), 20(21), etc.; Bar. i. 
8 ; ii. 34, etc.) 3. intrans. to turn one's self away, turn 

back, return : otto tcov irovr^piwv, Acts iii. 26, cf. 19, (otto 
dpaprlas, Sir. viii. 5 ; xvii. 21 [26 Tdf.] ; to return from 
a place, Gen. xviii. 33 ; 1 Mace. xi. 54, etc. ; [see Kneucker 
on Bar. i. 13] ; Xen. Hell. 3, 4, 12) ; cf. Meyer on Acts 
1. c. ; [al. (with A. V.) take it actively here : in turning 
away every one of you, etc.]. 4. Mid., with 2 aor. 
pass., to turn one's self away from, with ace. of the obj. 
(cf. [Jelf § 548 obs. l'; Kriig. § 4 7, 23, 1] ; B. 192 (166)) ; 
to reject, refuse : nvd, Mt. v. 42 ; Heb. xii. 25 ; rfjv dXrj- 
6ftav, Tit. i. 14 ; in the sense of deserting, nvd, 2 Tim. i. 15.* 

dTTo-o-Tv-ycw, -w ; to dislike, abhor, have a horror of: Ro. 
xii. 9; (Hdt. 2, 47; 6, 129; Soph., Eur., al.). The 
word is fully discussed by Fritzsclie ad loc. [who takes 
the diTo- as expressive of separation (cf . Lat. r e for- 
midare), al. regard it as intensive; (see d7rd,V.)].* 

dirocrvvdYwyos, -ov, (<rvvaycoyr], q. v.), excluded from the 
sacred assemblies of the Israelites ; excommunicated, [A. V. 
put out of the synagogue']: Jn. ix. 22; xii. 42; xvi. 2. 
Whether it denotes also exclusion fr. all intercourse with 
Israelites (2 Esdr. x. 8), must apparently be left in 
doubt ; cf. Win. [or Riehni] R W B. s. v. Bann ; Wieseler 
on Gal. i. 8, p. 45 sqq. [reproduced by Prof. Riddle in 
Schaff's Lange's Romans pp. 304-306 ; cf. B. D. s. v. 
Excommunication]. (Not found in prof, auth.)* 



airoTaaa-fO 



69 



UTTO'^pTJCrL'i 



diro-rdo-o-to : to set apart, to separate ; in the N. T. only 
in Mid. dnoTaaaofiai ; 1 aor. aTreTa^dnrjv ; 1. prop, to 

separate one's self, withdraw one's selfirom any one, i.e. 
to take leave of, bid farewell to, (Vulg. valefacio [etc.]) : 
Tipi, Mk. vi. 46 ; Lk. ix. 61 ; Acts xviii. 18, 21 [here L T 
Tr om. the dat.] ; 2 Co. ii. 13. (That the early Grk. 
writ, never so used the word, but said danu^firdai nva, is 
shown by Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 23 sq. ; [cf. W. 23 (22) ; 
B. 179 (156)].) 2. trop. to renounce, forsake: riv'i, 
Lk. xiv. 33. (So also Joseph, antt. 11, 6, 8 ; Pliil. alleg. 
iii. § 48 ; rat? tov ^iov (ppovrlai, Euseb. h. e. 2, 1 7, 5 ; [roi 
/3/w, Ignat. ad Pliiladelph. 11, 1 ; cf. Herm. mand. 6, 2, 
9 ; Clem. Rom. 2 Cor. 6, 4 and 5 where see Gebh. and 
Harn. for other exx., also Soph. Lex. s. v.].) * 

daro-rtKiw, -a> ; [1 aor. pass. ptcp. aTroreXeo-^ei's] ; toper- 
feet; to bring quite to an end : Idasis, accomplish, Lk. xiii. 
32 (L T Tr WH for R G eVireXw) ; ij afiaprla dworeXe- 
<T6e7(Ta having come to maturity, Jas. i. 15. (Hdt., Xen., 
Plat., and subseq. writ.) * 

a(7ro-Tt6T]ni : 2 aor. mid. dirfBejii^v ; [fr. Hom. down] ; to 
put off or aside ; in the N. T. only mid. to put off from 
one's self: rd ifidriu, Acts vii. 58 ; [to lay up or awoji. iv ttj 
(f>v\aKjj (i. e. put), Mt. xiv. 3 L T Tr WH (so ds (pvXa- 
KTjv, Lev. xxiv. 12 ; Num. xv. 34 ; 2 Chr. xviii. 26 ; Polyb. 
24, 8, 8 ; Diod. 4, 49, etc.)] ; trop. those tilings are said 
to be put off" or awaij which any one gives up, renounces : 
as TO €pya TOV (tkotovs, Ro. xiii. 12 ; — Eph. iv. 22 [cf. W. 
347 (325) ; B. 274 (236)], 25 ; Col. iii. 8 ; Jas. i. 21 ; 1 Pet. 
ii. 1 ; Heb. xii. 1 ; (rfjv 6pyf]v, Plut. Coriol. 19 ; rov liKov- 
Top, TTjv paXaKiav, etc. Luc. dial. mort. 10, 8 ; t. eXevOfplav 
K. Trapprja-lav, ibid. 9, etc.).* 

arro-Tivao-o-co ; 1 aor. direTiva^a; [1 aor. mid. ptcp. dno- 
Tiva^dp.fvos, Acts xxviii. 5 Tr mrg.] ; to shake off: Lk. ix. 
5; Acts xxviii. 5. (1 S. x. 2 ; Lam. ii. 7; Eur. Bacch. 
253 ; IdTTOTivaxdrj, Galen 6, 821 ed. Kuhn].) * 

diro-Tivw and dno-rico : f ut. dwoTiao) ; (aTro as in dnodi- 
Sci)/it [cf. also dno, V.]), to pay off] repay: Philem. 19. 
(Often in Sept. for dW ; in prof. auth. fr. Hom. down.) * 

diro-ToXiidw, -m ; prop, to be bold of one's self (aTro [q. v. 
V.]), i. e. to assume boldness, make bold : Ro. x. 20 ; cf. 
Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. iv. p. 15. (Occasionally in 
Thuc, Plat., Aeschin., Polyb., Diod., Plut.) * 

diroTOfiCa, -as, rj, (the nature of that which is aTTOTopios, 
cut off, abrupt, precipitous like a cliff, rough ; fr. dno- 
T€pLV(o), prop, sharpness, (differing fr. diroropir] a cutting 
off, a segment) ; severity, roughness, rigor : Ro. xi. 22 
(where opp. to xPW'o'^'V^i ^s in Plut. de lib. educ. c. 18 
to TTpaoTrjs, in Dion. Hal. 8, 61 to to emeiKes, and in Diod. 
p. 591 [excpt. Ixxxiii. (frag. 1. 32, 27, 3 Dind.)] to fjpe- 
porrjs).* 

diroTo^jLus, adv., (cf. dnoTop-ia) ', a. abruptly, precipi- 
tously, b. trop. sharply, severely, [cf. our curtly"] : Tit. i. 
13; 2 Co. xiii. 10. On the adj. dnoTopos cf. Grimm on 
Sap. p. 121 [who in illustration of its use in Sap. v. 20, 
22; vi. 5, 11; xi. 10; xii. 9; xviii. 15, refers to the 
similar metaph. use in Diod. 2, 57; Longin. de subHm. 
27; and the use of the Lat. abscisus in Val. Max. 2, 7, 
14, etc. ; see also Polyb. 1 7, 1 1, 2 ; Polyc. ad Phil. 6, 1].* 



mro^pi-nu) : [fr. Hom. down] ; to turn away; Mid. [pres. 
dnoTpenopai, impv. dnoTpfTrov] to turn one's self away 
from, to shun, avoid : Tivd or ti (see dnoa-TpfCpci) sub fin.), 
2 Tim. iii. 5. (4 Mace. i. 33 ; Aeschyl. Sept. 1060 ; Eur. 
Iph. Aul. 336; [Aristot. plant. 1, 1 p. 815'', 18; Polyb. 

al-]-)* 

dir-ovo-Ca, -as, fj, (dnelvai), absence : Phil. ii. 12. [From 
Aeschyl. down.] * 

diro-cjjepa) : 1 aor. dnr]v(yKa ; 2 aor. inf. dnevtyKelv; Pass., 
[pres. inf. diTo(f)fpecrOaij ; 1 aor. inf. dnevex^iivai ; [fr. 
Hom. down] ; to curry off, take away : Tivd. with the idea 
of violence included, ]\Ik. xv. 1 ; els tottov Tivd, Rev. xvii. 
3; xxi. 10; pass. Lk. xvi. 22. to carry or bring away 
(Lat. defero) : t\ els with ace. of place, 1 Co. xvi. 3 ; t\ 
diro Tivos iiri Tiva, with pass., Acts xix. 12 (L T Tr WH 
for Rec. enKpipea-dai).* 

diro-4>€V7w [ptcp. in 2 Pet. ii. 18 L T Tr WH ; W. 342 
(321)]; 2 aor. diricfivyov; [fr. (Hom.) batrach. 42, 47 
down]; to fee from, escape; with ace, 2 Pet. ii. 18 
(where L T wrongly put a comma after dnocf). [W. 529 
(492)]), 20; with gen., by virtue of the prep. [B. 158 
(138) ; W. § 52, 4, 1 c], 2 Pet. i. 4.* 

dTro-4)9€7'yo|j.ai ; 1 aor. dirfCpSfy^dprjv ; to speak out, 
speak forth, pronounce, not a word of every-day speech, 
but one " belonging to dignified and elevated discourse, 
like the Lat. profari, pronuntiare ; jiroperly it has the 
force of to utter or declare one's self, give one's opinion, 
(einen Ausspruch thun^, and is used not only of prophets 
(see Kypke on Acts ii. 4, — adding from the Sept. Ezek. 
xiii. 9 ; Mic. v. 12 ; 1 Chr. xxv. 1), but also of wise men 
and philosophers (Diog. Laert. 1,63; 73; 79; whose 
pointed sayings the Greeks call drrocpOeypaTa, Cic off. 1, 
29) " ; [see (pdeyyopai]. Accordingly, " it is used of the 
utterances of the Christians, and esp. Peter, on that illus- 
trious day of Pentecost after they had been fired by the 
Holy Spirit, Acts ii. 4, 14; and also of the disclosures 
made by Paul to [before] king Agrippa concerning the 
dTTOKokvylns Kvp'iov that had been given him, Acts xxvi. 
25." Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. iv. p. 16.* 

diro-<|)opTi5on,ai ; ((^oprtfo) to load ; (popTos a load), to 
disburden one's self; ri, to lay down a load, unlade, dis- 
charge : TOV y6p.ov, of a ship. Acts xxi. 3 ; cf. Meyer and 
De Wette ad loc. ; W. 349 (328) sq. (Elsewhere also 
used of sailors lightening ship during a storm in order to 
avoid shipwreck: Philo de praem. et poen. § 5 Kvldep- 
vfjTTjs, xeipdivav eTnyivofifvav, dno(popTi^eTai ; Athen. 2, 5, 
p. 37 c. sq. where it occurs twice.) * 

dir<i-xpti(ris, -fwy, f], {diro^pdopai. to use to the full, to 
abuse), abuse, misuse : Col. ii. 22 a ta-Tiv ndvTa fls <p6opdv 
Tfi diroxpfia-fi " all which (i. e. things forbidden) tend to 
destruction (bring destruction) by abuse " ; Paul says 
this from the standpoint of the false teachers, who in 
any use of those things whatever saw an " abuse," i. e. a 
blameworthy use. In opposition to those who treat the 
clause as parenthetical and understand dTr6xp^(Tis to 
mean consumption by use (a being used up, as in Plut. 
moral, p. 267 f. [quaest. Rom. 18]), so that the words do 
not give the sentiment of the false teachers but Paul's 



UTTO'^WpeQ) 



70 



aTTcoXeia 



judgment of it, very similar to that set forth in Mt. xv. 
17; 1 Co. vi. 13, cf. De Wette ad loc. [But see Meyer, 
Ellicott, Lightfoot.^ * 

diro-xci)p€w, -a) ; 1 aor. aTrexo^pTjaa ; [fr. Thuc. down] ; 
to go aicaij, depart : r-o rivos, ^It. vii. 23 ; Lk. ix. 39 ; 
Acts xiii. 13 ; [absol. L«k. xx. 20 Tr mrg.].* 

diro-x««»p'tw : [1 aor. pass. d7rex.(^pi(Tdr)v^ ; to separate, 
sever, (often in Plato) ; to part asunder: pass. 6 ovpaubs 
tiTrex'^pio-^ij, Rev. vi. 14; reflexively, to separate one's 
self, <leparl from : ano-)(a)pi<T6rjvaL avroi/s dn dXKTjXav, Acts 
XV. 39.* 

oTTo-xJ/vx"; fo breathe out life, expire; to faint or swoon 
awai/: Lk. xxi. 26. (So Thuc. 1, 134; Bion 1, 9, al. ; 
4 Mace. XV. 18.)* 

"Airinos, -ov, 6, Appius, a Roman praenomen ; 'Attttiou 
(f)npov Appii Forum (Cic. ad Att. 2, 10; Hor. sat. 1, 5, 
3), [R. V. The Market of Appiusl, the name of a town 
in Italy, situated 43 Roman miles from Rome on the 
Appian way, — (this road was paved with square [(?) 
polygonal] stone by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus, 
B. c. 312, and led through the 7;o?-/a Capena to Capua, 
and thence as far as Brundisium) : Acts xxviii. 15. [Cf. 

BB.DD.]* 

d-irp6<r-iTos, -ov, (Trpotruvai to go to), unapproachable, in- 
accessible : (pas dirpua-iTov, 1 Tim. vi. IG. (Polyb., Diod., 
[Strabo], Philo, Lcian., Plut. ; (jye'yyos dnpoa-nov, Tatian 
c. 20; Sd|a [(^wj], Chrys. [vi. &ij ed. Montf.] on Is. 
vi. 2.)* 

ojrpoo-Koiros, -ov, (npocrKOTTra), q. v. ) ; 1. actively, 
having nothing for one to strike against; not causing to 
stumble ; a. prop. : obos, a smooth road. Sir. xxxv. 
(xxxii.) 21. b. metaph. not leading others into sin by 
one' s mode of life : 1 Co. x. 32. 2. passively, a. not 
striking against or stumbling; metaph. not led into sin; 
blameless: Phil. i. 10 (joined with eiAtfcpims). b. with- 
out offence : avvfiSrja-is, not troubled and distressed by a 
consciousness of sin. Acts xxiv. 16. (Not found in prof, 
auth. [exc. Sext. Emp. 1, 195 (p. 644, 13 Bekk.)].)* 

dirpoo-wiroXTiTrTws [-Ai^/iTrroj? L T Tr WII ; cf. reff. S. v. 
M, /i], a word of Hellenistic origin, (a priv. and Trpoao)- 
rroXriTTTrjs, q. v.), without respect of persons, i. a. impar- 
tially: 1 Pet. i. 17, (Ep. of Barn. 4, 12; [Clem. Rom. 1 
Cor. 1,3]). (The adj. dTrpoaaiToXrjTTTos occurs here and 
there in eccl. writ.) * 

d-irraKTTos, -ov, (irraioi, q. v.), not stumbling, standing 
firm, exemj>t from falling, (prop., of a horse, Xen. de re 
eq. 1, 6) ; metaph.: Jude 24. [Cf. W. 97 (92); B. 42 
(37).]* 

dTTTw ; 1 aor. ptcp. ayj^as ; (cf. Lat. apto. Germ, heften) ; 
[fr. Horn, down]; 1. prop, to fasten to, make adhere 
to ; hence, spec, to fasten fire to a thing, to kindle, set on 
jire, (often so in Attic) : Xv^vov, Lk. viii. 16 ; xi. 33; xv. 
8, (Arstph. nub. 57; Theophr. char. 20 (18); Joseph, 
antt. 4, 3, 4) ; rcZp, Lk. xxii. 55 [T Tr txt. WH Trepi- 
a\//-ai/ia)i'] ; irvpdv. Acts xxviii. 2 L T Tr WIL 2. Mid., 
[pres. oTTTo/iai] ; impf. r]TVTop.T]v [Mk. vi. 56 RG Tr mrg.] ; 
1 aor. fj\l/dp.r]v ; in Sept. generally for ;'J], |"jn ; prop. 
to fasten one's self to, adhere to, cling to, (Horn. II. 8, 67) ; 



a. to touch, foil, by the obj. in gen. [W. § 30, 8 c.; B. 167 
(146) ; cf. Donaldson p. 4S3] : Mt. viii. 3 ; Mk. iii. 10; 
vii. 33; viii. 22, etc.; Lk. xviii. 15; xxii. 51, — very 
often in Mt., Mk. and Lk. In Jn. xx. 1 7, p.ri fwv anrov is 
to be explained thus : Do not handle me to see whether 
I am still clothed with a body ; there is no need of such 
an examination, ^^fornot yet" etc.; ci. Baumg.- Crusius and 
ISIeyer ad loc. [as given by Hackett in Bib. Sacr. for 
1868, p. 779 sq., or B. D. Am. ed. p. 1813 sq.]. b. yvvai- 
Kos, of carnal intercourse with a woman, or cohabitation, 
1 Co. vii. 1, like the Lat. tangere, Hot. sat. 1, 2, 54 ; Ter. 
Heaut. 4, 4, 15, and the Hebr. ;,'JJ, Gen. xx. 6 ; Prov. vL 
29, (Plat, de legg. viii. 840 a. ; Plut. Alex. Magn. c. 21). 
c. with allusion to the levitical precept aKaddprov p.^ 
anTeade, have no intercourse Avith the Gentiles, no fel- 
lowship in their heathenish practices, 2 Co. vi. 1 7 (fr. 
Is. Iii. 11) ; and in the Jewish sense, pfj d-^rj Col. ii. 21 
(the things not to be touched appear to be both women 
and certain kinds of food, so that celibacy and abstinence 
from various kinds of food and drink are recommended ; 
cf. De Wette ad loc. [but also Meyer and Bp. Lghtft. ; 
on the distinction between the stronger term dirreaOai 
(to handle'?) and the more delicate Siye'iv (to touch'?) cf. 
the two commentators just named and Trench § xvii. In 
classic Grk. also aTTTfadai is the stronger term, denoting 
often to lay hold of, hold fast, appropriate ; in its carnal 
reference differing from diyydveiv by suggesting unlaw- 
fulness, diyydveiv is used of touching by the hand as a 
means of knowledge, handling for a purpose ; y^rjkafpdv 
signifies to feel around with the fingers or hands, esp. in 
searching for something, often to grope, fumble, cf . y\rr)\a- 
(pivbablindman'sbulf. Schmidt ch. 10.]). d. to touch i.e. 
assail: tivos, any one, 1 Jn. v. 18, (1 Chr. xvi. 22, etc.). 
[COMP. : dv, KaO-, Trfpt-aTTTO).] 

'Air<|>ia, -as, 17, Apphia, name of a woman : Philem. 2. 
[Apparently a Phrygian name expressive of endearment, 
cf . Suidae Lex. ed. Gaisf. col. 534 a. 'ATTcf)d: dSeX^^y k. 
dSeX^ov i'TTOKopiapa, etc. cf. 'An(f)vs. See fully in Bp. 
Lghtft.'s Com. on Col. and Philem. p. 306 sqq.] * 

Qir-toOe'o), -a: to thrust away, ])ush away, repel; in the 
N. T. only Mid., pres. dnadtopai {-ovpai) ; 1 aor. divujadpriv 
(for which the better writ, used dnfcoadpriv, cf. W 90 (86) ; 
B. 69 (61)) ; to thrust away from one's self, to drive away 
from one's self, i. e. to repudiate, reject, refuse : rivd. Acts 
vii. 27, 39; xiii. 4G ; Ro. xi. 1 sq. ; 1 Tim. i. 19. (Jer. 
ii. 36 (37) ; iv. 30 ; vi. 19 ; Ps. xciii. (xciv.) 14 and often. 
In (irk. writ. fr. Hom. down.)* 

airdiXiia, -as, f], (fr. drroXXvpi, ({■ v.) ; 1. actively, a 
destroying, utter destruction : as, of vessels, Ro. ix. 22 ; 
Tov pvpov, v-aste, Mk. xiv. 4 (in Mt. xxvi. 8 without a 
gen.), (in Polyb. 6, 59, 5 consumption, opp. to TTjprjcris) ; 
the putting of a man to death, Acts xxv. 16 Rec. ; by 
meton. a destructive thing or opinion: in plur. 2 
Pet. ii. 2 Rec. ; but the correct reading da-eXyflais was 
long ago adopted here. 2. passively, a perishing, ruin, 
destruction ; a. in general : to dpyvpiov aov <rvv aoi eli] ds 
dir. let thy money perish with thee, Acts viii. 20 ; ^v6!.(ft¥ 
Tivd (Is oXfOpov K. dirwXfiav, with the included idea oi 



apa 



71 



dpa(f)o<; 



misery, 1 Tim. vi. 9 ; alpea-eis anaiKf'ias destructive opin- 
ions, 2 Pet. ii. 1 ; endyeiv eavrois dnaiXeiav, ibid. cf. VS. 3. 
b. in particular, the destruction which co7isists in the loss 
of eternal life, eternal misery, perdition, the lot of those 
excluded from the kingdom of God : Rev. xvii. 8, 11, cf. 
xix. 20 ; Phil. iii. 19 ; 2 Pet. iii. 16 ; opp. to f) Trepnruir]<ns 
T^s yln^x^s, Heb. x. 39 ; to 17 ^arj, Mt. vii. 13 ; to crmTrjpia, 
Phil. i. 28. 6 vloi r?}? dnaXelas, a man doomed to eternal 
misery (a Hebraism, see vios, 2) : 2 Th. ii. 3 (of Anti- 
christ) ; Jn. xvii. 12 (of Judas, the traitor) ; rjfjiepaKpiaecos 
K. aTTcoXfias rav dae^av, 2 Pet. iii. 7. (In prof. auth. fr. 
Polyb. u. s. [but see Aristot. probl. 1 7, 3, 2, vol. ii. p. 916% 
26 ; 29, 14, 10 ibid. 952% 26 ; Nicom. eth. 4, 1 ibid. 1120% 
2, etc.] ; often in the Sept. and O. T. Apocr.)* 

apa, an illative particle (akin, as it seems, to the verbal 
root APQ to join, to be fitted, [cf. Curtius § 488 ; VaniCek 
p. 47]), whose use among native Greeks is illustrated 
fully by Kiihner ii. §§ 509, 545; [Jelf §§ 787-789], 
and Klotz ad Devar. ii. pp. 160-180, among others ; [for 
a statement of diverse views see Bdumlein, Griech. Par- 
tikeln, p. 19 sq.]. It intimates that, "under these cir- 
cumstances something either is so or becomes so " (Klotz 
1. c. p. 167) : Lat. igitur, consequently, [differing from 
ovv in ' denoting a subjective impression rather than a 
positive conclusion.' L. and S. (see 5 below)]. In the 
N. T. it is used frequently by Paul, but in the writings 
of John and in the so-called CathoUc Epistles it does 
not occur. On its use in the N. T. cf. W. §§ 53, 8 a. and 
61, 6. It is found 1. subjoined to another word : Ro. 
vii. 21 ; viii. 1 ; Gal. iii. 7 ; eVet lipa since, if it were other- 
wise, 1 Co. vii. 14 ; [v. 10, cf. B. § 149, 5]. When placed 
after pronouns and interrogative particles, it refers to a 
preceding assertion or fact, or even to something exist- 
ing only in the mind . Tt? apa >cho then ? Mt. xviii. 1 (i. e. 
one certainly will be the greater, who then ?) ; Mt. xix. 
25 (i. e. certainly some will be saved ; you say that the 
rich will not ; who then ?) ; Mt. xix. 27 ; xxiv. 45 (I bid 
you be ready ; zoho then etc. ? the question follows from 
this command of mine); Mk. iv. 41 ; Lk. i. 66 (from all 
these things doubtless something follows ; ivhat, then ?) ; 
Lk. viii. 25 ; xii. 42 ; xxii. 23 (it will be one of us, tvhich 
then f) ; Acts xii. 18 (Peter has disappeared ; u'hat, then, 
has become of him ?). ei apa, Mk. xi. 1 3 (whether, since 
the tree had leaves, he might also find some fruit on it) ; 
Acts vii. 1 [Rec] {apa equiv. to ' since the witnesses tes- 
tify thus ' ) ; Acts viii. 22 (if, since thy sin is so grievous, 
perhaps the thought etc.) , e'lnep apa, 1 Co. xv. 15, (XJ-DN, 
ei apa, Gen. xviii. 3). ovk apa, Acts xxi. 38 (thou hast 
a knowledge of Greek ; art thou not then the Egyptian, 
as I suspected?); firjTi apa (Lat. num. igitur), did I then 
etc., 2 Co. i. 1 7. 2. By a use doubtful in Grk. writ, 
(cf. B. 371 (318) ; [W. 558 (519)]) it is placed at the 
beginning of a sentence ; and so, so then, accordingly, 
equiv. to wtrre with a finite verb : Spa p-aprvpelre [/Ltdpru- 
pe's (are T Tr WH], Lk. xi. 48 (Mt. xxiii. 31 ua-re fiap- 
Tvpeire) ; Ro. x. 17; 1 Co. xv. 18 ; 2 Co. v. 14 (15) (in 
LT Tr WH no conditional protasis preceding) ; 2 Co. vii. 
12 ; Gal. iv. 31 (L T Tr WH bi6) ; Heb. iv. 9. 3. in an 



apodosis, after a protasis with el, in order to brino' out 
what follows as a matter of course, (Germ, so ist ja the 
obvious inference is) : Lk. xi. 20; Mt. xii. 28; 2 Co. v. 
14 (15) (R G, a protasis with d preceding); Gal. ii. 
21 ; iii. 29 : v. 11 ; Heb. xii. 8 ; joined to another word, 
1 Co. XV. 14. 4. with ye, rendering it more pointed, 
(ipaye [L Tr uniformly apa ye; so R WH in Acts xvii. 
27 ; cf. W. p. 45; Lips. Gram. Untersuch. p. 123], surely 
then, so then, (Lat. itaque ergo) : Mt. vii. 20 ; xvii. 26 ; 
Acts xi. 18 (L T Tr WH om. yi) ; and subjoined to a 
word. Acts xvii. 27 [W. 299 (281)]. 5. Spa oZv, a 
combination peculiar to Paul, at the beginning of a sen- 
tence (W. 445 (414) ; B. 371 (318), {^^ Spa ad internam 
potius caussam spectat, ovv magis ad externam." Klotz 
ad Devar. ii. p. 717; Spa is the more logical, ovv the 
more formal connective; " apa is illative, ovv continua- 
tive," Win. 1. c. ; cf. also Kuhner § 545, 3]), [R. V.] so 
then, (Lat. hinc igitur) : Ro. v. 18 ; vii. 3, 25 ; viii. 12 ; ix. 
16, 18 ; xiv. 12 (L Tr om. WH br. ovv) ; 1 9 [L mrg. apa} ; 
Gal. vi. 10 ; Eph. ii. 19 ; 1 Th. v. 6 ; 2 Th. ii. 15.* 

dpa, an interrogative particle ["implying anxiety 
or impatience on the part of the questioner." L. and 
S. s. v.], (of the same root as the preceding Spa, and only 
differing from it in that more vocal stress is laid upon 
the first syllable, which is therefore circumflexed) ; 1. 
num igitur, i. e. marking an inferential question to which 
a negative answer is expected : Lk. xviii. 8 ; with ye 
rendering it more pointed, apd ye [G T apdye'] : Acts viii. 
30 ; [^apa ovv . . . dicoKofiev Lchm. ed. min. also maj. mrg. 
are tee then pursuitig etc. Ro. xiv. 19]. 2. ergone i. e. 
a question to which an afiirmative answer is expected, 
in an interrogative apodosis, (Germ, so ist also wohlf), 
he is then ? Gal. ii. 17 (where others [e. g. Lchm.] write 
Spa, so that this example is referred to those mentioned 
under Spa, 3, and is rendered Christ is then a minister oj 
sin ; but pi) yevoiro, which follows, is everywhere by 
Paul opposed to a question). Cf. W. 510 (475) sq. [also 
B. 247 (213), 371 (318); Herm. ad Vig. p. 820 sqq. ; 
Klotz ad Devar. ii. p. 180 sqq.; speaking somewhat 
loosely, it may be said " apa expresses bewilderment as 
to a possible conclusion. . . apa hesitates, while Spa con- 
cludes." Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. 1. c.].* 

dpa, -as, 17, 1. a prayer ; a supplication ; much often- 
er 2. an imprecation, curse, malediction, (cf. Kardpa) ; 
so in Ro. iii. 14 (cf. Ps. ix. 28 (x. 7)), and often in Sept. 
(In both senses in native Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down.) * 

'Apa^ia, -as, f], [fr. Hdt. down], Arabia, a well-known 
peninsula of Asia, lying towards Africa, and bounded by 
Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, the 
GuLf of Arabia, the Persian Guif, the Red Sea [and the 
Ocean] : Gal. i. 1 7 ; iv. 25.* 

[dpaP<iv Tdf., see appalBcuv-} 

[opa-yt, see Spa, 4.] 

[opd-y€, see apa, 1.] 

'Apd|i, Aram [or Rani], indecl. prop, name of one of 
the male ancestors of Christ : Mt. i. 3 sq. ; Lk. iii. 33 
[not T WH Tr mrg. ; see 'ASpetV and "ApveC].* 

apa4>os T Tr for Sppafpos, q. v. 



"Apa-^lr 



72 



^Apera<i 



"Apa.^, -a^0J, 6, an Arabian: Acts ii. 11.* 

dp7«u, -co ; (to be apyos, q. v.) ; to he idle, inactive ; con- 
textually, to linger, delay : 2 Pet. ii. 3 ols rb Kpifia ticnakai 
ovK dpyfl, i. e. whose punishment has long been impend- 
ing and will shortly fall. (In Grk. writ. fr. Soph, down.) 
[CoMP. : KOT-a/jyeo).] * 

dp-yos, -6v, and in later writ. fr. Aristot. hist. anim. 1 0, 
40 [vol. i. p. 627% 15] on and consequently also in the 
N. T. with the fem. dpyrj, which among the early Greeks 
Epimenides alone is said to have used, Tit. i. 12 ; of. Lob. 
ad Phryn. p. 104 sq. ; id. Paralip. p. 455 sqq. ; W. 68 
(67), [cf. 24 ; B. 25 (23)], (eontr. fr. aepyos Avhich Hom. 
uses, fr. a priv. and epyou without work, without labor, 
doing nothing), inactive, idle; a., free from labor, at 
leisure, (dpyov eivm, Ildt. 5, 6) : Mt. xx. 3, 6 [Rec] ; 1 
Tim. V. 13. b. lazy, shunning the labor which one ought 
to perform, (Ilom. II. 9, 320 o, t depyos avr^p, o, re ttoXXo 
fopyoos) : niaris, Jas. ii. 20 (L T Tr WH for R G vfKpd) ; 
yaa-Tfpes dpyai i. e. idle gluttons, fr. Epimenides, Tit. i. 1 2 
(Nicet. ann. 7, 4. 135 d. els dpyds yatrrepar oxfrrjyfjaas) ', 
dpyos Ka\ aKapnos e'is rt, 2 Pet. i. 8. c. of things from 
which no profit is derived, although they can and ought 
to be productive ; as of fields, trees, gold and silver, (cf. 
Grimm on Sap. xiv. 5 ; [L. and S. s. v. I. 2]) ; unprofit- 
able, prjpa dpyov, by litotes i. q. pernicious (see oKapTros) : 
Mt. xii. 36.* 

[Stn. op7({s, 0pa5us,vci}6p6s: apy. jc?/e, involving blame- 
worthiness ; /8p. sloiv (tardy), having a purely temporal ref- 
erence and no necessary bad sense ; vudp. sluggish, descrip- 
tive of constitutional qualities and suggestive of censure. 
Schmidt ch. 49 ; Trench § civ.] 

df-yvpEos -oils, -ea -a, -eov -ovv, of silver; in the contracted 
form in Acts xix. 24 [but WII br.] ; 2 Tim. ii. 20 ; Rev. 
Lx. 20. [From Ilom. down.]* 

dpYvpiov, -ov, TO, (fr. apyvpos, ({■ v.), [fr. Hdt. down] ; 
1. silver: Acts iii. 6 ; vii. 16 ; xx. 33 ; 1 Pet. i. 18; [1 
Co. iii. 12 T Tr WH]. 2. inoney: simply, Mt. xxv. 
18, 27 ; Mk. xiv. 11 ; Lk. ix. 3 ; xix. 15, 23 ; xxii. 5 ; Acts 
viii. 20; plur., Mt. xxviii. [12], 15. 3. Spec, a silver 
coin, silver-piece, (Luther, Silberling), lT)'d, aiKKos, shekel 
[see B. D. s. v.], i. e. a coin in circulation among the 
Jews after the exile, from the time of Simon (c. b. c. 
141) down (cf. 1 Mace. xv. 6 sq. [yet see B. D. s. v. 
Money, and reflP. in Schiirer, N. T. Zeitgesch. § 7]) ; ac- 
cording to Josephus (antt. 3, 8, 2) equal to the Attic 
tetradrachm or the Alexandrian didrachm (cf. 
ararrip [B. D. s. v. Piece of Silver]) : Mt. xxvi. 15 ; xxvii. 
3, 5 sq. 9. In Acts .xix. 19, dpyvpiov fivpid8es nevre ffty 
thousand pieces of silver (Germ. 50,000 in Silber i. q. 
Silbergeld), doubtless drachmas [cf. Srjvdpiop] are meant ; 
cf. Meyer [et al.] ad loc* 

dp-yvpoK6iros, -ov, 6, (apyvpos and kottto) to beat, ham- 
mer; a silver-beater), a silversmith: Acts xix. 24. (Judg. 
xvii. 4 ; Jer. vi. 29. Plut. de vitand. aere alien, c. 7.) * 

apyvpos, -ov, 6, (dpySs shining), [fr. Hom. down], silver : 
1 Co. iii. 12 [T Tr WII dpyvpiov^ (reference is made to 
the silver with which the columns of noble buildings 
were covered and the rafters adorned) ; by meton. 
things made of silver, silver-work, vessels, images of the 



gods, etc. : Acts xvii. 29 ; Jas. v. 3 ; Rev. xviii. 12. silver 
coin : Mt. x. 9.* 

"Apcios [Tdi. "Apios] irdYos, -ov, 6, Areopagus (a rocky 
height in the city of Athens not far from the Acropolis 
toward the west ; ndyos a hill,*A/36tos belonging to (Ares) 
Mars, Mars' Hill ; so called, because, as the story went, 
Mars, having slain Halirrhothius, son of Neptune, for the 
attempted violation of his daughter Alcippe, was tried 
for the murder here before the twelve gods as judges ; 
Pausan. Attic. 1, 28, 5), the place where the judges con- 
vened who, by appointment of Solon, had jurisdiction of 
capital offences, (as wilful murder, arson, poisoning, ma- 
licious wounding, and breach of the established religious 
usages). The court itself was called Areopagus from 
the place where it sat, also Areum judicium (Tacit, 
ann. 2, 55), and curia Martis (Juv. sat. 9, 101). To 
that hill the apostle Paul was led, not to defend himself 
before the judges, but that he might set forth his 
opinions on divine subjects to a greater multitude of 
people, flocking together there and eager to hear some- 
thing new : Acts xvii. 1 9-22 ; cf. vs. 32. Cf. /. H. Krause 
in Pauly's Real-Encycl. 2te Aufl. i. 2 p. 1497 sqq. s. v. 
Areopag ; [Grote, Hist, of Greece, index s. v. ; Diets, of 
Geogr. and Antiq. ; BB.DD. s. v. Areopagus ; and on 
Paul's discourse, esp. B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Mars' Hill].* 

'Apso-ira-yirps, Tdf. -yeirrjs [see s. v. ei, i], -ov, 6, (fr. the 
preceding [cf. Lob. ad Phryn. 697 sq.]), a member of the 
court of Areopagus, an Areopagite: Acts xvii. 34.* 

df€(rKeia (T WH -Kia [see I, t]), -as, f], (fr. dpf<TKfva> to 
be complaisant ; hence not to be written [with R G L 
Tr] dpe'cTKeia, [cf. Chandler § 99 ; W. § 6, 1 g. ; B. 12 
(11)]), desire to please: TrfpinaTfiud^iios rov Kvpiov (Is 
Trdaav dpeaKiiav, to please him in all things, Col. i. 10; 
(of the desire to please G o d, in Philo, opif. § 50 ; de 
profug. § 1 7 ; de victim. § 3 sub fin. In native Grk. writ, 
commonly in a bad sense : Theophr. char. 3 (5) ; Polyb. 
31, 26, 5 ; Diod. 13, 53 ; al. ; [cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Col. 1. c.]).* 

dp£(rK(o ; impf . rjpf(TKov ; f ut. dpe'cra) ; 1 aor. ^peaa : (APQ 
[see apa init.]) ; [fr. Hom. down] ; a. to please: rti/i, Mt. 
xiv. 6 ; Mk. vi. 22 ; Ro. viii. 8 ; xv. 2 ; 1 Th. ii. 15 ; iv. 1 ; 
1 Co. vii. 32-34; Gal. i. 10; 2 Tim. ii. 4; tvaniov 
rivos, after the Hebr. 'r;'.3, Acts vi. 5, (1 K. iii. 10 ; (Jen. 
xxxiv. 18, etc.). b. to strive to please; to accommodate 
one's self to the opinions, desires, interests of others: tiv'i, 
1 Co. x. 33 (jravra Trdaiv dpeV/cco) ; 1 Th. ii. 4. dpea-Keip 
eavra, to please one's self and therefore to have an eye 
to one's own interests : Ro. xv. 1, 3.* 

dp€o-T6s, -T], -ov, (dpea-Kw), pleasing, agreeable : rivl, Jn. 
viii. 29; Acts xii. 3; ivamov nvos, 1 Jn. iii. 22 (cf. 
dpea-KCD, a.) ; apea-rov iari. foil, by acc. with inf. it is ft. 
Acts vi. 2 [yet cf. Meyer ad loc.]. (In Grk. writ. fr. 
[Soph.] Hdt. down.)* 

•Ap€'Tas [WH 'Ap., see their Intr. § 408], -a (cf. W. 
§ 8, 1 ; [B. 20 (18)]), 6, Aretas, (a name common to many 
of the kings of Arabia Petraea or Nabathaean Arabia 
[cf . B. D. s. V. Nebaioth] ; cf . Schiirer, Neutest. Zeitgesch. 
§ 1 7 b. p. 233 sq.) ; an Arabian king who made war (a. d. 
36) on his son-in-law Herod Antipas for having repu- 



aperi] 



Ap/jLOjeBoov 



diated his daughter ; and with such success as complete- 
ly to destroy his army (Joseph, antt. 18, 5). In conse- 
quence of this, Vitellius, governor of Syria, being ordered 
by Tiberius to march an army against Aretas, prepared 
for the war. But Tiberius meantime having died 
[March IG, A. D. 37], lie recalled his troops from the 
march, dismissed them to their winter quarters, and 
departed to Rome. After his departure Aretas held 
sway over the region of Damascus (how acquired we do 
not know), and placed an ethnarch over the city : 2 Co. 
xi. 32. Cf. Win. RWB. s. v. ; Wieseler in Herzog i. 
p. 488 sq. ; Keim in Schenkel i. p. 238 sq. ; Schurer in 
Riehm p. 83 sq. ; [B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Aretas ; Meyer 
on Acts, Einl. § 4 (cf. ibid. ed. Wendt)].* 

dptTi^, -rjs, fj, [see apa init.], a word of very wide signi- 
fication in Grk. writ. ; any excellence of a person (in 
body or mind) or of a tiling, an ermnent endowment^ prop- 
erty or quality. Used of the human 'nind and in an 
«thical sense, it denotes 1. a virtuous course of thought, 
feeling and action ; virtue, moral goodness, (Sap. iv. 1 ; 
V. 13 ; often in 4 Mace, and in Grk. writ.) : 2 Pet. i. 5 
[al. take it here specifically, viz. moral vigor; cf . next 
head]. 2. any particular moral excellence, as modesty, 
purity ; hence (plur. al aperai, Sap. viii. 7 ; often in 4 
Mace, and in the Grk. philosophers) rh dperr], Phil. iv. 
8. Used of God, it denotes a. his power: 2 Pet. i. 3. 
b. in the plur. his excellences, perfections, ' which shine 
forth in our gratuitous calling and in the whole work of 
our salvation ' (Jn. Gerhard) : 1 Pet. ii. 9. (In Sept. for 
lin splendor, glory, Hab. iii. 3, of God; Zech. vi. 13, of 
the Messiah ; in plur. for ni \'nn praises, of God, Is. xliii. 
^1 ; xlii. 12; Lxiii. 7.)* 

aprjv, 6, nom. not in use ; the other cases are by syncope 
apvoi (for dpfvos), apvi, cipva ; plur. apves, apvwv, dpvacri, 
a^pvas, a sheep, a lamb: Lk. x. 3. (Gen. xxx. 32; Ex. 
xxiii. 19, etc. ; in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down.) * 

Of i0|i£(o, -w : 1 aor. rjpL0p,T]<Ta ; pf. pass. f]pi6prjp,at ; 
(dpidpos) ; [fr. Hom. down] ; to number: Mt. x. 30 ; Lk. 
xii. 7 ; Rev. vii. 9. [Comp. : Kar-apidptto.'] * 

dfi6(i.6s, -ou, 6, [fr. Hom. down],o number; a. a fixed 
and definite number : tov dpi6p6v nfvTaKia-xt^toi, in nian- 
her, Jn. vi. 10, (2 Mace. viii. 16; 3 Mace. v. 2, and often 
in Grk. writ.; W. 230 (216); [B. 153 (134)]); e'/c roO 
dpidpoii Ttiiv babeKa, Lk. xxii. 3 ; dp. dvdpanov, a number 
whose letters indicate a certain man, Rev. xiii. 18. b. 
an indefinite number, i. q. a multitude : Acts vi. 7 ; xi. 
21 ; Rev. xx. 8. 

'ApifJiaeaCa [WH 'Ap., see their Intr. § 408], -ay, 17, 
Arimathoea, Hebr. noi (a height), the name of several 
cities of Palestine; cf. Gesenius, Thesaur. iii. p. 1275. 
The one mentioned in Mt. xxvii. 57 ; Mk. xv. 43 ; Lk. 
xxiii. 51 ; Jn. xix. 38 appears to have been the same as 
that which was the birthplace and residence of Samuel, 
in Mount Ephraim: 1 S. i. 1, 19, etc. Sept. 'Appadatp, 
and without the art. 'Papa6ep, and ace. to another read- 
ing 'Pafxadatp, 1 Mace. xi. 34 ; 'Papadd in Joseph, antt. 
13, 4, 9. Cf. Grimm on 1 Mace. xi. 34; Keim, Jesus 
von Naz. iii. 514 ; [B. D. Am. ed.].* 



'ApCcrrapxos, -ov, o, [lit. best-ruling], Aristarchus, a cer- 
tain Christian of Thessalonica, a ' fellow-captive ' with 
Paul [cf. B. D. Am. ed. ; Bp. Lghtft. and Mey. on Col. as 
below]: Acts xLx. 29; xx. 4; xxvii. 2; Col. iv. 10; 
Philem. 24.* 

dpio-Taco, -co : 1 aor. ripiaTrjva ; (to apiarov, q. v.) ; a. 
to breakfast: Jn. xxi. 12, 15; (Xen. Cyr. 6, 4, 1 ; and 
often in Attic), b. by later usage to dv.ie : irapd rivi, 
Lk. xi. 37 ; (Gen. xliii. 24 ; Ael. v. h. 9. 19).* 

apurT£p6s, -a, -6u, left : Mt. vi. 3 ; Lk. xxiii. 33 ; [^Ik. 
X. 37 T Tr WH, on the plur. cf. W. § 27, 3] ; oTrXa dpi- 
(TTepd i. e. carried in the left hand, defensive weapons, 2 
Co. vi. 7. [From Hom. down.] * 

'ApioTiPovXos, -ov, 6, [lit. best-counselling], Aristobulus, 
a certain Christian [cf. B. D. Am. ed. s. v. and Bp. Lghtft. 
on Phil. p. 174 sq.] : Ro. xvi. 10.* 

opio-Tov, -ov, TO, [fr. Hom. down] ; a. the frst food, 
taken early in the morning before work, breakfast ; 
dinner was called beiiruov. But the later Greeks called 
breakfast to dKpdria-pa, and dinner apiarov i. e. dilwvov 
pecrrjp^pivov, Atlien. 1, 9, 10 p. 11 b. ; and so in the N. T. 
Hence b. dinner: Lk. xiv. 12 (noielv apia-rov ff bfiirvov, 
to which others are invited) ; Lk. xi. 38 ; Mt. xxii. 4 
{eroipd^eiv) . [B. D. s. V. Meals; Becker's Charicles, sc. 
vi. excurs. i. (Eng. trans, p. 312 sq.).] * 

opKCTos, -ri, -6v, (dpKeco), sufficient : Mt. vi. 34 (where 
the meaning is, ' Let the present day's trouble suffice for 
a man, and let him not rashly increase it by anticipating 
the cares of days to come'; [on the neut. cf. W. § 58, 5 ; 
B. 127 (111)]) ; dpKerov ra paOrjTr] [A.V. it is enough for 
the disciple i.e.] let him be content etc., foU. by ipa, JNIt. x. 
25 ; foU. by an inf., 1 Pet. iv. 3. (Chrysipp. ap. Athen. 
3, 79 p. 113 b.)* 

dpKe'b), 6j ; 1 aor. rjpKecra ; [Pass., pres. dpKovpat] ; 1 f ut. 
apKeadTjcropai ; to be possessed of unfailing strength ; to be 
strong, to suffice, to be enough (as against any danger; 
hence to defend, loard off, in Hom. ; [al. make this the 
radical meaning, cf. Lat arxeo ; Curtius § 7]) : with dat. 
of pers., Mt. xxv. 9 ; Jn. vi. 7 ; dpKfl aoi fj xdpts pov my 
grrace is sufficient for thee, sc. to enable thee to bear the 
evil manfully ; there is, therefore, no reason why thou 
shouldst ask for its removal, 2 Co. xii. 9 ; impersonally, 
dpKf'i fjp'iv 'tis enough for us, we are content, Jn. xiv. 8. 
Pass, (as in Grk. writ.) to be satisfied, contented : tivi, 
with a thing, Lk. iii. 14 ; Heb. xiii. 5 ; 1 Tim. vi. 8 ; (2 
Mace. V. 15) ; eVt tivi, 3 Jn. 10. [Comp.: iir-apKioa.']* 

dipKTos, -ov, 6, f], or [so G L T Tr WH] apKos, -ov, 6, 17, 
a bear: Rev. xiii. 2. [From Hom. down.]* 

ap)ia, -aTos, to, (fr. APQ to join, fit ; a team), a chariot : 
Acts viii. 28 sq. 38 ; of war-chariots (i. e. armed with 
scji;hes) we read appara "Tnraiv noWaiv chariots drawn by 
many horses. Rev. Lx. 9, (Joel ii. 5. In Grk. writ. fr. 
Hom. down).* 

'Apixa-yeStiv [Grsb. *App., WH*A/J Mayfduv, see their 
Intr. § 408 ; Tdf. Proleg. p. 106] or (so Rec.)'Appayf88a)P, 
Har-Magedon or Armageddon, indecl. prop, name of an 
imaginary place : Rev. xvi. 16. Many, following Beza 
and Glassius, suppose that the name is compounded o£ 



dpfj,6l^( 



(O 



74 



f II, 

apira^i 



o> 



in mountain, and I'ljp or plJp, Sept. MayfSca, MoyeSSw. 
Megiddo was a city of the Manassites, situated in the 
great plain of the tribe of Issachar, and famous for a 
double slaughter, first of the Canaanites (Judg. v. 19), 
and again of the Israelites (2 K. xxiii. 29 scj. ; 2 Chr. 
XXXV. 22, cf. Zech. xii. 11) ; so that in the Apocalypse 
it would signify the place where the kings opposing 
Christ were to be destroyed with a slaughter hke that 
which the Canaanites or the Israelites had experienced 
of old. But since those two overthrows are said to have 
taken place enl vdari May. (-ludg. 1. c.) and ev rw 
TreS/o) May. (2 Chr. 1. c), it is not easy to perceive 
what can be the meaning of the mountain of IMegiddo, 
which could be none other than Carmel. Hence, for 
one, I think the conjecture of L. Capellus [i. e. Louis 
Cappel (akin to that of Drusius, see the Comni.)] to be 
far more easy and probable, \\z. that 'Apfxayedaiu is for 
'Apfiafieyf8o}v, compounded of XOIP destruction, and 
;nJO . [Wieseler (Zur Gesch. d. N. T. Schrift, p. 188), 
Hitzig (in Hilgenf. Einl. p. 440 n.), al., revive the deriva- 
tion (cf . Ililler, Simonis, al.) f r. "o i;'^ citij of Megiddo.]* 

apjio^w, Attic appoTTco : 1 aor. mid. Tjpfioa-aiiTjv ; (appos, 
q. v.); 1. to Join, to Jit together; so in Hom. of car- 
penters, fastening together beams and planks to build 
houses, ships, etc. 2. of marriage : appo^etv rtj'i ttjv 
Bvyartpa (Ildt. 9, 108) to betroth a daughter to miy one\ 
pass, appo^erai yvvr\ avhpl, Sept. Prov. xix. 14 ; mid. 
dpp,6aaa6ai ttjv dvyarepa rivos (Ildt. 5, 32; 47; 6, 65) 
to Join to one's self, i. e. to marry, the daughter of any 
one; appoaacrdai Tivi riva to betroth, to give one in mar- 
riage to any one : 2 Co. xi. 2, and often in Philo, cf. 
Loesner ad loc. ; the mid. cannot be said to be used 
actively, but refers to him to whom the care of betroth- 
ing has been committed; [cf. B. 193 (167) ; per contra 
Mey. ad loc; W. 258 (242)].* 

dp|i.6s, -ov, 6, (APQ to join, fit), a Joining, a Joint : Heb. 
iv. 12. (Soph., Xen., al. ; Sir. xxvii. 2.)* 

apvas, see apf]v. 

'ApveC, 6, indecl. prop, name of one of the ancestors of 
Jesus : Lk. iii. 33 T WII Tr mrg.* 

dpveofiai, -ovpai ; fut. apvrjaopai ; impf. rjpvovprjv ; 1 aor. 
TjpvrjadpTjv (rare in Attic, where generally fjpvrjdrjv, cf. 
Matth. i. p. 538 [better Veitch s. v.]); pf. fjpvrjpai; a 
depon. verb [(fr. Ilom. down)] signifying 1. to deny, 
i. e. fliTflv . . . ovK [to say . . . not, contradict'] : Mk. xiv. 70 ; 
Mt. xxvi. 70 ; Jn. i. 20 ; xviii. 25, 27 ; Lk. viii. 45 ; Acts 
iv. 16; foil, by on. ov instead of simple on, in order to 
make the negation more strong and explicit : Mt. xxvi. 
72; 1 Jn. ii. 22; (on the same use in Grk. writ. cf. 
Ktihner ii. p. 7G1 ; [Jelf ii. 450; W. § 65, 2/3.; B. 355 
(305)]). 2. to deny, with an ace. of the pers., in 
various senses : a. apv. 'irjaotiv is used of followers of 
Jesus who, for fear of death or persecution, deny that 
Jesus is their master, and desert his cause, [to disoicn] : 
Mt. X. 33 ; Lk. xii. 9 ; [Jn. xiii. 38 L txt. T Tr WII] ; 
2 Tim. ii. 12, (apv. to ovopa ai/Tov, Rev. iii. 8, means 
the same) ; and on the other hand, of Jesus, denying 
that one is his follower: Mt. x. 33; 2 Tim. ii. 12. 



b. apv. God and Christ, is used of these who by cher- 
ishing and disseminating pernicious opinions and immo- 
rality are adjudged to have apostatized from God and 
Christ : 1 Jn. ii. 22 (cf. iv. 2 ; 2 Jn. 7-11) ; Jude 4 ; 2 Pet. 
ii. 1. c. apv. eavTov to deny himself, is used in two senses, 
a. to disregard his own interests : Lk. ix. 23 [R WH mrg. 
airapv.'] ; cf. aivapvfopai. p. to prove false to himself, act 
entirely unlike himself : 2 Tim. ii. 13. 3. to deny i. e. 
abnegate, abjure; r'l, to renounce a thing, forsake it: rrjv 
dae^eiav k. to? emBvpias, Tit. ii. 12 ; by act to show es- 
trangement from a thing : r»)i/ niaTiv, 1 Tim. v. 8 ; Rev. 
ii. 13 ; TTjv hvvapiv rfjs eucre^ftay, 2 Tim. iii. 5. 4. not 

to accept, to reject, refuse, something offered : nvd. Acts 
iii. 14 ; vii. 35 ; with an inf. indicating the thing, Heb. 
xi. 24. [COMP. : cnr-apviopai.'] 

apviov, -ov, TO, (dimin. fr. aprjv, q. v.), [fr. Lys. down], 
a little lamb, a lamb: Rev. xiii. 11; Jesus calls his fol- 
lowers TO. dpvla pov in Jn. xxi. 15 ; to dpvlov is used of 
Christ, innocently suffering and dying to expiate the 
sins of men, very often in Rev., as v. 6, 8, 12, etc. (Jer. 
xi. 1 9 ; xxvii. (1.) 45 ; Ps. cxiii. (cxiv.) 4, 6 ; Joseph, antt. 
3, 8, 10.) * 

oporpidb), -5) ; (ciporpov, q. v.) ; to plough : Lk. xvii. 7 ; 

1 Co. ix. 10. (Deut. xxii. 10 ; [1 K. xix. 19] ; Mic. iii. 
12. In Grk. writ. fr. Theophr. down for the more 
ancient dpoco ; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 254 sq. [W. 24].) * 

oporpov, -ov, TO, (dpoco to plough), a plough : Lk. ix. 62. 
(In Grk. writ. fr. Horn, down.) * 

dpTra7T|, -rjs, tj, (dpna^co), rapine, pillage; 1. the act 
of plundering, robbery : Heb. x. 34. 2. plunder, spoil : 
Mt. xxiii. 25 ; Lk. xi. 39, (Is. iii. 14 ; Nah. ii. 12. In 
Grk. writ. fr. Aeschyl. down.) * 

dpira-yjios, -oii, 6, (dpTrd^co) ; 1. the act of seizing, rob- 
bery, (so Plut. de lib. educ. c. 15 (al. 14, 37), vol. ii. 12 a. 
the only instance of its use noted in prof. auth.). 2. 
a thing seized or to be seized, booty : dpiraypov rjye'ia-dai ti 
to deem anything a prize, — a thing to be seized upon 
or to be held fast, retained, Phil. ii. G ; on the meaning 
of this pass, see pnpcpr] ; (rjyfladai or TvouiaOai ti apnaypa, 
Euseb. li. e. 8, 12, 2 ; vit. Const. 2, 31 ; [Comui. in Luc 
vi., cf. Mai, Nov. Bibl. Patr. iv. p. 165] ; Ileliod. 7, 11 
and 20 ; 8, 7 ; [Plut. de Alex. virt. 1, 8 p. 330 d.] ; ul om- 
nium bona praedam tuam duceres, Cic. Verr. ii. 5, 15, 39 ; 
[see Bp. Lghtft. on Phil. p. 133 sq. (^cf. p. Ill;; VVetstein 
ad loc. ; Cremer 4te Aufi. p. 153 sq.]).* 

dpird^u) ; fut. dpnaa-co [Veitch s. v. ; cf. Butherford, New 
Phryn. p. 407] ; 1 aor. rjpTraaa; Pass., 1 unr. f]pnd(r6riv ; 

2 aor. f]p7Tdyr]v (2 Co. xii. 2, 4 ; Sap. iv. 1 1 ; cf. W. 83 
(80) ; [B. 54 (47) ; ]VH. App. p. 170]) ; 2 fut. dpnay^- 
a-opat; [(Lat. rapio ; Curtius § 331); fr. Horn, down] ; 
to seize, carry off by force : ri, [Mt. xii. 29 not RG, (see 
StapTra^w)]; Jn. x. 12; to seize on, claim for one's self 
eagerly: ttjv ^aaCkeiav tov 6fov, Mt. xi. 12, (Xen. an. 6, 
5, 18, etc.) ; to snatch out or away: W, Mt. xiii. 19; t\ (k 
Xfipos Tivns, Jn. x. 28 scj. ; Tivd eV nvpos, proverbial, to 
rescue from the danger of destruction, Jude 23, (Am. 
iv. 11 ; Zech. iii. 2) ; Tivd. to seize and carry off speedily, 
Jn. vi. 15; Acts xxiii. 10; used of divine power trans- 



apira^ 



lb 



apTO<i 



ferring a person marvellously and swiftly from one place 
to another, to snatch or catch away : Acts viii. 39 ; pass. 
npos T. Beov, Rev. xii. 5 ; foil, by ews with gen. of place, 
2 Co. xii. 2 ; ds r. Trapddeia-ou, 2 Co. xii. 4 ; tts aipa, 1 
Th. iv. 17. [CoMP. : 6i-, aw-apTrd^oj.]* 

apira|, -ayos, 6, adj., rapacious, ravenous'. Mt. vii. 15; 
Lk. xviii. 11 ; as subst. a robber, an extortioner: 1 Co. v. 
10 sq. ; vi. 10. (In both uses fr. [Arstph.], Xen. down.)* 

appap<6v [Tdf. apa^atv : 2 Co. i. 22 (so Lchm.) ; v. 5, 
(but not in Eph. i. 14), see his Proleg. p. 80 ; Wll. App. 
p. 148; cf. W. 48 (47 sq.) ; B. 32 (28 sq.) ; cf. P,pJ,-wi/os, 6, 
(Hebr. |'n'i;^ Gen. xxxviii. 17 scp 20; fr. 3^;'^ to 
pledge ; a word which seems to have passed from the 
Phoenicians to the Greeks, and thence into Latin), an 
earnest, i. e. money which in purchases is given as a 
pledge that the full amount will subsequently be paid 
[Suid. s. V. dpa'^cov], (cf. [obs. Eng. earlespenny ; caution- 
money~\. Germ. Kaufscliilling, Haftpfennig) : 2 Co. i. 22; 
V. 5, Tov appa^Mva tov Trvevparos i. e. to Trvevfia toy dppa- 
/Swi/a sc. T^j ic\r]povop.iai, as is expressed in full in Eph. 
i. 14 [cf. W. § .59, 8 a.; B. 78 (68)] ; for the gift of the 
Holy Spirit, comprising as it does the dwdfieis toO pe\- 
\ovTos alchvos (Heb. vi. 5), is both a foretaste and a 
pledge of future blessedness ; cf. s. v. dnapxf], c. [B.D. 
s. v. Earnest.] (Isae. 8, 23 [p. 210 ed. Reiske] ; Aristot. 
pol. 1, 4, 5 [p. 1259% 12]; al.) * 

oppa(|)os, T Tr WII &pa(l)os (cf. W. 48 ; B. 32 (29) ; 
IWH. App. p. 163; Tdf. Proleg. p. 80 ; cf. P, p]), -ov, 
(paTTTO) to sew together), not sewed together, without a 
seam : Jn. xix. 23.* 

appT]v, see cipa-rfv. 

ap-pT]Tos, -ov, (prjTos, fr. PEG) ; a. unsaid, unspoken : 
Hom. Od. 14, 466, and often in Attic, b. unspeakable 
(on account of its sacredness), (Hdt. 5, 83, and often in 
other writ.) : 2 Co. xii. 4, explained by what follows : 
a ovK i^ov dvdpwna XaX^crat.* 

appwo-Tos, -oj/, {pu)vvvp.i, q. v.), tcithout strength, weak; 
sick: Mt. xiv. 14; Mk. vi. 5, 13; xvi. 18 ; 1 Co. xi. 30. 
([Hippocr.], Xen., Plut.) * 

dpcr€voKotTT]s, -ov, 6, (apdTjv a male ; koItt) a bed), one 
who lies with a male as with a female, a sodomite : 1 Co. 
vi. 9 ; 1 Tim. i. 10. (Anthol. 9, 686, 5 ; eccl. writ.)* 

opo-iiv, -evof, 6, ap<T€v, to, also (acc. to R G in Rev. xii. 
5, 13, and in many edd., that of Tdf. included, in Ro. i. 
27" ; cf. Fritzsche on Rom. vol. i. p. 78 ; [W. 22]) clppr^v, 
-ei/o?, 6, appev, to, [fr. Hom. down], male : Mt. xix. 4 ; 
Mk. X. 6 ; Lk. ii. 23 ; Ro. i. 27 ; Gal. iii. 28 ; Rev. xii. 5, 
13 (where Lchm. reads lipaevav\ on which Alex, form 
of the acc. cf. W. 48 (47 sq.) ; 66 (64) ; MuUach p. 22 [cf. 
p. 162] ; B. 13 (12) ; [Soph. Lex., Intr.p. 36 ; Tdf Proleg. 
p. 118; Miiller's note on Barn. ep. 6, 2 p. 158; WH. 
App. p. 157 ; Scrivener, Collation etc. p. liv.]).* 

*ApT«p,ds, -a, 6, (abbreviated fr. 'ApTepi8o)pos [i. 6. gift 
of Artemis], cf. W. 102 (97); [B. 20 (17 sq.) ; Lob. 
Pathol. Proleg. p. 505 sq. ; Chandler § 32]), Artemas, a 
friend of Paul the apostle : Tit. iii. 1 2. [Cf . B. D. s. v.]* 

"Aprefiis, -i8os and -los, fj, Artemis, that is to say, 
the so-called Tauric or Persian or Ephesian Ar- 



temis, the goadess of many Asiatic peoples, to be dis- 
tinguished from the Artemis of the Greeks, the sister of 
Apollo ; cf. Grimm on 2 Mace. p. 39 ; [B. D. s. v. Diana]. 
A very splendid temple was built to her at Ephesus, 
which was set on fire by Herostratus and reduced to 
ashes; but afterwards, in the time of Alexander the 
Great, it was rebuilt in a style of still greater magnifi- 
cence: Acts xix. 24, 27 sq. 34 sq. Cf. Stark in Schenke^ 
i. p. 604 sq. s. v. Diana ; [ Wood, Discoveries at Ephesus, 
Lond. 1877].* 

dpTe>a)v, -ovos (L T Tr WH -avos, cf. W. § 9, 1 d. ; [B. 
24 (.22)]), 6, toj}-sail [or /oresaiY?] of a sliip : Acts xxvii. 
40 ; cf. Meyer ad loc. ; [esp. Smith, Voyage and Shipwr. 
of St. Paul, p. 192 sq. ; Uvaser in the Philologus, 3d 
suppl. 1865, p. 201 sqq.].* 

opTi, adv., acc. to its deriv. (fr. APfi to draw close to- 
gether, to join, Lat. arto ; [cf. Curtius § 488]) denoting 
time closely connected ; 1. in Attic '■'just now, this 
moment, (Germ, gerade, eben), marking something begun 
or finished even now, just before the time in which we 
are speaking" (Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 20) : Mt. ix. 18; 
1 Th. iii. 6, and perhaps Rev. xii. 10. 2. acc. to later 
Grk. usage univ. now, at this time ; opp. to past time : 
Jn. Lx. 19, 25 ; xiii. 33 ; 1 Co. xvi. 7 ; Gal. i. 9 sq. opp. 
to future time : Jn. xiii. 37 ; xvi. 12, 31 ; 2 Th. ii. 7 ; opp. 
to fut. time subsequent to the return of Christ : 1 Co. 
xiii. 12 ; 1 Pet. i. 6, 8. of present time most closely lim- 
ited, at this very time, this moment : Mt. iii. 15 ; xxvi. 53 ; 
Jn. xiii. 7 ; Gal. iv. 20. axpi ttjs upTi wpas, 1 Co. iv. 11 ; 
(03S apTi, hitherto ; until now, up to this time : Mt. xi. 12 ; 
Jn. ii. 10; v. 17; xvi. 24; 1 Co.iv. 13; viii. 7 ; xv. 6 ; 1 i#n. 
ii. 9. an apTi, see dirdpTi above. Cf. Lobeck ad Phryn. 
p. 18 sqq. ; \_Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 70 sq.].* 

[Syn. &pT I, ^5 7j, vvu: Roughly speaking, it may be said 
that &pTL just now, even now, properly marks time closely con- 
nected with the present ; later, strictly present time, (see 
above, and compare in Eng. "just now" i. e. a moment ago, 
and " just now " (emphat.) i. e. at this precise time), vvv now, 
marks a definite point (or period) of time, the (objective) 
immediate present. ^5?? iww {alrendi/) witli a suggested ref- 
erence to some other time or to some expectatiou, the sub- 
jective present (i. e. so regarded by the writer). ^5rj and 
&pTi are associated in 2 Thess. ii. 7 ; vvv and fjSri iu 1 Jn. iv. 
3. SeeKiihner§§498, 499; i?au?«/f'/«, Partikeln, p. 138 sqq.; 
Ellic. on 1 Thess. iii. 6 ; 2 Tim. iv. 6.] 

dpTi--y€vvTiTOs. -Of. (apri and yevvdco), Just born, new- 
born: 1 Pet. ii. 2. (Lcian. Ale.x. 13 ; Long. past. 1, (7) 
9; 2,(3)4.)* 

aprios, -a, -ov, (APQ to fit, [cf. Curtius § 488]) ; 1. 

fitted. 2. complete, perfect, [having reference appar- 
ently to ' special aptitude for given uses '] ; so 2 Tim. 
iii. 17, [cf. Ellicott ad loc; Trench § xxii.]. (In Grk 
writ. fr. Hom. down.) * 

dpTos, -ov, 6, (fr. APQ to fit, put together, [cf. Etym 
Magn. 150, 36 — but doubtful]), bread; Hebr. DP':; 
1. food composed of flour mixed with water and baked; 
the Israelites made it in the form of an oblong or round 
cake, as tliick as one's thumb, and as large as a plate or 
platter (cf. Win. RWB. s. v. Backen ; [BB.DD.]); 



apTvea 



76 



apxv 



hence it was not cut, but broken (see liKdais and «Xaa)) : 
Mt. iv. 3 ; vii. 9 ; xiv. 17, 19 ; Mk. vi. 36 [T Tr WH om. 
L br.], 37 sq.; Lk. iv. 3 ; xxiv. 30 ; Jn. vi. 5 sqq. ; Acts 
xxvii. 35, and often ; aproi rfjs npodea-fMs, loaves conse- 
crated to Jehovah, see npodfo-is ; on the bread used at the 
love-feasts and the sacred supper [W. 35], cf. Mt. xxvi. 
26 ; ]Vlk. xiv. 22 ; Lk. xxii. 19 ; Acts ii. 42, 4G ; xx. 7 ; 1 
Co. x. 16 sq. ; xi. 26-28. 2. As in Grk. writ., and Uke 
the Hebr. Onh,foo(l o/ani/kiml : Mt. vi. 11 ; Mk. vi. 8 ; 
Lk. xi. 3 ; 2 Co. Lx. 10 ; 6 cipros rciv t(kvcov the food served 
to tlae children, Mk. vii. 27; aprov (payelv or tadifiv to 
take food, to eat (DT}h SdK) [W. 33 (32)]: Mk. iii. 20; 
Lk. xiv. 1, 15; Mt. xv. 2; aprov (f)ayf'iv napd tivos to 
take food supplied by one, 2 Th. iii. 8 ; t6u iavrov upr. 
(o-Oifiv to eat the food which one has procured for him- 
self by his own labor, 2 Th. iii. 12; /xjjre ciprov iad'mv, 
fiTjT€ olvov irivav, abstaining from the usual sustenance, 
or using it sparingly, Lk. vii. 33; rpaiyeiu tuv aprov perd 
Tivos to be one's table-companion, his familiar friend, Jn. 
xiii. 18 (Ps. xl. (xU.) 10). In Jn. vi. 32-35 Jesus calls him- 
self Tov aprov rov deov, r. a. eK tov ovpavov, r. a. r^s C'^rjs, 
as the divine Xoyos, come from heaven, who containing 
in himself the source of heavenly life supplies celestial 
nutriment to souls that they may attain to life eternal. 

dprvw : f lit. dprvaa ; Pass., pf. ^prvp-ai ; 1 fut. dprvdr]- 
aopat ; (APQ to fit) ; to prepare, arrange ; often so in Horn. 
In the comic writers and epigrammatists used of pre- 
paring food, to season, make savory, {[rd oyira, Aristot. 
eth. Nic. 3, 13 p. 1118% 29]; fjprvpevos oivos, Theophr. 
de odor. § 51 [frag. 4, c. 11]) ; so Mk. ix. 50 ; Lk. xiv. 
344 metaph. 6 Xoyos aXari rjprvpevos, full of wisdom and 
grace and hence jileasant and wholesome. Col. iv. 6.* 

*Ap4>a|d8, 6, Arphaxad, (lE'JSIX), son of Shem (Gen. 
X. 22, 24 ; xi. 10, 12, [cf. Jos. antt! 1, 6, 4]) : Lk. iii. 36.* 

dp\-a.yyi\os, -ov, 6, (fr. ap)(i, q. v., and ciyyeXos), a bibl. 
and eccl. word, archangel, i. e. chief of the angels (Hebr. 
*^iy chief, prince, Dan. x. 20 ; xii. 1), or one of the princes 
and leaders of the angels (D'jt^Xin D'liS/n, Dan. x. 13) : 
1 Th. iv. 16 ; Jude 9. For the Jews after the exile dis- 
tinguished several orders of angels, and some (as the 
author of the book of Enoch, ix. 1 sqq. ; cf. Dillmann 
ad loc p. 97 sq.) reckoned four angels (answering to 
the four sides of the throne of God) of the highest rank; 
but others, and apparently the majority (Tob. xii. 15, 
where cf. Fritzsche ; Rev. viii. 2), reckoned seven 
(after the pattern of the seven Amshaspands, the high- 
est spirits in the religion of Zoroaster). See s. vv. Ta- 
^pifjX and Mixaf)X* 

dpxatos, -aia, -alov, (fr. dpxfj beginning, hence) prop. 
that has been from the beginning, original, primeval, old, 
ancient, used of men, things, times, conditions : Lk. ix. 
8, 19 ; Acts XV. 7, 21 ; xxi. 16 ; 2 Pet. ii. 5 ; Rev. xii. 9 ; 
XX. 2 ; 01 dpxoiioi the ancients, the early Israelites : Mt. 
V. 21, 27 [Ilec], 33 ; to apxaia the man's previous moral 
condition : 2 Co. v. 1 7. (In Grk. writ. fr. Pind. and 
Hdt. down.)* 

[Syn. dpxaToj, ir a\ai6s: in iraK. the simple idea of 
time dominates, wliile dpx- (" ffifnaivti koX rb dpx^s fx*""^*'." 



and so) often carries with it a suggestion of nature or origi- 
nal character. Cf. Schmidt ch. 46 ; Trench § Ixvii.] 

'Apx«-X«w>s, -ov, 6, A rchelaus, (ir. apxo and Xaos, ruling 
the people), a son of Herod the Great by Malthace, the 
Samaritan. He and his brother Antipas were brought 
up with a certain private man at Rome (Joseph, antt. 
17, 1, 3). After the death of his father he ruled ten 
years as ethnarch over Judtea, Samaria, and Idumsea, 
(with the exception of the cities Gaza, Gadara, and 
Hippo). The Jews and Samaritans having accused him 
at Rome of tyranny, he was banished by the emperor 
(Augustus) to Vienna of the AUobroges, and died there 
(Joseph, antt. 17, 9, 3; 11, 4; 13, 2; b. j. 2, 7, 3): Mt. 
ii. 22. [See B. D. s. v. and cf. 'HpabTjs.] * 

apx.i\, -lis, f), [fr. Horn, down], in Sept. mostly equiv. to 
IJ/kl, ri'i;/X"l, nSnn ; l. beginning, origin ; a. used 
absolutely, of the beginning of all things : eV dpxjj, Jn. i. 
1 sq. (Gen. i. 1) ; ott' (ipxv^f Mt. xix. 4 (with which cf. 
Xen. mem. 1, 4, 5 6 e'^ «PX^s 7701001/ dvdpoiirovs), 8 ; Jn. 
viii. 44 ; 1 Jn. i. 1 ; ii. 13 sq. ; iii. 8 ; more fully an dpxrjs 
KTia-eas or Koap-ov, Mt. xxiv. 21 ; Mk. x. 6 ; xiii. 19 ; 2 Th. 
ii. 13 (where L [Tr mrg. WH mrg.] dnapxrjv, q. v.) ; 2 Pet. 
iii. 4; kqt dpxds, Heb. i. 10 (Ps. ci. (cii.) 20). b. in a 
relative sense, of the beginning of the thing spoken of : 
e^ dpx^s, fr. the time when Jesus gathered disciples, Jn. 
vi. 64 ; xvi. 4 ; air' dpxrjs, Jn. xv. 27 (since I appeared in 
public) ; as soon as instruction was imparted, 1 Jn. ii. 
[7], 24 ; iii. 11 ; 2 Jn. 5 sq. ; more fully ev dpxj] rov tvay 
yeXiov, Phil. iv. 15 (Clem. Rom. 1 Cor. 47, 2 [see note in 
Gebh. and Harn. ad loc. and cf.] Polyc. ad Phihpp. 11,3); 
from the beginning of the gospel history, Lk. i. 2 ; from 
the commencement of life. Acts xxvi. 4 ; e'v dpxJj, in the 
beginning, when the church was founded, Acts xi. 15. 
The ace. dpxfjv [cf. W. 124 (118) ; Bp. Lghtft. on Col. i. 
18] and rrjv dpxr]v in the Grk. writ. (cf. Lennep ad Pha- 
larid. p. 82 sqq. and p. 94 sqq. ed. Lips. ; Bruckner in De 
Wette's Hdbch. on John p. 151) is often used adver- 
bially, i. q. oXcoy altogether, (properly, an ace. of ' direc- 
tion towards': usque ad initium, [cf. W. 230 (216); B. 
153 (134)]), commonly followed by a negative, but not 
always [cf. e.g. Dio Cass. frag. 101 (93 Dind.) ; xiv. 34 
(Dind. vol. ii. p. 194); lix. 20; Ixii. 4; see, further, 
Lycurg. § 125 ed. Matzner] ; hence that extremely diffi- 
cult passage, Jn. viii. 25 rriv . . . vplv, must in my opinion 
be interpreted as follows : / am altogether ot wholly (i. e. in 
all respects, precisely) that which I even speak to you (I 
not only am, but also declare to you what I am ; therefore 
you have no need to question me), [cf. W. 464 (432) ; B. 
253 (218)]. dpxr)v Xap^dvfiv to take beginning, to begin, 
Heb. ii. 3. with the addition of the gen. of the tiling 
spoken of : uihivoiv, Mt. xxiv. 8 ; Mk. xiii. 8 (9) [(here 
R G plur.) ; rav (rr]p.fiav, Jn. ii. 11] ; fjpepwv, Heb. vii. 3 ; 
TOV evayyeXiov, that from which the gospel history took 
its beginning, Mk. i. 1 ; rrjs viroa-rda-tas, the confidence 
with which we have made a beginning, opp. to /ie'xp* 
Tf'Xour, Heb. iii. 14. to (rroixfia r^y opXV^^ Heb. v. 12 
(rrjs dpxrjs is added for greater explicitness, as in Lat. ru- 
dlmenta prima, Liv. 1,3; Justin, hist. 7,5; and jarima 



txpxvyo": 



77 



upx^iepevf 



elementa, Horat. sat. 1, 1, 26, etc.); 6 t^s dpxrj^ rov 
Xpia-Tov Xoyot ecjuiv. to 6 rov Xpiarov Xdyoy 6 rfji apxTji, 
i. e. the instruction concerning Christ such as it was at 
the very outset [cf. W. 188 (177) ; B. 155 (136)], Heb. 
vi. 1. 2. the person or thing that commences, the Jirst per- 
son or thing in a series, the leader : Col. i. 18 ; Rev. i. 8 Rec. ; 
xxi. 6; xxii. 13; (Deut. xxi. 17; Job xl. 14 (19), etc.). 
8. that by which anything begins to be, the origin, active 
cause (a sense in which the philosopher Anaximander, 
8th cent. b. c, is said to have been the first to use the 
word ; cf. Simpl. on Aristot. phys. f. 9 p. 326 ed. Brandis 
and 32 p. 334 ed. Brandis, [cf. Teichmiiller, Stud, zur 
Gesch. d. BegrifEe, pp. 48 sqq. 560 sqq.]) : ^ apxf} rijs 
KTiaecos, of Christ as the divine Xoyoy, Rev. iii. 14 (cf. 
Diisterdieck ad loc. ; Clem. Al. protrept. 1, p. 6 ed. 
Potter, [p. 30 ed. Sylb.] 6 Xdyo? dpxfj dela twv ttiivtcou ; 
in Evang. Nicod. c. 23 [p. 308 ed. Tdf., p. 736 ed. 
Thilo] the devil is called ^ dpxf] rov Oavdrov Koi pi^a 
T^y dfiapTias)- 4. the extremity of a thing : of the cor- 
ners of a sail. Acts x. 11 ; xi. 5; (Hdt. 4, 60; Diod. 
I, 35 ; al.). 5. the Jirst place, principality, rule, magis- 
tracy, [cf. Eng. * authorities '], (apxa> tivos) : Lk. xii. 1 1 ; 
XX. 20 ; Tit. iii. 1 ; office given in charge (Gen. xl. 13, 21 ; 
2 Mace. iv. 10, etc.), Jude 6. Hence the term is trans- 
ferred by Paul to angels and demons holding dominions 
entrusted to them in the order of things (see dyyeXos, 
2 [cf. Bp. Lghtft. on Col. i. 16 ; Mey. on Eph. i. 21]) : 
Ro. viii. 38; 1 Co. xv. 24; Eph. i. 21; iii. 10; vi. 12; 
Col. i. 16 ; ii. 10, 15. See e^ovala, 4 c. /3/3. * 

0PXTV°s» "O"' ^tlj'j leading, furnishing the first cause or 
occasion : Eur. Hipp. 881 ; Plat. Crat. p. 401 d. ; chiefly 
used as subst. 6, ^, dpxr]y6i, {dpxrj and ayco) ', 1. the 
chief leader, prince : of Christ, Acts v. 31 ; (Aeschyl. 
Ag. 259; Thuc. 1, 132; Sept. Is. iii. 5 sq.; 2 Chr. xxiii. 
14, and often). 2. one that takes the lead in any thing 
(1 Mace. X. 47 dpx- Xo'ycoi' flprjviKcip) and thus affords an 
example, a predecessor in a matter : rrjs TricxTfcos, of Christ, 
Heb. xii. 2 (who in the pre-eminence of his faith far sur- 
passed the examples of faith commemorated in ch. xi.), 
[al. bring this under the next head ; yet cf. Kurtz ad 
loc.]. So dpxTjyos dpaprias, Mic. i. 13; f?jXouy, Clem. 
Rom. 1 Cor. 14, 1 ; rrjs a-Tacrecos Kal dixoa-racrias, ibid. 51, 
1 ; rrjs dnoa-raaias, of the devil, Iren. 4, 40, 1 ; Totavrijs 
(j)iko(To(pias, of Thales, Aristot. met. 1, 3, 7 [p. 983" 20]. 
Hence 3. the author : ttjs (coris, Acts iii. 15 ; ttjs a-atTT]- 
pias, Heb. ii. 10. (Often so in prof. auth. : rav Trdvraiu, 
of God, [Plato] Tim. Locr. p. 96 c. ; tov ykvovs rau dv- 
SpancDv, of God, Diod. 5, 72 ; dpxrjyos xal airios, leader and 
author, are often joined, as Polyb. 1, 66, 10; Hdian. 2, 6, 
22 [14 ed. Bekk.]). Cf. Bleek on Heb. vol. ii.l,p.301 sq.* 

dpxi, (fr. apxco, dpxos), an inseparable prefix, usually 
to names of office or dignity, to designate the one who 
is placed over the rest that hold the office (Germ. Ober-, 
Erz-, [Eng. arch- {chief, high-)']), as dpxdyyeXos, dpxi- 
noiprjp [q. v.], dpxiepeiis, dpxiarpos, apxifwoiixos, dpxvne- 
peTT]s (in Egypt, inscriptions), etc., most of which belong 
to Alexand. and Byzant. Grk. Cf. Thiersch, De Pen- 
tateuchi versione Alex. p. 77 sq. 



apX-i€paTiK6s, -fj, -6v, (apxi and UpariKOi, and this fr. 
Upaopai [to be a priest]), high-priestly, pontijical : yevos, 
Acts iv. 6, [so Corp. Inscrr. Graec. no. 4363 ; see Schiirer 
as cited s. v. dpxieptvs, 2 fin.]. (Joseph, antt. 4, 4, 7 ; 6, 
6,3; 15,3, 1.)* 

opx-tcpcvs, -eas, 6, chief priest, high-priest. 1. He who 
above ali others was honored with the title of priest, the 
chief of the priests, Vnjn ?n3 (Lev. xxi. 10; Num. xxxv. 
25, [later E/Kin jni), 2 K. xxv. 18; 2 Chr. xLx. 11, etc.]) : 
Mt. xxvi. 3, and often in the Gospels, the Acts, and the 
Ep. to the Heb. It was lawful for liim to perform the 
common duties of the priesthood; but his chief duty 
was, once a year on the day of atonement, to enter the 
Holy of holies (from which the other priests were ex- 
cluded) and offer sacrifice for his own sins and the sins 
of the people (Lev. xvi. ; Ileb. ix. 7, 25), and to preside 
over the Sanhedrin, or supreme Council, when convened 
for judicial deliberations (Mt. xxvi. 3 ; Acts xxii. 5 ; 
xxiii. 2). According to the Mosaic law no one could 
aspire to the high-priesthood unless he were of the tribe 
of Aaron, and descended moreover from a high-priestly 
family ; and he on whom the office was conferred held 
it till death. But from the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, 
when the kings of the Seleucidte and afterwards the 
Herodian princes and the Romans arrogated to them- 
selves the power of appointing the high-priests, the office 
neither remained vested in the pontifical family nor was 
conferred on any one for life ; but it became venal, and 
could be transferred from one to another according to 
the will of civil or military rulers. Hence it came to 
pass, that during the one hundred and seven years inter- 
vening between Herod the Great and the destruction of 
the holy city, twenty-eight persons held the pontifical 
dignity (Joseph, antt. 20, 10; see "Away). Cf. Win. 
R WB. s. V. Hoherpriester; Oehler in Herzog vi. p. 198 
sqq. ; [BB.DD. s. vv. Highpriest, Priest, etc. The 
names of the 28 (27 ?) above alluded to are given, to- 
gether with a brief notice of each, in an art. by Schiirer 
in the Stud. u. Krit. for 1872, pp. 597-607]. 2. The 
plur. dpxiepe'ts, which occurs often in the Gospels and 
Acts, as Mt. ii. 4 ; xvi. 21 ; xxvi. 3 ; xxvii. 41 ; Mk. viii. 31 ; 
xiv. 1 ; XV. 1 ; Lk. xix. 47 ; xxii. 52, 66 ; xxiii. 4 ; xxiv. 20 ; 
Jn. vii. 32 ; xi. 57 ; xviii. 35 ; Acts iv. 23 ; v. 24 ; ix. 14, 
21 ; xxii. 30 ; xxiii. 14, etc., and in Josephus, comprises, 
in addition to the one actually holding the high-priestly 
office, both those who had previously discharged it and 
although deposed continued to have great power in the 
State (Joseph, vita 38 ; b. j. 2, 12, 6 ; 4, 3, 7 ; 9 ; 4, 4, 3; 
see "Away above), as well as the members of the families 
from which high-priests were created, provided they had 
much influence in public affairs (Joseph, b. j. 6, 2, 2). 
See on this point the learned discussion by Schiirer, Die 
dpxiepeU im N. T., in the Stud. u. Krit. for 1872, p. 
593 sqq. and in his Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 23 iii. p. 407 
sqq. [Prof. Schiirer, besides rcAdewing the opinions of 
the more recent writers, contends that in uo instance 
where indubitable reference to the heads of the twenty- 
four classes is aiad'S (neither in the Sept. 1 Chr. xxiv 



apxt''"'oifi'r}v 



78 



apxa> 



3 sq. ; 2 Chr. xxxvi. 14 ; Ezra x. 5 ; Xeh. xii. 7 ; nor in 
Joseph, antt. 7, 14, 7) are they called ap;(iepetr ; that the 
nearest approximations to this term are periphrases 
such as apxovTfs ra>v lepioiv, Neh. xii. 7, or (f)iiXapxoi, rav 
itpeuiv, Esra apocr. (1 Esdr.) viii. 92 (94) ; Joseph, antt. 
11, 5, 4 ; and that the word apxi-tpeis was restricted in its 
application to those who actually held, or had held, the 
hi^h-priestly office, together with the members of the 
few prominent families from wliich the high-priests stiU 
continued to be selected, cf. Acts iv. 6; Joseph, b. j. 4, 
3, 6.] 3. In the Ep. to the Heb. Christ is called 
' high-priest,' because by undergoing a bloody death he 
offered himself as an expiatory sacrifice to God, and 
has entered the heavenly sanctuary where he continually 
intercedes on our behalf: ii. 17; iii. 1 ; iv. 14 ; v. 10 ; 
vi. 20; vii. 26; viii. 1 ; ix. 11 ; cf. Winzer, De sacerdotis 
officio, quod Christo tribuitur in Ep. ad Hebr. (three 
Programs), Leips. 1825 sq. ; Riehm, Lehrbegriff des He- 
braerbriefes, ii. pp. 431-488. In Gi-k. writ, the word is 
used by Ildt. 2, [(37), 142,] 143 and 151 ; Plat. legg. 12 
p. 947 a.; Polyb. 23, 1, 2; 32, 22, 5 ; Plut. Numa c. 9, 
al. ; [often in Inscrr.]; once (viz. Lev. iv. 3) in the 
Sept., where lepdii peyas is usual, in the O. T. Apocr. 1 
Esdr. V. 40 ; ix. 40, and often in the bks. of Mace. 

dpXi-iroi[jiTiv, -61/0? [so L T Tr WII KG (after Mss.), but 
Grsb. al. -pfjv, -pevos; ci. Lob. Paralip. p 195 sq. ; Steph. 
Thesaur. s. v. ; Chandler § 580], 6, a bibl. word [Test. 
xii. Patr. test. Jud. § 8], chief shepherd : of Christ the 
head of the church, 1 Pet. v. 4 ; see iroipTju, h* 

"Apxiirrros [Chandler § 308], -ov, 6, [i. e. master of the 
horse], Archippus, a certain Christian at Colossse : Col. 
iv. 17; Philem. 2. [Cf. B. D. s. v.; Bp. Lghtft. on Col. 
and Philem. p. 308 sq.] * 

dpX.wruva-ywyos, -ov, 6, {(rvvaycoyr)) , ruler of a synagogue, 
npJ^n iyx"i : Mk. v. 22, 35 sq. 38 ; Lk. viii. 49 ; xiii. 14 ; 
Acts xiii. 15 ; xviii. 8, 1 7. It was his duty to select the 
readers or teachers in the synagogue, to examine the 
discourses of the public speakers, and to see that all 
things were done with decency and in accordance with 
ancestral usage ; [cf. Alex.'s Kitto s. v. Synagogue]. 
(Not found in prof. writ. ; [yet Schiirer (Theol. Literatur- 
Zeit., 1878, p. 5) refers to Corp. Inscrr. Graec. no 2007 f. 
(Addenda ii. p. 994), no. 2221° (ii. p. 1031), nos. 9894, 
9906 ; Monimsen, Inscrr. Regni Neap. no. 3657 ; Garrucci, 
Cimitero degli antichi Ebreif p. 67; Lampridius, Vita 
Alexandr. Sever, c. 28 ; Vopiscus, Vit. Saturnin. c. 8 ; 
Code.x Theodos. xvi. 8,4, 13, 14; also Acta Pilat. in 
Tdf.'s Ev. Apocr. ed. 2, pp. 221, 270, 275, 284; Justin, 
dial. c. Tryph. c. 137 ; Epiph. haer. 30, 18 ; Euseb. h. e. 
7, 10, 4 ; see fully in his Gemeindeverfassung der Juden 
in Rom in d. Kaiserzeit nach d. Inschriften dargestellt 
(Leips. 1879), p. 25 sq.].) * 

dpxi^eKTwv, 'ovos, 6, (rtKrau, q. v.), a master-builder, 
architect, the superintendent in the erection of buildings : 
1 Co. iii. 10. (Ildt., Xen., Plat, and subseq. writ.; Is. 
iii. 3; Sir. xxxviii. 27; 2 Mace. ii. 29.)* 

dpXv-T€XwvT]s, -ov, 6, a chief of the tax-collectors, chief 
publican : Lk. xix. 2. [See TfX«w;f.] * 



*'PX^'^P''*^^^'*5, -ov, 6, (rpiicKivov [ov -voi (sc. oikos), a room 

with three couches]), the superintendent of a dining-room, 
a rpiKKiviapxT]!, table-master : Jn. ii. 8 sq. [cf. B.D. s. v. 
Governor]. It differs from " the master of a feast," 
a-vpno(Tidpxy)s, toast-master, who was one of the guests se- 
lected by lot to prescribe to the rest the mode of drink- 
ing ; cf. Sir. .XXXV. (xxxii.) 1. But it was the duty of 
the apxtrpiKXivos to place in order the tables and couches, 
arrange the courses, taste the food and wine beforehand, 
etc. (Heliod. 7, 27.) [Some regard the distinction be- 
tween the two words as obliterated in later Grk. ; cf. 
Soph. Lex. s. v., and Schaff's Lange's Com. on Jn. 1. c.] * 

apxo|xai, see apxu>- 

apxo) ; [fr. Horn, down] ; to be first. 1, to be the first 
to do (anything), to begin, — a sense not found in the 
Grk. Bible. 2. to be chief, leader, ruler : rivos [B. 169 
(147)], Mk. X. 42; Ro. .xv. 1 2 (fr. Is. xi. 10). SeeSpxatv. 
Mid., pres. apxopai ; fut. ap^opai (once [_twice'], Lk. xiii. 
26 [but not Tr mrg. WH mrg. ; xxiii. 30]) ; 1 aor. rjp^a- 
pT]v; to begin, make a beginning: ano rivoi, Acts x. 37 
[B. 79 (69) ; cf. Matth. § 558] ;" 1 Pet. iv. 17; by bra- 
chylogy dp^dptvos dno rivoi ecoj rivos for, having begun 
from some person or thing (and continued or continu- 
ing) to some person or thing : Mt. xx. 8 ; Jn. viii. 9 [i. e. 
Rec] ; Acts i. 22 ; cf. W. § 66, 1 c. ; [B. 374 (320)] ; dp^d- 
pevop is used impers. and absol. a beginning being made, 
Lk. xxiv. 27 (so in Hdt. 3, 91 ; cf. W. 624 (580) ; [B. 374 
sq. (321)]) ; carelessly, dp^dpevos: dno Mcouo-ecoy kqi dno 
ndvTwv npo(f)T]TU)v tirjpprjvevev for, beginning from Mo- 
ses he went through all the prophets, Lk. xxiv. 27 ; W. 
§ 6 7, 2 ; [B. 374 (320 sq.)]. S>v ^p^aronoiflurf Ka\ di8d- 
cTKeiv, axpi Tis fjpjpas tvhich he began and continued both 
to do and to teach, until etc.. Acts i. 1 [W. § 66, 1 c. ; B. 
u. s.]. "Apxopai is connected with an inf. and that so of- 
ten, esp. in the historical books, that formerly most inter- 
preters thought it constituted a periphrasis for the finite 
form of the verb standing in the inf., as rfp^aro Kr^pva-crtiv 
for (KTjpv^f. But through the influence jn-incipally of 
Fritzsche (on Mt. p. 539 sq.), cf. W. § 65, 7 d., it is now 
conceded that the theory of a periphrasis of this kind was 
a rash assumption, and that there is scarcely an example 
which cannot be reduced to one of the following classes : 
a. the idea of beginning has more or less weight or im- 
portance, so that it is brought out by a separate word : 
Mt. xi. 7 (the disciples of John having retired, Christ 
began to speak concerning John, which he did not do 
while they were present) ; Lk. iii. 8 (do not even begin 
to say; make not even an attempt to excuse yourselves) ; 
Lk. XV. 14 (the beginning of want followed hard upon the 
squandering of his goods) ; Lk. xxi. 28 ; 2 Co. iii. 1 ; esp. 
when the beginnins: of an action is contrasted with its 
continuance or its repetition, Mk. vi. 7 ; viii. 31 (cf. ix. 
31 ; X. 33 sq.) ; or with the end of it, Lk. xiv. 30 (opp. 
to (KTfXea-ai) ; Jn. xiii. 5 (cf. 12). b. apx- denotes some- 
thing as begun by some one, others following : Acts xxvii. 
35 sq. [W. § 65, 7 d.]. c. apx- indicates that a thing was 
but just begun when it was interrupted by something 
else : Mt. xii. 1 (they had begun to pluck ears of corn. 



dpx 



<ov 



79 



aaehyeia 



but they were prevented from continuing by the inter- 
ference of the Pharisees) ; Mt. xxvi. 22 (.Jesus answered 
before all had finished), 74 ; Mk. ii. 23 ; iv. 1 (he had 
scarcely begun to teach, when a multitude gathered unto 
him) ; Mk. vi. 2 ; x. 41 ; Lk. v. 21 ; xii. 45 sq. ; xiii. 25 ; 
Acts xi. 15 (cf. x. 44) ; xviii. 26, and often, d. the ac- 
tion itself, instead of its beginning, might indeed have 
been mentioned ; but in order that the more attention 
may be given to occurrences which seem to the writer 
to be of special importance, their initial stage, their be- 
ginning, is expressly pointed out : Mk. xiv. 65 ; Lk. xiv. 
18 ; Acts ii. 4, etc. e. ap\. occurs in a sentence which 
has wrown out of the blending of two statements : Mt. iv. 
17; xvi. 21 (fr. airo rort enripv^e . ■ . eSet^e, and Tore 
{jp^aro Kr]pxi<ra€ii> . . . deiKvveiv). The inf. is wanting 
when discoverable from the context : dpxofifvov, sc. to 
discharge the Messianic office, Lk. iii. 23 [W. 349 
(328)] ; dp^d/xevos sc. Xeyeii/, Acts xi. 4. [COMP. : iv- 
(-^ai), Trpo-eu-{-p.a(,), vir-, Trpo-vn -ap;i^ci).] 

apxwv, -ovTOi, 6, (pres. ptcp. of the verb apx(o), [fr. 
Aeschyl. down], a ruler, commander, chief, leader : used 
of Jesus, apx<^v TOiv ^aaiKeoiv ttjs yfjs, Rev. i. 5 ; of the 
rulers of nations, Mt. xx. 25 ; Acts iv. 26 ; vii. 35 ; 
univ. of magistrates, Ro. xiii. 3 ; Acts xxiii. 5 ; espe- 
cially judges, Lk. xii. 58; Acts vii. 27, 35 (where note 
the antithesis : whom they refused as apxoma koI Biku- 
(rrrjv, him God sent as ap^ovra — leader, ruler — Ka\ 'KvTpo)- 
tI]v) ; Acts xvi. 19. ol ap)(ovTfs tov alwpos rovrov, those 
who in the present age (see aldyv, 3) by nobility of birth, 
learning and wisdom, power and authority, wield the 
greatest influence, whether among Jews or Gentiles, 1 Co. 
ii. 6, 8 ; cf. Neander ad loc. p. 62 sqq. Of the members 
of the Jewish Sanhedrin : Lk. xxiii. 13, 35; xxiv. 20; 
Jn. iii. 1 ; vii. 26, 48 ; xii. 42 ; Acts iii. 17; iv. 5, 8 ; xiii. 
27; xiv. 5. of the officers presiding over synagogues : 
Mt. ix. 18, 23 ; Lk. viii. 41 (apx^v Trjs a-vvaycoyrjs, cf. Mk. 
v. 22 dpxicrvvdya>yos), and perhaps also Lk. xviii. 18; 
apxoiv TUiv ^apia-alcov, one who has great influence among 
the Pharisees, Lk. xiv. 1. of the devil, the prince of 
evil spirits : (6) apxo>v rwv Saifiovicov, INIt. ix. 34 ; xii. 24 ; 
Mk. iii. 22 ; Lk. xi. 15 ; 6 apx- tov Koafiov, the ruler of the 
irreligion* mass of mankind, Jn. xii. 31 ; xiv. 30; xvi. 11, 
(in rabbin, writ. D 7lJ?n IK' ] opx* toO alavoi rovrov, 
Ignat. ad Eph. 1 9, 1 [ad Magn. 1,3]; apxa>v rov Kaipov rrjs 
dvop.ias, Barn. ep. 18, 2) ; rfjs f^ovtrias rov aepos, Eph. ii. 2 
(see df)p). [See Hort in Diet, of Chris. Biog., s.v. Archon.]* 

ap<d(ia, Tos, TO, (fr. APQ to prepare, whence dprvco to 
season ; [al. connect it with r. ar (dp6(o) to plough (cf . 
Gen. xxvii. 27) ; al. al.]), spice, perfume : Mk. xvi. 1 ; Lk. 
xxiii. 56 ; xxiv. 1 ; Jn. xix. 40. (2 K. xx. 13 ; Esth. ii. 12 ; 
Cant. iv. 10, 16. [Hippocr.], Xen., Theophr. and subseq. 
writ.) * 

'Ao-tt, 6, (Chald. XDK to cure), ^sa, king of Judah, son 
of king Abijah (1 K.' xv. 8 sqq.) : Mt. 1. 7 sq. [L T Tr 
WH read 'Ao-d<^ q. v.] * 

oo-aCvci) : in 1 Th. iii. 3, Kuenen and Cobet (in their 
N. T. ad fidem cod. Vat., Lugd. 1860 [pref. p. xc.]), fol- 
iowing Lchm. [who followed Valckenaer in following J. 



J. Reiske (Animad. ad Polyb. p. 68) ; see Valck. Opuscc. 
ii. 246-249] in his larger edit., conjectured and received 
into their text fxrfdfv daaivtaBai, which they think to be 
equiv. to axOeadai, ;(aX67rcor (f)fp(iv. But there is no ne- 
cessity for changing the Rec. (see aaivw, 2 b. /3.), nor can 
it be shown that do-aiVco is used by Grk. writ, for dado).* 

d-o-dXcvTOS, -ov, (o-aXevw), unshaken, unmoved: prop. 
Acts xxvii. 41 ; metaph. ^aaiXeia, not liable to disorder 
and overthrow, firm, stable, Heb. xii. 28. (Eur. Bacch. 
391 ; i\fv6fpia, Diod. 2, 48 ; (vbaifiovia, ibid. 3, 47 ; fjavxia, 
Plat. Ax. 370 d.; Plut., al.)* 

'Ao-cuJ), 6, (^DK collector), a man's name, a clerical 
error for R G 'Ao-d (q. v.), adopted by L T Tr WH in 
Mt. i. 7 sq.* 

o-o-pto-Tos, -01/, (a^evvvpt), unquenched (Ovid, inexstinC' 
tus), unquenchable (Vulg. inexstinguibilis) : nvp, Mt. iii. 
12; Lk. iii. 1 7 ; Mk. ix. 43, and R G L br. in 45. (Often 
in Hom. ; niip aa^. of the perpetual fire of Vesta, Dion. 
Hal. antt. 1, 76 ; [of the fire on the altar, PhUo de 
ebriet. § 34 (Mang. i. 378) ; de vict. off. § 5 (Mang. ii. 
254) ; of the fire of the magi, Strabo 15, (3)15; see 
also Plut. symp. 1. vii. probl. 4 ; Aelian. nat. an. 5, 3 ; cf . 
Heinichen on Euseb. h. e. 6, 41, 15].) * 

do-e'Pcia, -as, rj, (da-e^ljs, q. v.), want of reverence towards 
God, impiety, ungodliness : Ro. i. 18 ; 2 Tim. ii. 16 ; Tit. 
ii. 12 ; plur. ungodly thoughts and deeds, Ro. xi. 26 (fr. 
Is. lix. 20) ; ra epya daf^eias [Treg. br. d<Tfj3.'] works oj 
ungodliness, a Hebraism, Jude 15, cf. W. § 34, 3 b. ; [B. 
§ 132, 10]; aX tnidvulai ra>v daf^doiv their desires to do 
ungodly deeds, Jude 18. (In Grk. writ. fr. [Eur.], Plat, 
and Xen. down ; in the Sept. it corresponds chiefly to 

j^k/d.)* 

do-cPco), -<5 ; 1 aor. rjae^rjara ; (dat^rjs, q. v.) ; from 
[Aeschyl.], Xen. and Plato down ; to be ungodly, act im- 
piously : 2 Pet. ii. 6 ; dat^fiv epya avt^eias [Treg. br. 
dcTf^fias'], Jude 15, cf. W. 222 (209); [B. 149 (130)]. 
(Equiv. to j;^3, Zeph. iii. 11 ; ^W"), Dan. ix. 5.) • 

do-cpvjs, -«9, (o-e'jSo) to reverence) ; fr. Aeschyl. and 
Thuc. down, Sept. for J^K''i ; destitute of reverential aive 
towards God, contemning God, impious : Ro. iv. 6 ; v. 6 ; 

1 Tim. i. 9 (joined here with dfiapruXos, as in 1 Pet. iv. 
18) ; 2 Pet. ii. 5 ; iii. 7 ; Jude 4, 15.* 

do-tX-yeia, -as, f], the conduct and character of one who 
is datKyris (a word which some suppose to be com- 
pounded of a priv. and SeXy?;, the name of a city in Pi- 
sidia whose citizens excelled in strictness of morals [so 
Etym. Magn. 152, 38 ; per contra cf. Suidas 603 d.] ; 
others of a intens. and (raXaytlv to disturb, raise a din ; 
others, and now the majority, of a priv. and <Tt\y<a i. q. 
6f\ya>, not affecting pleasantly, exciting disgust), un- 
bridled lust, excess, licentiousness, lasciviousness, wanton- 
ness, outrageousness, shamelessness, insolence : Mk. vii. 
22 (where it is uncertain what particular vice is spoken 
of) ; of gluttony and venery, Jude 4 ; plur., 1 Pet. iv. 3 ; 

2 Pet. ii. 2 (for Rec. diruiKfiais), 18; of carnality, 
lasciviousness: 2 Co. xii. 21 ; Gal. v. 19 ; Eph. iv. 19; 2 
Pet. ii. 7 ; plur. " wanton (acts or) manners, as filthy 
words, indecent bodily movements, unchaste handling of 



i<rrjfM><t 



80 



Aat,ap)(Tj<i 



males and females, etc." (Fritzsche), Ro. xiii. 13. (In 
bibl. Grk. besides only in Sap. xiv. 26 and 3 Mace. ii. 26. 
Among Grk. writ, used by Plat., Isocr. et sqq. ; at length 
by Plut. [Lucull. 38] and Lcian. [dial, meretr. 6] of the 
wantonness of women \_Loh. ad Phryn. p. 184 n.].) Cf. 
Tittmann i. p. 151 sq. ; [esp. Trench § xvi.].* 

a(rT)|ios, -01/, {(rfjfia a mark), unmarked or unstamped 
(money) ; unknown, of no marl; insignijicant, ignoble : 
Acts xxi, 39. (3 Mace. i. 3 ; in Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. down ; 
trop. fr. Eur. down.) * 

'Ao-^p, 6, an indecl. Hebr. prop, name, (te^K [i- e. hap- 
py. Gen. XXX. 13]), (in Joseph. "Aa-rjpos, -ov, 6), Asher, 
the eighth son of the patriarch Jacob : Lk. ii. 36 ; Rev. 
vii. 6.* 

oirCfvcio, -af, j}, (dcrdevfis), [fr. Hdt. down], ^vant of 
strength, uieakness, infirmity; a. of Body; a. its native 
weakness and frailty : 1 Co. xv. 43 ; 2 Co. xiii. 4. p. feeble- 
ness of health ; sickness : Jn. v. 5 ; xi. 4 ; Lk. xiii. 11, 12 ; 
Gal. iv. 13 {aa-6iveia tt]s crapKos) ; Heb. xi. 34 ; in plur. : 
Mt. viii. 1 7 ; Lk. v. 15 ; viii. 2 ; Acts xxviii. 9 ; 1 Tim. v. 
23. b. of Soul ; want of the strength and capacity re- 
quisite a. to understand a thing : Ro. vi. 1 9 (where cktO. 
frapKos denotes the weakness of human nature), p. to do 
thinofs o-reat and glorious, as want of human wisdom, of 
skill in speaking, in the management of men : 1 Co. ii. 
3. -y. to restrain corrupt desires ; proclivity to sin : Heb. 
V. 2 ; vii. 28 ; plur. the various kinds of this proclivity, 
Heb. iv. 15. 8. to bear trials and troubles: Ro. viii. 26 
(where read t^ aaOevela for Rec. rdii dcr6fveiais) ', 2 Co. 
xi. 30 ; xii. 9 ; plur. the mental [?] states in which this 
weakness manifests itself : 2 Co. xii. 5, 9 sq.* 

ao-6(V€(i>, -co ; impf. fjadevow, pf. rjadevrjKa {'2 Co. xi. 21 
L T TrWH) ; 1 aor. i^aOivrjaa ; (ao-^cj/^jy) ; [fr. Eur. down] ; 
to he weak, feeble ; univ. to be without strength, power- 
less : Ro. viii. 3 ; rhetorically, of one who purposely ab- 
stains from the use of his strength, 2 Co. xiii. 4 ; and 
of one who has no occasion to prove his strength, 2 Co. 
xiii. 9 ; contextually, to be unable to wield and hold sway, 
over others, 2 Co. xi. 21 ; by oxymoron, orav aa-Oeva, rore 
bvvaroi flfii when I am weak in human strength, then am 
I strong in strength divine, 2 Co. xii. 10 ; ei's riva, to be 
weak towards one, 2 Co. xiii. 3 ; with a dat. of the respect 
added : TriVrei, to be weak in faith, Ro. iv. 19; TriWet, to 
be doubtful about things lawful and unlawful to a Chris- 
tian, Ro. xiv. 1 ; simple ddBevelv with the same idea sug- 
gested, Ro. xiv. 2, 21 [T WH om. Ir mrg. br.] ; 1 Co. 
viii. 9 Rec, 1 1 sq. ; rt? afrdfvel, kuX ovk dadfVQ> ; who is 
weak (in his feelings and conviction about things law- 
ful), and I am not filled with a compassionate sense of 
the same weakness? 2 Co. xi. 29. contextually, to be 
weak in meani<, needy, poor : Acts xx. 35 (so [Arstph. 
pax 636] ; Eur. in Stob. 145 vol. ii. 168 ed. Gaisf.), cf. 
De Wette [more fully Hackett, per contra Meyer] ad 
loc. Specially of debility in health : with voaois added, 
Lk. iv. 40 ; simply, to be feeble, sick: Lk. vii. 10 [R G Tr 
mrg. br.] ; Mt. xxv. 36, 39 L txt. T Tr WH ; Jn. iv. 46 ; 
xi. 1-3, 6; Acts ix. 37; Phil. ii. 26 sq. ; 2 Tim. iv. 20; 
Jas. V. 14 ; oi daOfvoxivTfs, and dcrOevovvrfs, the sick, sick 



folks : Mt. x. 8 ; Mk. vi. 56 ; Lk. ix. 2 Rec. ; Jn. v. 3, 7, 
13 Tdf. ; vi. 2; Acts xix. 12.* 

d(r6€VTi|ia, -aros, to, {dcrdevea), infirmity : Ro. xv, 1 
(where used of error arising from weakness of mind). 
[In a physical sense in Aristot. hist. an. 1 1, 7 vol. i. 638% 
37 ; gen. an. 1, 18 ibid. p. 726* 15.]* 

cio-6eW|s, -es, {rb (rdevos strength), weak, infirm, feeble ', 
[fr. Pind. down] ; a. univ, : Mt. xxvi. 41 ; Mk. xiv. 38 ; 
1 Pet. iii. 7 ; to dadevfs roO 6eov, the act of God in which 
weakness seems to appear, viz. that the suffering of the 
cross should be borne by the Messiah,l Co. i. 25. b. spec. : 
contextually, unable to achieve anything great, 1 Co. iv. 
10; destitute of power among men, 1 Co. i. 27 [Lchm. 
br.] ; weaker and inferior, fieXos, 1 Co. xii. 22 ; sluggish 
in doing right, Ro. v, 6 ; wanting in manliness and dig- 
nity, 2 Co. X. 10; used of the religious systems anterior 
to Christ, as having no power to promote piety and sal- 
vation, Gal. iv, 9; Heb, vii, 18; wanting in decision 
about things lawful and unlawful (see dadeveco), 1 Co. 
viii. 7, 9 L T Tr WH, 10; ix. 22; 1 Th. v, 14, c, of 
the body, feeble, sick: Mt. xxv. 39 R G L mrg., 43 sq. ; 
Lk. ix. 2 LTr br. ; x. 9; Acts iv. 9; v. 15 sq. ; 1 Co. 
xi. 30.* 

'Ao-Ca, -as, rj, Asia', 1. Asia proper, rj Ibluis koXov 
fiePT] 'Aala (Ptol. 5, 2), or proconsular Asia[of ten so called 
from the 1 6th cent, down ; but correctly speaking it was 
a provincia c o nsularis, although the ruler of it was vested 
with ' proconsular power.' The ' Asia ' of the N. T. 
must not be confounded with the * Asia proconsularis ' 
of the 4th cent.], embracing Mysia, Lydia, Phrygia and 
Caria [cf. Cic. pro Flac. c. 27] : Acts vi. 9 [L om. Tr mrg. 
br.] ; xvi. 6 sqq. ; 1 Pet. i. 1 ; Rev. i. 4 ; and, apparently. Acts 
xix. 26 ; XX. 16 ; 2 Co, i, 8 ; 2 Tim, i. 15, etc. Cf. Win. 
R W B. s. V, Asien ; Stark in Schenkel i. p. 261 sq. ; [BB. 
DD. s. V, Asia; Conyb. and Howson, St. Paul, ch. viii.; 
Wieseler, Chron. d. apost. Zeit. p. 31 sqq.]. 2. A 
part of proconsular Asia, embracing Mysia, Lydia, and 
Caria, (Plin. h. n. 5, 27, (28) [al. 5, 100]) : Acts ii. 9. 

'Aoriavos, -ov, 6, a native of Asia, Asian, Asiatic: Acts 
XX. 4. [(Thuc, al.)]« 

'Ao-idpx'HS, -ov, 6, an Asiarch, President of Asia : Acts 
xix. 31. Each of the cities of proconsular Asia, at the 
autumnal equinox, assembled its most honorable and 
opulent citizens, in order to select one to preside over 
the games to be exhibited that year, at his expense, in 
honor of the gods and the Roman emperor. Thereupon 
each city rejjorted the name of the person selected to a 
general assembly held in some leading city, as Ephesus, 
Smyrna, Sardis. This general council, called to koivov, 
selected ten out of the number of candidates, and sent 
them to the proconsul ; and the proconsul, apparently, 
chose one of these ten to preside over the rest. This 
explains how it is that in Acts 1. c. several Asiarchs 
are spoken of, wliile Eusebius h. e. 4, 15, 27 mentions 
only one; [perhaps also the title outlasted the ser- 
vice]. Cf. Meyer on Acts I.e.; Win. RWB. s. v. 
Asiarchen ; [BB.DD. s. v. ; but esp. Le Bas et Wadding' 
ton, Voyage Archeol. Inscrr. part. v. p. 244 sq.; Kuhn, 



lurcTia 



81 



acTTrjp 



i)ie stadtische u. biirgerl. Verf. des rom. Reichs, i. 106 
sqq. ; Marquardt, Rom. Sfcaatsverwalt. i. 374 sqq. ; Stark 
inSchenkeli.263;esp.Bp. i:<7^(/?. Polycarp, p. 987 sqq.].* 

da-iTia,-as, f], (aairosq. v.), abstinence from food (wheth- 
er voluntary or enforced) : ttoXXij long, Acts xxvii. 21. 
(Hdt. 3, 52; Eur. Suppl. 1105; [Aristot.probl. 10,35; 
eth. Nic. 10 p. 1180^ 9]; Joseph, antt. 12, 7; al.)* 

d-<riTos,-o«', (o-tTor),/as<m(7; without having eaten : Acts 
xxvii. 33. (Horn. Od. 4, 788 ; then fr. Soph, and Thuc. 
down.)* 

ao-K€<i>, -w ; 1. to form by art, to adorn ; in Homer. 
2. to exercise (one's self), take pains, labor, strive ; foil. 
by an inf. (as in Xen. mem. 2, 1, 6 ; Cyr. 5, 5, 12, etc.) : 
Acts xxiv. 16.* 

WTK69, -ov, 6, a leathern bag or bottle, in which water or 
wine was kept: Mt. ix. 17; Mk. ii. 22; Lk. v. 37 sq. 
(Often in Grk. writ. fr. Horn, down ; Sept.) [BB.DD. 
s. V. Bottle ; Tristram, Nat. Hist, of the Bible, p. 92.] * 

dir|i€V(i>s, adv., (for rfantvas ; fr. rjdofiai), with joy, glad- 
ly : Acts ii. 41 [Rec] ; xxi. 1 7. (In Grk. writ. fr. Horn, 
[the adv. f r. Aeschyl.] down.) * 

a-a-o<^s, -ov, (^(To(f)6i), unwise, foolish: Eph. v. 15. 
[From Theogn. down.]* 

ao"n-d^o|xai ; [impf. fjana^ofiijv^ ; 1 aor. fi(Tnaa-diJ.r)p ; (fr. 
o-TTooj with a intensive [q. v., but cf. Vanicek p. 1163 ; 
Curtius, Das Verbum, i. 324 sq.] ; hence prop, to draio to 
one's se//[W. § 38, 7 fin.] ; cf. doKaipo) for <Tiiaipa>, daTrai- 
pa for a-ndipa), dcnrapi^cx) for anapi^o)^ ; [fr. Horn, down] ; 
a. with an ace. of the pers., to salute one, greet, bid wel- 
come, wish well to, (the IsraeUtes, on meeting and at 
parting, generally used the formula Jj'? Dl'?^/) ; used 
of those accosting any one : Mt. x. 12; Mk. ix. 15; xv. 
18; Lk. i. 40; Acts xxi. 19. of those who visit one to 
see him a little while, departing almost immediately af- 
terwards : Acts xviii. 22 ; xxi. 7 ; like the Lat. salutare, 
our ^pay one's respects to,' of those who show regard for 
a distinguished person by visiting him: Acts xxv, 13, 
(Joseph, antt. 1, 19, 5 ; 6, 11, 1). of those who greet one 
whom they meet in the way : Mt. v. 4 7 (in the East even 
now Christians and Mohammedans do not salute each 
other) ; Lk. x. 4 (as a salutation was made not merely by 
a slight gesture and a few words, but generally by em- 
bracing and kissing, a journey was retarded by saluting 
frequently), of those departing and bidding farewell: 
Acts XX. 1 ; xxi. 6 [R G]. of the absent, saluting by 
letter: Ro. xvi. 3, 5-23; 1 Co. xvi. 19; 2 Co. xiii. 12 
(13) ; Phil. iv. 21 sq. ; Col. iv. 10-12, 14 sq. ; 1 Th. v. 26, 
etc. iv (f)i\T]p.aTt : Ro. xvi. 16 ; 1 Co. xvi. 20 ; 2 Co. xiii. 
12 ; 1 Pet. V. 14. b. with an ace. of the thing, to receive 
joyfully, welcome: ras enayyeXlas, Heb. xi. 13, (ttiv avfi- 
(jiopdv, Eur. Ion 587; ttjv fvvoiav, Joseph, antt. 6, 5, 3 ; 
Toiis \6yovs, ibid. 7, 8, 4; so saluto, Verg. Aen. 3, 524). 
[CoMP. : diT-ao'TTd^oprti.'] 

ourira(rii6s, -oC, 6, (acTTrafo/iai), a salutation, — either 
oral : Mt. xxiii. 7 ; Mk. xii. 38 ; Lk. i. 29, 41, 44 ; xi. 43 ; 
XX. 46 ; or written : 1 Co. xvi. 21 ; Col. iv. 18 ; 2 Th. iii. 
1 7. [From Theogn. down.] * 

d-o-iriXos, -ov, ((TTrtXo? a spot), spotless : dfivos, 1 Pet. i. 



19 ; (tmros, Hdian. 5, 6, 16 [7 ed. Bekk.] ; pijXov, Anthol. 
Pal. 6, 252, 3). metaph. free from censure, irreproach- 
able, 1 Tim. vi. 14; free from vice, unsullied, 2 Pet. iii. 
14 ; dno tov Koafiov, Jas. i. 27 [B. § 132, 5]. (In eccl. 
writ.) * 

dcrirCs, -i8os, 17, an asp, a small and most venomous ser- 
pent, the bite of which is fatal unless the part bitten be 
immediately cut away: Ro. iii. 13. (Deut. xxxii. 33; 
Is. XXX. 6 [etc. Hdt., Aristot., al.] Ael. nat. an. 2, 24 ; 6, 
38 ; Plut. mor. p. 380 f. i. e. de Isid. et Osir. § 74 ; Op- 
pian. cyn. 3, 433.) [Cf. BB.DD. s. v. Asp ; Tristram, Nat. 
Hist, of the Bible, p. 270 sqq.]* 

ocrirovSos, -ov, {mrovbri a libation, which, as a kind of 
sacrifice, accompanied the making of treaties and com- 
pacts ; cf. Lat. spondere) ; [fr. Thuc. down] ; 1. with- 
out a treaty or covenant ; of things not mutually agreed 
upon, e. g. abstinence from hostiUties, Thuc. 1, 3 7, etc. 
2. that cannot be persuaded to enter into a covenant, im- 
placable, (in this sense fr. Aeschyl. down ; esp. in the 
phrase acrirovhoi noKefios, Dem. pro cor. p. 314, 16 ; 
Polyb. 1, 65, 6 ; [Philo de sacrif. § 4] ; Cic. ad Att. 9, 

10, 5 ; [cf. Trench § Iii.]) : joined with aaropyos, Ro. i. 
31 Rec; 2 Tim. iii. 3.* 

durcrdpiov, -ov, to, an assarium or assarius, the name of 
a coin equal to the tenth part of a drachma [see Sj/vapioi/], 
(dimin. of the Lat. as. Rabbin. "^D'K), [a penny'] : Mt. x. 
29 ; Lk. xu. 6. (Dion. Hal., Plut.i al.) [Cf. BB.DD. s. v. 
Farthing.] * 

do-o-ov, adv., nearer, (compar. of ayxi near [cf. eyyvj]) : 
Acts xxvii. 13 [here Rec.** 'Atro-. (or^Ao-o-. q. v.), Rec*""*'* 
aaa-., (cf. Tdf. ad loc.) ; but see Meyer]. (Hom., Hdt., 
tragic poets; Joseph, antt. 19, 2, 4.)* 

"Ao-o-os [so all edd., perh. better -a-dos ; Chandler § 31 7, 
cf. § 319 ; Pape, Eigennamen s. v.], -ov, f], Assos, a mari- 
time city in Asia Minor, on the ^gean Sea [GuK of 
Adramyttium], and nine [ace. to Tab. Peuting. (ed. 
Fortia d'Urban, Paris 1845, p. 170) 20 to 25] miles [see 
Hackett on Acts as below] distant [to the S.] from Troas, 
a city of Lesser Phrygia : Acts xx. 13 sq. ; [formerly read 
also in Acts xxvii. 1 3 after the Vulg. ; cf . aaaov. See 
Papers of the Archseol. Inst, of America, Classical 
Series i. (1882) esp. pp. 60 sqq.].* 

currarew, -w ; (ncTTaTos unstable, strolling about ; cf. 
aKaTaa-raTos) ; to wander about, to rove without a settled 
abode, [A. V. to have no certain dtvelling-place'] : 1 Co. iv. 

11. (Anthol. Pal. appendix 39, 4.)* 

otrreios, -ov, {aa-rv a city) ; 1. of the city ; of pol- 
ished manners (opp. to aypotKos rustic), genteel, (fr. Xen. 
and Plat. down). 2. elegant (of body), comely, fair^ 
(Judith xi. 23 ; Aristaenet. 1, 4, 1 and 19, 8) : of Mosej 
(Ex. ii. 2), Heb. xi. 23 ; with tw 6e(o added, unto God, 
God being judge, i. e. truly fair. Acts vii. 20 ; cf. W. §31,4 
a. p. 212 (199); [248(232)]; B. 179(156); (Philo, vit. 
Moys. i. § 3, says of Moses yfvvT)6e\s 6 irais evdvs oy^nv eve- 
(pT]V€v dareioTepav ^ kut IdidiTTjv). [Cf. Trench §cvi.j * 

do-TTip, -fpos, 6, [fr. r. star (prob. as strewn over the 
sky), cf. aarpov, Lat. Stella, Germ. Stern, Eng. star; Fick, 
Pt. i. 250; Curtius § 205; Vanicek p. 1146; fr. Horn. 



aarT}pLKTO<i 



82 



aaodrta 



down]; a star: Mt. ii. 7, 9, 10 [ace. -epav N* C; see 
apcrT]v fin.] ; xxiv. 29 ; Mk. xiii. 25 ; 1 Co. xv. 41 ; Rev. 
vi. 13; viii. 10-12; ix. 1; xii. 1, 4; 6 darqp avrov, the 
star betokening his birth, Mt. ii. 2 (i. e. ' the star of the 
Messiah,' on which cf. Bertholdt, Christologia Judaeo- 
rum §14; Anger, Der Stern der Weisen, in Niedner's 
Zeitschr. f. d. histor. Theol. for 1847, fasc. 3 ; [B. D. s. v. 
Star of the Wise ]\Ien]) ; by the figure of the seven 
stars which Christ holds in his right hand, Rev. i. IG ; 
ii. 1 ; iii. 1, are signified the angels of the seven churches, 
under the direction of Christ, ibid. i. 20 ; see what was 
said s. V. ayyeXor, 2. aor^p 6 TrpcoiVo? the morning star. 
Rev. xxii. 16 [Rec. 6pdpivof\ ; ii. 28 (haa^o avra tov darepa 
T. irpmvov I will give to him the morning star, that he 
may be irradiated with its splendor and outshine all 
others, i. e. I will cause his heavenly glory to excel that 
of others), da-re pes TrXac^roi, wandering stars, Jude 13 
(these are not planets, the motion of which is scarcely 
noticed by the commonalty, but far more probably comets, 
which Jude regards as stars which have left the course 
prescribed them by God, and wander about at will — cf. 
Enoch xviii. 15, and so are a fit symbol of men nXapwvrfs 
Koi Tt\avap.evoi, 2 Tim. iii. 13).* 

d-(rTT|piKTos, -ov, (iTTT]pi(o)), uustaMe, unsteadfast : 2 Pet. 
ii. 14; iii. 16. (Anthol. Pal. 6, 203, 11.)* 

cuTTopYos, -ov, (a-Topyr) love of kindred), without natural 
affection: Ro. i. 31 ; 2 Tim. iii. 3. (Aeschin., Theocr., 
|»lut., al.) • 

euTTOx.*'**, -w : 1 aor. r^vro^rjaa ; (to be acrroxos, f r. 
aroxos a mark), to deviate from, miss, (the mark) : with 
gen. [W. § 30, 6], to deviate from anything, 1 Tim. i. 6 
(Sir. vii. 19 ; viii. 9) ; ire pi ri, 1 Tim. vi. 21 ; 2 Tim. ii. 
18. (Polyb., Plut., Lcian., [al.].) * 

do-Tpttirrj, -rji, fj, lightning : Lk. x. 18 ; xvii. 24 ; Mt. xxiv. 
27; xxviii. 3; plur.. Rev. iv. 5 ; viii. 5; xi. 19; xvi. 18; 
of the gleam of a lamp, Lk. xi. 36 [so Aeschyl. frag. (fr. 
schol. on Soph. Oed. Col. 1047) 188 Ahrens, 372 Dind.].* 

cuTTpttirrw; (later form crrpaiTTa, see da-nd^ofiai init. 
[prob. allied with darr^p q. v.]) ; to lighten, (Horn. H. 9, 
237; 17, 595, and often in Attic): Lk. xvii. 24. of 
dazzling objects : iadi^i (R G fadfja-tis), Lk. xxiv. 4 
(and very often in Grk. writ. fr. Soph. Oed. Col. 1067; 
Eur. Phoen. Ill, down). [Comp. : e'^, TTfpi-aa-Tpdirru).} * 

ocrrpov, -ov, to, [(see daTTjp init.), fr. Hom. down] ; 1. 
a group of stars, a constellation ; but not infreq. also 2. 
i. q. doTTip a star : Lk. xxi. 25 ; Acts xxvii. 20 ; Heb. xi, 
12 ; the image of a star, Acts vii. 43.* 

'A-o-v-y-KpiTos [T WH ^Aa-vvKp.'], -ov, 6, (a priv. and 
<TvyKpivo to compare; incomparable); Asyncritus, the 
name of an unknown Christian at Rome : Ro. xvi. 14.* 

dro-vpL({>uvos, -OV, not agreeing in sound, dissonant, inhar- 
monious, at variance: npos dWfjXovs (Diod. 4, 1), Acts 
xxviii. 25. (Sap. xviii. 10; [Joseph, c. Ap. 1, 8, 1]; 
Plat., Plut., ^al.].) * 

aro-iiv«Tos, -ov, unintelligent, unthout understanding : Mt. 
XV. 16 ; Mk. vii. 18 ; stupid: Ro. i. 21 ; x. 19. In imita- 
tion of the Hebr. Sdj, ungodly (Sap. i. 5 ; Sir. xv. 7 sq. 
lei. da-vvtre'iv, Ps. cxviii. (cxix.) 158]), because a wicked 



man has no mind for the things which make for salva- 
tion : Ro. i. 31 [al. adhere here to the Grk. usage; cf. 
Fritzsche ad loc.]. (In Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. down.) [Cf. 
<ro(^df, fin.]* 

d-o-vv-6€Tos, -ov, 1. uncompounded, simple, (Plat., 

Aristot., al.). 2. {avvridepai to covenant), covenant- 
breaking, faithless : Ro. i. 31 (so in Jer. iii. 8, 11 ; Dem. 
de falsa leg. p. 383, 6 ; cf. Pape and Passow s. v. ; davv- 
Oerdv to be faithless [Ps. Ixxii. (Ixxiii.) 15 ; 2 Esdr. x. 2 ; 
Neh. i. 8, etc.] ; dawdecria transgression, 1 Chr. ix. 1 
[Aid., Compl. ; 2 Esdr. ix. 2, 4 ; Jer. iii. 7] ; tvavvOfTfiv 
to keep faith; [cf. Trench § Iii.]).* 

da-<}>dXeia, -ay, r^, (da(paXf]i), [fr. Aeschyl. down] ; a. 
firmness, stability : ev irdar) d(T(p. most securely, Acts v. 
23. trop. certainty, imdoubted truth : Xoycov (see Aoyo?, 
I. 7), Lk. i. 4, (tov Xoyov, the certainty of a proof, Xen. 
mem. 4, 6, 15). b. security from enemies and dangers, 
safety : 1 Th. v. 3 (opp. to Kivbwos, Xen. mem. 3, 12, 7).* 

dir<{>aX'f|s, -es, ((70aXXo) to make to totter or fall, to 
cheat, [cf . Lat. fallo. Germ, fallen, etc., Eng. fall, fail], 
acpaWopai to fall, to reel), [fr. Hom. down] ; a. frm 
(that can be relied on, confided in) : ajKvpa, Ileb. vi. 19 
(where L and Tr have received as the form of ace. sing. 
dacjiaXTjv [Tdf. 7 -Xfjv ; cf. Tdf. ad loc. ; Delitzsch, Com. 
ad loc] see aparjv). trop. certain, true : Acts xxv. 26 ; 
TO dtr^aXes, Acts xxi. 34 ; xxii. 30. b. suited to confirm: 
Tivi, Phil. iii. 1 (so Joseph, antt. 3, 2, 1).* 

cur^xxXCtw : 1 aor. pass. inf. da^aXiaBrivai ', 1 aor. mid. 
rj(T(f)aXia-diJ.7]v ; (dtrc^aX^j) ; esp. freq. fr. Polyb. down ; to 
make frm, to make secure against harm ; pass, to be made 
secure: Mt. xxvii. 64 (6 Td<j>os) [B. 52 (46)]; mid. 
prop, to make secure for one's self or for one's own ad- 
vantage, (often in Polyb.) : Mt. xxvii. 65 sq. ; to make 
fast Tovs TTo'Sas fls to ^vXov, Acts xvi. 24 [W. § 66, 2 d. i 
B. §147,8].* 

do-({>aXws, adv., [fr. Hom. down], safely (so as to prevent 
escape) : Mk. xiv. 44 ; Acts xvi. 23. assuredly : ytj/&)- 
a-Kfiv, Acts ii. 36 (fiSoTtj, Sap. xviii. 6).* 

d<rxT]|iov€w, -o) ; (to be dcr^hprnv, deformed ; t^j/ Kfcjia- 
Xfjv daxqpovfiv, of a bald man, Ael. v. h. 1 1, 4) ; /o act un- 
becomingly ([Eur.], Xen., Plat., al.) : 1 Co. xiii. 5 ; eniTiva, 
towards one, i. e. contextually, to prepare disgrace for 
her, 1 Co. vii. 36.* 

d<rxT)|J.o<ni(vn, -t]s, f), (d(r)(f]p.(ov ) ; fr. Plato down ; un- 
seemliness, an unseemly deed : Ro. i. 27 ; of the pudenda, 
one's nakedness, shame : Rev. xvi. 15, as in Ex. xx. 26; 
Deut. xxiii. 14, etc. (In Grk. writ. fr. Plat, down.)* 

do-x'^HKov, -ovos, neut. aa-xrjliov, (a-x^fJ^) ! a. deformed. 
b. indecent, unseemly : I Co. xii. 23, opp. to (va-xrjfiav. 
([Hdt.], Xen., Plat., and subseq. writ.) * 

do-urCa, -as, fj, (the character of an aauTos, i- e. of an 
abandoned man, one that cannot be saved, fr. aaoo, aoot 
i. q. o-wfo), [d-a-a>-ro-s, Curtius § 570] ; hence prop, incor- 
rigibleness), an abandoned, dissolute, life; profligacy, prod- 
igality, [R. V. riof] : Eph. v. 18 ; Tit. i. 6 ; 1 Pet. iv. 4 ; 
(Prov. xxviii. 7 ; 2 Mace. vi. 4. Plat. rep. 8, p. 560 e. ; 
Aristot. eth. Nic. 4, 1, 5 (3) p. 1120', 3 ; Polyb. 32, 20, 
9; 40, 12, 7; cf. Cic. Tusc. 3, 8; Hdian. 2, 5, 2 (1 ed. 



aar(t)TQ)<i 



83 



av 



l>6dBr]<i 



Bekk.), and elsewhere). Cf. Tittmann i. p. 152 sq. ; 
[Trench § xvi.].* 

d<rwTus, adv., (adj. aaayros, on which see daaria), dis- 
solutely, profligately: ^rjv (Joseph, antt. 12,4, 8), Lk. 
XV. 13 [A. V. 7-iotuus livitiyj.* 

draKTc'w, -S> : 1 aor. TjTUKTtjaa ; to be utuktos, to be disor- 
derly; a. prop, of soldiers marching out of order or 
quitting the ranks : Xen. Cyr. 7, 2, (i, etc. Hence b. 
to be neylectful of duty, to be lawless : Xen. Cyr. 8, 1, 22 ; 
oec. 5, 15 ; Lys. 141, 18 [i. e. c. Alcib. or. 1 § 18], al. c. 
to lead a disorderly life : 2 Th. iii. 7, cf . 11.* 

SrraKTos, -ov, (racro-o)), disorderly, out of the ranks, 
(often so of soldiers) ; irregular, inordinate (araKToi 
fjSovai immoderate pleasures. Plat. legg. 2, 660 b. ; Plut. 
de lib. educ. c. 7), deviating from the prescribed order or 
rule : 1 Th. v. 14, cf. 2 Th. iii. 6. (In Grk. writ. fr. 
[Hdt. and] Thuc. down ; often in Plat.) * 

d-^UKTMs, adv., disorderly : 2 Th. iii. 6 aruKTas irepina- 
relv, which is explained by the added koI fif) koto ttjv 
napadoaiu ^v napeXa^e nap' tjucov; cf. ibid. 11, where it is 
explained by fxrjdev ipya^ojxivoi, oKka nepiepya^opfvoi. 
(Often in Plato.) * 

aT€Kvos, -ov, (jiKvov), without offspring, childless : Lk. 
XX. 28-30. (Gen. xv. 2 ; Sir. xvi. 3. In Grk. writ. fr. 
Hesiod opp. 600 down.)* 

dTcvt^u ; 1 aor. rjTevia-a ; (fr. drfVTjs stretched, intent, 
and this fr. reiVo) and a intensive ; [yet cf. W. § 16, 4 B. a. 
fin., and s. v. A, a, 3]) ; toflx the eyes on, gaze upon : with 
dat. of pers., Lk. iv. 20 ; xxii. 56 ; Acts iii. 1 2 ; x. 4 ; xiv. 9 ; 
xxiii. 1 ; foil, by fij with ace. of pers.. Acts iii. 4 ; vi. 15 ; 
xiii. 9 ; metaph. to fix one's mind on one as an example, 
Clem. Ptom. 1 Cor. 9, 2 ; el's ri, Acts i. 10 ; vii. 55 ; 2 Co. 
iii. 7, 13; tts ti, to look into anything, Acts xi. 6. (3 
Mace. ii. 26. [Aristot.], Polyb. 6, 11, 5 [i. e. 6, 11% 12 
Dind.] ; Diod. 3, 39 [Dind. evar.} ; Joseph, b. j. 5, 12, 3 ; 
Lcian. cont. 16, al.) * 

arep, prep., freq. in the poets [fr. Horn, down], rare 
in prose writ. fr. Plat. [?] down ; without, apart from : 
with gen. [Dion. Hal. 3, 10 ; Plut. Num. 14, Cat. min. 5] ; 
in the Bible only in 2 Mace. xii. 15; Lk. xxii. 6 (arep 
o)(\ov in the absence of the multitude ; hence, without 
tumult), 35. [' Teaching ' 3, 10 ; Herm. sim. 5, 4, 5.] • 

driijid^w ; 1 aor. jjTi/iacra ; [Pass., pres. dnp.dCofiai'] ; 1 
aor. inf. dripLaadrjvai ; (fr. drifios ', hence) to make drifMos, 
to dishonor, insult, treat with contumely, whether in word, 
in deed, or in thought : [Mk. xii. 4 T Tr mrg. WH (cf. 
art/idco and -/xtjco)] ; Lk. xx. 11 ; Jn. viii. 49 ; Acts v. 41 ; 
Ro. ii. 23 ; Jas. ii. 6 [W. § 40, 5, 2 ; B. 202 (1 75)]. Pass. : 
Ro. i. 24, on which cf. W. 326 (305 sq.) ; [and § 39, 3 
N. 3]. (In Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down ; Sept.) * 

d-Ti(i,dw, -u>: [1 aor. r)T'ipr)(Ta] ; (TifiT]) ; to deprive of 
honor, despise, treat with contempt or contumely : rivd, Mk. 
xii. 4 L Tr txt. rjTifjLTjaav (see drifid^a) and -fioco). (In 
Grk. writ, [chiefly Epic] fr. Hom. down.) * 

dri^iCa, -as, fj, (arifxos), dishonor, ignominy, disgrace, [fr. 
Hom. down] : 1 Co. xi. 14 ; opp. to bo^a, 2 Co. vi. 8 ; 1 
Co. XV. 43 (iv dTip.iq sc. ov, in a state of disgrace, used 
of the unseemliness and offensiveness of a dead body) ; 



KOT dTijiiav equiv. to drinas, with contempt sc. of myself, 
2 Co. xi. 21 [II. V. by way of disparagement, cf. Kara, II. 
fin.] ; -jTadrj driplas base lusts, vile passions, Ro. i. 26, cf. 
W. § 34, 3 b.; [B. § 132, 1 0]. e.y drifiiav for a dishonor- 
able use, of vessels, opp. to riprj : Ro. ix. 21 ; 2 Tim. ii. 
20.* 

dTijios, -ov, (Tip,f)) ; f r. Hom. down ; without honor, uji- 
honored, dishonored: Mt. xiii, 57; Mk. vi. 4; 1 Co. iv. 
10 (opp. to evbo^os); base, of less esteem: 1 Co. xii. 23 
[here the neut. plur. of the compar., drt/xdrepa (Rec.*'» 
drt/xcorepa)].* 

dTifioo), -Q> : [pf. pass. ptcp. r]Tifiapivos'] ; (arinos) ; fr. 
Aeschyl. down ; to dishonor, mark ivitli disgrace : Mk. xii. 
4 R G, see drt/xdw [and dri/:idf<u].* 

dT|iCs, -I'Sof, T], vapor: Jas. iv. 14; Kairvov (Joel ii. 30 
[al. iii. 3]), Acts ii. 19 [opp. to Ka-avo^ixx Aristot. meteor. 
2, 4 p. 359% 29 sq., to j/t'^os ibid. 1, 9 p. 346% 32]. 
(In Grk. writ. fr. [Hdt. 4, 75 and] Plat. Tim. p. 86 e. 
down.) * 

a-TO(xos, -ov, (refivco to cut), that cannot be cut in two or 
divided, indivisible, [Plat. Soph. 229 d. ; of time, Aristot. 
phys. 8, 8 p. 263'', 27]: h droum in a moment, 1 Co. 
XV. 52.* 

orToiros, -ov, (joiros), out of place; not befitting, unbe- 
coming, (so in Grk. writ. fr. Thuc. down ; very often in 
Plato) ; in later Grk. in an ethical sense, improper, 
wicked : Lk. xxiii. 41 (dronov ti npaaaeiv, as in Job xxvii. 
6 ; 2 Mace. xiv. 23) ; Acts xxv. 5 L T Tr WH ; (Sept. 
for pX Job iv. 8; xi. 11, etc. Joseph, antt. 6, 5, 6; 
Plut. de aud. poet. c. 3 (pavkd and uTOTra) ; of men : 2 Th. 
iii. 2 (droTToi kqi irov-qpoi; Luth. unartig, more correctly 
unrighteous \_{iniquus), A. V. unreasonable, cf. Ellic. ad 
loc.]). inconvenient, harmful : Acts xxviii. 6 prjbtv droTTov 
fls avTov yivofifvov, no injury, no harm coming to him, 
(Thuc. 2, 49; Joseph, antt. 11, 5, 2; Hdian.4, 11, 7 [4, 
ed. Bekk.]).* 

'ArrdXcia [-X/a T WH (see I, t)], -as, f], A ttalia, a mar- 
itime city of Pamphylia in Asia, very near the borders 
of Lycia, built and named by Attains Philadelphus, king 
of Pergamum ; now A ntali [_orAdalia ; cf. Diet, of Geog.] : 
Acts xiv. 25.* 

av-yd^w : 1 aor. inf. avydaai ; (aiyfj) ; 1. in Grk. 
writ, transitively, to beam upon, irradiate. 2. in the 
Bible intrans. to be bright, to shine forth : 2 Co. iv. 4 [L 
mrg. Tr mrg. Karavy. see (^wrtcr/xos', b.], (Lev. xiii. 24-28, 
[etc.]). [COMP. : fit-, xaT-auyd^o).]* 

av-yri, -t)s, fj, brightness, radiance, (cf . Germ. A uge [c^e], 
of which the tragic poets sometimes use avyrj, see Pape 
[or L. and S. ; cf. Lat. luminal), especially of the sun; 
hence rjXlov is often added (Hom. and sqq.), daylight; 
hence dxpis [-pi T Tr WH] avy^s even till break of day, 
Acts XX. 11 (Polyaen. 4, 18 p. 386 Kara ttjv irpaiTjjv avyrjv 
rrjs fjp.(pas). [Syn. see (fifyyos fin.]* 

AvYovoTos, -ov, 6, Augustus [cf. Eng. Majesty; see 
(Tf^aoTos, 2], the surname of G. Julius Caesar Octavia- 
nus, the first Roman emperor: Lk. ii. 1.* 

av0d8i]$, -fs, (fr. avros and rjboixai), self-pleasing, self 
willed, arrogant: Tit. i. 7; 2 Pet. ii. 10. (Gen. xlix. 3, 7) 



av6aipero<i 



84 



avTapKeta 



ProT. xxi. 24. In Grk. writ. fr. Aeschyl. and Hdt. 
down.) [Trench § xciii.] * 

a^a(p€TOs, -ov, (fr. avros and aipto^ai), self-chosen ; in 
Grk. writ. esp. of states or conditions, as SovXei'a, Thuc. 
6, 40, etc., more rarely of persons ; voluntary, of free 
'choice, of one's own accord, (as aTparrjyos, Xen. an. 5, 7, 
29, explained § 28 by os tavrov eXrjrai) : 2 Co. viii. 3, 1 7.* 

a^cyrf CD, -<3 ; (a bibl. and eccl. word ; fr. avOe'irrrjs contr. 
fr. avTOfVTTjs, and this fr. avros and evrta arms [al. evrrjs, 
'of. Hesych. (rwivrqs • awtpyos ; of. Lobeck, Technol. p. 
121]; hence a. ace. to earlier usage, one who with his 
own hand kills either others or himself, b. in later Grk. 
writ, one who does a thing himself, the author (r^s jrpa^ewj, 
Polyb. 23, 14, 2, etc.) ; one who acts on his own authority, 
autocratic, i. q. avTOKparap an absolute master ; cf. Lobeck 
ad Phryn. p. 1 20 [also as above ; cf. W. § 2, 1 c.]) ; to 
govern one, exercise dominion over one: twos, 1 Tim. 
ii. 12.* 

avX£<i>, -w : 1 aor. rjvXrja-a ; [pres. pass. ptcp. to alXov- 
ficvoc] ; (av\6s) ; to play on the flute, to pipe : Mt. xi. 1 7 ; 
Lk. vii. 32 ; 1 Co. xiv. 7. (Fr. [Alcm., Hdt.,] Xen. and 
Plat, down.) * 

avXr), -rjs, T), (ao) to blow ; hence) prop, a place open to 
the air (hianvfopevos ronos aiXf) Xeyerai, Athen. 5, 15 p. 
189 b.) ; 1. among the Greeks in Homer's time an 
uncovered space around the house, enclosed by a wall, in 
which the stables stood (Horn. Od. 9, 185; D. 4, 433); 
hence among the Orientals that roofless enclosure in the 
open country in which flocks were herded at night, a sheep- 
fold: Jn. x. 1, 16. 2. the uncovered court-yard of the 
house, Hebr. IXn, Sept. avXr), Vulg. atrium. In the O. T. 
particularly of the courts of the tabernacle and of the 
temple at Jerusalem ; so in the N. T. once : Rev. xi. 2 
iTT)V avXfjv Tt]v f^wOev [Rec.*' etrw^ej/] tov vaov}- The 
dwellings of the higher classes usually had two avXal, one 
exterior, between the door and the street, called also 
irpoavXiou (q. v.) ; the other interior, surrounded by the 
buildings of the dwelling itself. The latter is mentioned 
Mt. xxvi. 69 (where e^w is opp. to the room in which the 
judges were sitting) ; IVIk. xiv. 66 ; Lk. xxii. 55, Cf. Win. 
RWB. s. V. Hiiuser ; [B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Court ; BB.DD. 
s. V. House]. 3. the house itself, a palace : Mt. xxvi. 
3, 58 ; Mk. xiv. 54 ; xv. 16 ; Lk. xi. 21 ; Jn. xviii. 15, and 
so very often in Grk. writ. fr. Horn. Od. 4, 74 down [cf. 
Eustath, 1483, 39 tw t^s avXi]! ovopari ra Scopara brfXal, 
Suid. col. 6.")2 c. avXr] • f} tov ^aaiXtas oiKia. Yet this sense 
is denied to the N. T. by Meyer et al. ; see Mey. on Mt. 
1. c.].* 

avX'qT'^s, -ov, 6, (avXeco), a flute-player : Mt. ix. 23 ; Rev. 
xviii. 22. (In Grk. writ. fr. [Theogn. and] Hdt. 6, 60 
down.) * 

avXitofiai : depon. ; impf. rjvXi^oprjv ; 1 aor. rivKla-d-qv 
[Yeitch s. V. ; B. 51 (44) ; W. § 39, 2] ; {avKi)) ; in Sept. 
mostly for jH ; 1. prop, to lodge in the court-yard 
esp. at night ; of flocks and shepherds. 2. to pass the 
night in the open air, bivouac. 3. univ. to pass the 
night, lodge: so Mt. xxi. 17; Lk. xxi. 37 (f^fpxoptvos 
r]v\i(eTo elt to opos, going out to pass the night he retired 



to the mountain; cf. B. § 147, 15). (In Grk. writ. fr. 
Hom. down.)* 

av\6s, -oxj, 6, (aa>, avw), [fr. Hom. down], a pipe : 1 Co. 
xiv. 7. [Cf. Stainer, Music of the Bible, ch. v.] * 

av|dv(i>, and earlier (the only form in Find, and Soph. 
[Veitch s. v. says, ' Hes. Mimnerm. Soph. Thuc. always 
have av^o) or av|o/Lun, and Find, except av^dvoi Fr. 1 30 
(Bergk)']) aC$(o (Eph. ii. 21 ; Col. ii. 19) ; impf. rji^avov; 
f ut. av^Tjo-a ; 1 aor. rjv^riaa ; [Pass., pres. ai^dvopai'} ; 1 aor. 
Tjv^fjOTiv ; 1. trans, to cause to grow, to augment : 1 
Co. iii. 6 sq. ; 2 Co. ix. 10. Pass, to grow, increase, become 
greater : Mt. xiii. 32 ; Mk. iv. 8 L T Tr WH ; 2 Co. x. ] 5 ; 
Col. i. 6 [not Rec] ; tls ttjv itTiyvataiv tov 6(ov unto the 
knowledge of God, Col. i. 10 (G L T Tr WH r^ (myvixTd 
Toil 6(ov) ; els (TcdTjjpiau [not Rec] to the attaining of sal- 
vation, 1 Pet. ii. 2. 2. ace. to later usage (fr. Aristot. 
an. post. 1,13 p. 78'', 6, etc., down ; but nowhere in Sept. 
[cf. B. 54 (47) ; 145 (127) ; W. § 38, 1]) intrans. to grow, 
increase : of plants, Mt. vi. 28 ; Mk. iv. 8 Rec. ; Lk. xii. 
27[notTdf. ; Tr mrg. br. aC^.] ; Lk. xiii. 19; of infants, 
Lk. i. 80 ; ii. 40 ; of a multitude of people, Acts vii. 1 7. 
of inward Christian growth : els XpuxTov, in reference to 
[W. 397 (371) ; yet cf. ElUc. ad loc] Christ, Eph. iv. 
15 ; els vaov, so as to form a temple, Eph. ii. 21 ; evx^pi-Tt, 
2 Pet. iii. 18 ; with an ace. of the substance, ttjv av^rjo-iv. 
Col. ii. 19 [cf. W. § 32, 2 ; B. § 131, 5, also Bp. Lghtft.'s 
note ad loc] ; of the external increase of the gospel 
it is said 6 Xoyoy rjv^ave : Acts vi. 7 ; xii. 24 ; xix. 20 ; 
of the growing authority of a teacher and the number of 
his adherents (opp. to eXarToiiadai), Jn. iii. 30. [Comp. : 
(Tvv-, vnep-av^dva>.2 * 

av^T]<ris, -ecos, tj, (av^oi), increase, growth : Eph. iv. 16 ; 
TOV 6eov, effected by God, Col. ii. 19 ; cf. Meyer ad loc. 
([Hdt.], Thuc, Xen., Plat., and subseq. writ.) * 

av^o), see av^dvco. 

avpiov, adv., (fr. avpa the morning air, and this fr. ava> 
to breathe, blow ; [ace to al. akin to fjas, Lat. aurora ; 
Curtius § 613, cf. Vanicek p. 944]), to-morrow (Lat. eras) : 
Mt. vi. 30 ; Lk. xii. 28 ; Acts xxiii. 1 5 Rec, 20 ; xxv. 22 ; 
1 Co. XV. 32 (fr. Is. xxii. 13) ; a-rjpepov Kai avpiov, Lk. xiii. 
32 sq. ; Jas. iv. 13 [Rec't G ; al. o-r'ip. ^ avp.]. f] avpiov sc 
Tjpepa [W. § 64, 5 ; B. § 123, 8] the morrow, Mt. vi. 34; 
Acts iv. 3 ; eVl Trfv avpiov, on the morrow, i. e. the next 
morning, Lk. x. 35 ; Acts iv. 5 ; to [L to ; WH om.] t^s 
avpiov, what the morrow will bring forth, Jas. iv. 14. 
[From Hom. down.]* 

av<rTT]p6s, -a, -ov, (fr, avco to dry up), harsh (Lat. au- 
sterus), stringent of taste, avaTTjpbv Ka\ yXvKv (*cai iriKpov), 
Plat. legg. 10, 897 a.; olvos, Diog. Laert. 7, 117. of 
mind and manners, harsh, rough, rigid, [cf. Trench 
§ xiv.] : Lk. xix. 21, 22; (Polyb. 4, 20, 7; Diog. Laert. 
7, 26, etc. 2 Mace xiv. 30).* 

avrdpKcia, -as, 17, (avTdpKTjs, q- v.), a perfect condition 
of life, in tvhich no aid or support is needed; equiv. to 
TfXfioTTis KTTjo-etcs dyadav, Plat. def. p. 412 b. ; often in 
Aristot. [defined by him (pel. 7, 5 init. p. 1326", 29) as 
follows : TO ndvTa vndpxeiv k. 8ela-6ai prjdevos avrdpKes ; cf. 
Bp. Lghtft. on Phil. iv. 11]; hence, a sufficiency of the 



avTapKii<; 



85 



avTO<; 



necessaries of life : 2 Co. ix. 8 ; subjectively, a mind con- 
tented with its lot, contentment : 1 Tim. vi. 6 ; (Diog. 
Laert. 10, 130).* 

avlTdpict]s [on the accent see Chandler § 705], -€f, (avrrfr, 
dpKfa), [fr. Aeschyl. down], sufficient for one's self, strong 
enough or possessing enough to need no aid or support ; 
independent of external circumstances ; often in Grk. 
writ. fr. [Aeschyl. and] Hdt. 1, 32 down. Subjectively, 
contented with one's lot, with one's means, though the slender- 
est: Phil. iv. 11, (so Sir. xl. 18; Polyb. 6, 48, 7; Diog. 
Laert. 2, 24 of Socrates, avrapKijs koi uffjivos). [Cf. avrdp- 
itfta.] * 

ovTO-Kard-KpiTOs, -ov, (aiiTos, KoraKpivco), self-condemned: 
Tit. iii. 11 ; (eccl. writ. [cf. W. § 34, 3]).* 

avT6|iaTos, -ov, and -tj, -ov, (fr. airos and fiep.aa to desire 
eagerly, fr. obsol. theme /xaw), moved by one's own imr 
pulse, or acting without the instigation or intervention of 
another, (fr. Horn, down) ; often of the earth producing 
plants of itself, and of the plants themselves and fruits 
growing without culture ; [on its adverbial use cf . W. 
§ 54, 2] : Mk. iv. 28 ; (Hdt. 2, 94 ; 8, 138 ; Plat, polit. p. 
272 a.; [Theophr. h. p. 2, 1] ; Diod. 1, 8, etc. Lev. xxv. 
5, 11). of gates opening of their own accord : Acts xii. 
10, (so in Horn. H. 5, 749 ; Xen. Hell. 6, 4, 7 ; Apoll. 
Rh. 4, 41 ; Plut. Timol. 12; Nonn. Dion. 44, 21 ; [Dion 
Cass. 44, 17]).* 

avT6irTT)s, -Qv, 6, (airos, OIITQ), seeing tvith one's own 
eyes, an eye-witness, (cf. aiiTrjKoos one who has himself 
heard a thing) : Lk. i. 2. (In Grk. writ, f r. Hdt. down.)* 

avTos, -17, -o, pron. (" derived from the particle av with 
the added force of a demonstrative pronoun. In itself 
it signifies nothing more than again, applied to what has 
either been previously mentioned or, when the whole 
discourse is looked at, must necessarily be ouppUed." 
Klotz ad Devar. ii. p. 219 ; [see Vani^ek p. 268]). It is 
used by the bibl. writ, both of the O. T. and of the N. T. 
far more frequently than the other pronouns ; and in this 
very frequent and almost inordinate use of it, they de- 
viate greatly from prof. auth. ; cf. B. § 127, 9. [On 
classic usage cf. Hermann, Opuscc. i. 308 sqq., of which 
dissertation a summary is given in his edition of Viger 
pp. 732-736.] 

I. self, as used (in aU persons, genders, numbers) to 
distinguish a person or thing from or contrast it with 
another, or to give liim (it) emphatic prominence. 1. 
When used to express Opposition or Distinction, 
it is added a. to the subjects implied in the verb, the 
■oersonal pronouns eyco, fjnels, av, etc., being omitted : Lk. 
V. 37 (avTos €K;^i;^i7(rfTat the wine, as opp. to the skins) ; 
Lk. xxii. 71 (aiiTol yap r/Kovaafiev we ourselves, opp. to 
witnesses whose testimony could have been taken) ; Jn. 
ii. 25 (avTos eyivaaKev, opp. to testimony he might have 
called for) ; Jn. iv. 42 (we ourselves, not thou only) ; Jn. 
ix. 21 [T Tr WH om.] ; Acts xviii. 15 (6>ea-(9e avrol) ; 
XX. 34 ; xxii. 19 ; 1 Th. i. 9, etc. ; with a negative added, 
' he does not himself do this or that,' i. e. he leaves it to 
others : Lk. vi. 42 (avros, viz. thou, ov ^Xencov) ; Lk. xi. 
46 (avToi, viz, ye, ov irpoa^aveTe), 52 ; Jn. xviii. 28; 3 



Jn. 1 0. With the addition of koi to indicate that a thing 
is ascribed to one equally with others: Lk. xiv. 12 
(fiT^noTf Ka\ ai/Toi at dvriKaXfo-oia-i) ', xvi. 28 ; Acts ii. 22 
[G L T Tr WH om. Kai] ; Jn. iv. 45 ; xvii. 19, 21 ; PhU. 
ii. 24, etc. In other pass, koi airros is added to a subject 
expressly mentioned, and is placed after it ; and in trans- 
lation may be joined to the predicate and rendered like- 
wise: Lk. i. 36 (fj (rvyyevfis crou Ka\ avTrj (Tvvfikr](f>vla v'lov 
// y kinswoman herself also, i. e. as well as thou) ; Mt. 
xxvii. 57 (ts Ka\ avT6s iiM6r]T(v<Te [L T Tr WH txt. -rfv^j;] 
TG> 'iricrov) ; Lk. xxiii. 51 [R G] ; Mk. xv. 43 ; Acts viii. 

13 (o be 2ifio)v kol avros eVicrrfvo-e) ; xv. 32; xxi. 24 ; 1 
Jn. ii. 6 ; Gal. ii. 1 7 ; Heb. xiii. 3. b. it is added to 
subjects expressed, whether to pronouns personal or 
demonstrative, or to nouns proper or common : Jn. iii. 
28 (avTol u/ieTf ye yourselves bear witness, not only have 
I affirmed) ; Acts xx. 30 (e^ vpimv avrSav from among 
your own selves, not only from other quarters) ; Ro. xv. 

14 (*cai avros eya I of myseK also, not only assured by 
report, cf. i. 8) ; 1 Co. v. 13 (e'l vpiwv avrav from your 
own society, opp. to them that are without, of whose 
character God must be the judge) ; 1 Co. vii. 35 ; xi. 13 ; 
1 Th. iv. 9 ; avrol ovroi, Acts xxiv. 20 ; avrov rovrov 
(masc), Acts xxv. 25 ; 'lijaovs avros Jesus himself, per- 
sonally, opp. to those who baptized by his command, 
Jn. iv. 2 ; avros 'irjaovs, opp. to those who believed on 
him on account of his miracles, Jn. ii. 24 ; Jesus himself, 
not others only, Jn. iv. 44 ; air. Aavel8, opp. to the doc- 
tors of the law, whose decision did not seem quite to 
agree with the words of David, Mk. xii. 36 sq. ; Lk. xx. 
42 ; airos 6 2aravas, opp. to his ministers, 2 Co. xi. 14 ; 
airos 6 deos, God himself, not another. Rev. xxi. 3 ; aira 
ra fTTovpdvia, the heavenly things themselves [i. e. sanc- 
tuary], opp. to its copies, Heb. ix. 23 [see inovpdvios, 1 c.]. 
c. it is used to distinguish one not only from his compan- 
ions, disciples, servants, — as Mk. ii. 25 {airos koX 01 per 
avroi)) ; Jn. ii. 12; iv. 53; xviii. 1, — but also from things 
done by him or belonging to him, as Jn. vii. 4 (ri ttouI Ka\ 
^rjrel airos [L Tr mrg. WH mrg. airo"]) ; 1 Co. iii. 15 (rivos 
ro e'pyov KaraKarjaerai, airos be croadfjaerai) ; Lk. xxiv. 15 
(airos (6) ^Irjarovs, Jesus himself in person, opp. to their 
previous conversation about him), d. self to the exclu- 
sion of others, i. e. he etc. alone, by one's self: Mk. vi. 31 
(vpe'is airoi ye alone, unattended by any of the people ; 
cf. Fritzsche ad loc.) ; Jn. xiv. 1 1 (8id ra epya aird [WH 
mrg. airox)]) ; Ro. vii. 25 (airos e'v'^ I alone, unaided by 
the Spirit of Christ; cf. viii. 2) ; 2 Co. xii. 13 (airos eya, 
unlike the other preachers of the gospel) ; Rev. xix. 1 2 ; 
cf. Herm. ad Vig. p. 733 iii.; Matth. § 467, 5; Kuhner 
§ 468 Anm. 2 ; [Jelf § 656, 3] ; with the addition of 
povos (as often in Attic writ.) : Jn. vi. 15. e. self, not 
prompted or influenced by another, i. e. of one's self, of 
one's men accord : Jn. xvi. 27 (so even Horn. H. 17, 254 ; 
and among Attic writ. esp. Xen.). 2. When it gives 
Prominence, it answers a. to our emphatic Ae, s^c, 
it : Mt. i. 21 (airos adxrei HE and no other) ; Mt. v. 4-10 
(airol) ; vi. 4 [R G] ; xvii. 5 (airov dKovere) ; Lk. vi. 35 ; 
xvii. 16 ; xxiv. 21 ; Jn. ix. 21 (airos [T Tr WH om.] . . . 



avTo<; 



86 



avTo<} 



avTov . . . avTos) ; Acts x. 42 [L txt. Tr txt. WH ovtos'] ; 
Gal. iv. 17 (avTovs) ; Eph. ii. 10 {avrov) ; Col. i. 17 ; 1 Ju. 
ii. 2 ; iv. 5 ; Jas. ii. 6 sq. So in Grk. writ, also fr. Horn, 
down ; cf. Herm. ad Vig. p. 734 v. It is used with the same 
force after relative sentences, where Greek prose uses 
OVTOS- Mt. xii. 50 {oaris ctp njyifja-T] . ■ ■ , avros /xow dSeXc^ds 
fOTiv, where in Mk. iii. 35 ovtos) ; Mt. xxvi. 48 ; Mk. xiv. 
44; cf. B. 107 (94) sq. Less emphatically, avTos is put 
before subjects, serving to recall them again : Mt. iii. 4 
(aiiTos Se ^ladwqs now he, whom I spoke of, John) ; Mk. 
vi. 17 (avTos yap'Hpa)8r]s) ; Ro. viii. 16 (avTo to npevfia). 
b. it points out some one as chief, leader, master of 
the rest (often so in Grk., as in the well-known phrase of 
the Pythagoreans avriy ((f)a [cf. W. § 22, 3, 4 and p. 150 
(142)]) : of Christ, Mt. viii. 24 ; Mk. iv. 38 ; vi. 47 ; viii. 
29 ; Lk. v. 16 sq. ; ix. 51 ; x. 38; of God, Lk. vi. 35 ; 
Heb. xiii. 5; 1 Jn. iv. 19 [not Lchm.]. c. it answers 
to our very, just, exactly, (Germ, eben, gerade) : Ro. ix. 3 
(avTos fyw I myself, the very man who seems to be inimi- 
cal to the Israelites) ; 2 Co. x. 1 (I myself, who bore 
myself lowly in your presence, as ye said) ; avTci to. tpya, 
Jn. v. 36 ; often in Luke eV avTjj tj/ rjpepa or Sipa, avTa> 
TO) Kaipa, in that very day, hour, season : Lk. ii. 38 ; x. 21 ; 
xii. 12 ; xiii. 1, 31 ; xx. 19 ; xxiii. 12 ; xxiv. 13, 33 ; Acts 
xvi. 18. In the writings of Paul avTo tovto this very 
thing: Gal. ii. 10; 2 Co. vii. 11; Phil. i. 6; etV avTo 
tovto for this very purpose, on this very account: Ro. ix. 
1 7 ; xiii. 6 ; 2 Co. v. 5 ; Eph. vi. 22 ; Col. iv. 8 ; and in 
the same sense {^for this very thing] the simple accus. 
(as in Attic, cf. Matth. § 470, 7 ; Kiiliner ii. 267 Anm. 6 ; 
W. § 21 N. 2) TodTo avTo, 2 Co. ii. 3 [but see Mey. ad 
loc], and avTo tovto, 2 Pet. i. 5 [Lchm. reads here avToQ. 
d. even, Lat. vet, adeo, (in Horn. ; cf. Herm. ad Vig. p. 
733 ii.) : kcu avTrj rf ktIctis, Ro. viii. 21 ; ovbe f] (^vais qutt/, 
1 Co. xi. 14 ; Koi [Tr om. L WH br. Kai] avTos 6 vios, 1 Co. 
XV. 28 ; Koi qvttj 2dppa even Sarah herself, although a 
feeble old woman, Heb. xi. 11 [yet WH mrg. reads the 
dat. avTfi 2a.ppa] see (carajSoXr/, 1]. 

II. aliTos has the force of a simple personal pronoun 
of the third person, answering to our unemphatic he, she, 
it; and that 1. as in classic Grk., in the oblique 
cases, him, her, it, them, etc.: numberless instances, — 
as in the gen. absolute, e. g. avTov (KBovtos, XakTja-avTos, 
etc. ; or in the ace. with inf., ds to elvai avTovs dvannXo- 
yfiTovs, Ro. i. 20 ; or after prepositions, e^ avTov, iv avTw, 
etc. ; or where it indicates the possessor, 6 naTrjp avToii ; 
or a person as the (dir. or indir.) object of an active 
verb, as €7riS(oo-fi avTW, Mt. vii. 9 ; danacraa-de avTrjv, Mt. 
X. 1 2 ; d0f If avTovs, Mt. xx'vi. 44 ; rjv diavtvav avTols, Lk. 
1. 22 ; oiiK fia avTa XaXflu, Lk. iv. 41 ; jj cr*toTia avTo ov 
KOTeXalJf, Jn. i. 5. But see avTov below. 2. Contrary 
to Grk. usage, in the N. T. even in the Nominative it 
is put for a simple personal pronoun of the third person, 
where the Greeks say ovtos or 6 8e, or use no pronoun at 
all. Tills has been convincingly shown by B. 107 (93) 
sqq. ; and yet some of the examples adduced by him are not 
decisive, but either must be or can be referred to the usage 
illustrated under I. 1 ; — those in which avTos is used of 



Christ, apparently to I. 1 b. But, in my opinion, the 
question is settled even by the following: avTos, Mt. 
xiv. 2 ; Mk. xiv. 15 ; Lk. i. 22 ; xv. 14 ; so too in the Sept. 
(cf. Thiersch, De Pentat. vers. Alex. p. 98) ; Sir. xlix. 7 ; 
Tob. vi. 11 ; avToi, Mk. ii. 8 (outojs avTo\ bidKoy'i^ovTU in 
Grsb.) ; Lk. ix. 36 ; xiv. 1 ; xxii. 23 ; avTo, Lk. xi. 14 
[Tr mrg. WH om., Tr txt. br.]. Whether avTi] and avTai 
also are so used, is doubtful; cf. B. 109 (95). 3. 
Sometimes in the oblique cases the pron. is omitted, 
being evident from the context : Mk. vi. 5 {irnGfls, sc. 
auroT?) ; Jn. iii. 34 (St'Scocrt, sc. ovtm) ; Jn. x. 29 {^ibmne 
fioi, sc. avTovs) ; Acts xiii. 3 (dneXvirav, SC. avTovs) ; Rev. 
xviii. 21 {f^dkfv, sc avTov), etc. 4. Not infrecjuently 
avTos in the oblique cases is a d d e d to the verb, although 
the case belonging to this very verb has preceded : Mt. 
viii. 1 (KaTajSavTi 8e avTa> [L Tr WH gen. absol.] dnb tow 
opovs T]Ko\ov6rjaav avTa>) ; Mt. iv. 16 ; v. 40 ; viii. 23, 28 
[R G] ; ix. 28 ; xxv. 29 (dno [om. by L T Tr WH] toO fi}, 
exovTos .. . an ai/Tov) ; xxvi. 71 [RG Lbr. T] ; Mk. v. 2 
[R G] ; ix. 28 [R G] ; Jn. xv. 2 (ndv KXrina . . . a'lpei avTo) ; 
Acts vii. 21 [R G] ; Jas. iv. 17 ; Rev. ii. 7 ; vi. 4 [L Tr 
mrg. br.]; cf. W. § 22, 4 a.; B. 142 (125). Doubtless 
the writer, while writing the earlier words with the in- 
tention of joining them to the leading verb to follow, 
marked off these very words as a clause by themselves, 
as if they formed a protasis ; and so, when he came to 
the leading verb, he construed it just as though it were 
to form an apodosis. 5. By a Hebraism avTos is used 
redundantly in relative sentences : tjs fix^ to OvyaTpiov 
avTTJs, Mk. vii. 25 ; ov tw /xcoXcoTrt avTov, 1 Pet. ii. 24 (R G 
T, but Tr mrg. br. avTov) ; esp. in the Apocalypse: ^u 
oiSelj BvvaTai KXflaai avTrjv, Rev. iii. 8 (acc. to the true 
text) ; ols iboB-q avTols, Rev. vii. 2 ; add vs. 9 ; xiii. 1 2 ; 
xvii. 9 ; far oftener in the Sept. ; rare in Grk. writ. [fr. 
Callim. ep. 44] ; cf. Her7n. ad Vig. p. 709 ; [B. § 143, 1] ; W. 
§ 22, 4 b. where add to the exx. Ildian. 8, 6, 10 [5 Bekk.] 
019 (Tri(f)oiT(ocn avTols ras Xoinas TroXeis wiiXai avoiyvvvTO. 
But to this construction must not be referred Mt. iii. 1 2 
ov TO TTTvov iv Trj ;^eipt avTov, nor 1 Pet. ii. 24 os Tas 
dpapTias r]p.cov avTos dvrjvfyKfv. For in the latter pas- 
sage avTos is in contrast with us, who must otherwise 
have paid the penalty of our sins ; and in the former the 
sense is, 'he holds his winnowing-shovel in his hand.' 
6. Very often ovtos is used rather laxly, where the 
subject or the object to which it must be referred is not 
expressly indicated, but must be gathered especially 
from some preceding name of a province or city, or from 
the context : Mt. iv. 23 (TrepiTJytv ttjv TaXiXalav 8i8da-K<ov iv 
Tois (Twayutyais avrav, i. e. of the Galilfcans) ; Acts viii. 5 
('Sap.apdas iKr)pva(Tev avTo'ts, i- c. Toir 2ap,apeiTais) ; XX. 2 
(avTovs, i. e. the inhabitants Ta>v fiepaiv iKfivmv ) ; 2 Co. ii. 

13 {avTols, i. e. the Christians of Troas); Mt. xix. 2 (o^Xot 
TToXXoi <a\ idtpaTifvafv avTovs, i. e. their sick) ; 1 Pet. iii. 

14 {(^io^ov avTwv, i. e. of those who may be able KaKoxrai 
you, vs. 13); Lk. xxiii. 51 (jfi fiovXjj uvtQiv, i. e. of those 
with whom he had been a ^ovXf uttj?) ; Heb. viii. 8 {avTols 
[L T WH Tr mrg. avrovs; see /ieV<^o/Liai] i. e. ToTr f;^ou(Tt 
TTJV 8ia6r)K7)v TT]V nputrqv) \ Lk. ii. 22 Ctoxi Ka6api.crp.ov avTwv, 



avTov 



87 



u(f>aipe(o 



of the purification prescribed by the law of Moses to 
women in child-bed) ; Jn. viii. 44 (-^fvarijs fo-riv koI 6 
iraTTjp avTov, i. e. of the liar; cf. Baumg.-Crusius and 
Meyer ad loc). By this rather careless use of the pro- 
noun it came about that at length avroi alone might be 
used for avdpionoi : Mt. viii. 4 ; Mk. i. 44 ; Lk. v. 14, 17 
[here T WH Tr mrg. ai,T6v] ; cf. W. § 22, 3 ; B. § 127, 8. 

7. Sometimes, in relative sentences consisting of several 
members, the second member is not joined to the first by 
the relative of, but by a loose connection proceeds with 
KoiavTos; as, Lk.xvii. 31 ; Acts iii. 13 {bv vfxels napfdayKare 
Kai ^pvqaaa-de avrov [L T WH om. Tr br. airoi/]) ; 1 Co. 
viii. 6 (f^ ov TO navra koL r^jxti^ ds avrov, for koI eis bv 
fjfieis) ; 2 Pet. ii. 3. This is the usage likewise of Greek 
as weU as of Hebrew ; cf. W. 149 (141) ; [B. 283 (243)] ; 
Bnhdy. p. 304. 

III. 6 avTos, T] aiiTT], to avTo, with the article, the same ; 

1. without a noun : 6 avTos, immutable, Heb. i. 1 2 ; xiii. 

8, (Thuc. 2, 61); to avr6 : — noie'iv, Mt. v. 46 [R G T 
WH txt., 47 L T Tr WH] ; Lk. vi. 33 ; Xeyeiv, to profess 
the same opinion, 1 Co. i. 10; dveibiCeiv, not in the same 
manner but reproached him with the same, cast on him 
the same reproach, Mt. xxvii. 44, {dueiBi^dv ToiavTa, Soph. 
Oed. Col. 1002). TO avrd: Acts xv. 27 ; Ro. ii. 1 ; Eph. 
vi. 9. fVl TO avTo [Rec'' passim eniToavTo^ (Hesych. 
oiMov, €771 Tov aiiTov TOTTov), to the same place, in the same 
place : Mt. xxii. 34 ; Acts i. 15 ; ii. 1 ; 1 Co. xi. 20 ; xiv, 23, 
(Ps. ii. 2 ; 2 S. ii. 13 ; 3 Mace. iii. 1 ; Sus. 14) ; together : 
Lk. xvii. 35 ; Acts iii. 1 [L T Tr WH join it to ch. 
ii.; 1 Co. vii. 6]; KaTo. to avro, (Vulg. simul), together: 
Acts xiv. 1 (for nn:, Ex. xxvi. 24; 1 K. iii. 18 ; exx. fr. 
Grk. writ, are given by Kypke, Observv. ii. p. 69 sqq.). 
Like adj. of equality 6 avTos is foil, by the dat. : ev nai 
TO avTo Ttj f^vprjuevr], 1 Co. xi. 5, (Sap. xviii. 11 ; 4 Mace, 
viii. 5 ; x. 2, 13, and often in Grk. writ., cf. W. 150 (141)). 

2. With a noun added : Mt. xxvi. 44 ; Mk. xiv. 39 (tov 
ai/Tov Xdyoi/) ; Lk. vi. 38 [R G L mrg.] (tw avTw p.fTpa) ; 
Phil. i. 30 ; 1 Co. i. 10 (eV rw avrco vot) ; 1 Co. xii. 4 {to 
8e avTo Trvfvp.a), etc. tcl avTo. (with the force of a subst. : 
the same kind) T<i>v TradrjfidTov, 1 Pet. v. 9. [Cf. ravTa.'} 

avTov, prop, neuter genitive of the pron. avros, in that 
place, there, here : Mt. xxvi. 36 ; [Lk. ix. 27 (R L 2)Se)] ; 
Acts XV. 34 (a spurious vs. [see WH. App. ad loc.]) ; xviii. 
19 (LTr mrg. tKel); xxi. 4 (Lchm. avTo'is)* 

avTov, -rjs, -oii, of himself, herself, itself, i. q. tavrov, q. v. 
It is very common in the edd. of the N. T. by the Elzevirs, 
Griesbach, Knapp, al. ; but Bengel, Matthaei, Lchm., 
Tdf., Trg. have everywhere substituted avToi), avT&, etc. 
for avTov, avra, etc. " For I have observed that the 
former are used almost constantly [not always then? 
Grimm'] not only in uncial codd. of the viii. ix. and x. 
cent., but also in many others (and not N. T. codd. alone). 
That this is the correct mode of writing is proved also 
by numerous examples where the pron. is joined to prep- 
ositions ; for these last are often found written not f(^, 
a(^, fieO, KaO, av6, etc, but en, air, p-eT, kut, avr." Tdf 
Proleg. ad N. T., ed. 2 p. xxvi. [ed. 8 p. 126]; cf. his 
Proleg. ad Sept., ed. 1 p. Ixx. [ed. 4 p. xxxiii. (not in 



ed. 6)]. Bleek entertains the same opinion and sets it 
forth at length in bis note on Heb. i. 3, vol. ii. 1 p. 
6 7 sqq. The question ]g hard to decide, not only be- 
cause the breathings and accents are wanting in the 
oldest codd., but also because it often depends upon the 
mere preference of the writer or speaker whether he 
will speak in his own person, or ace. to the thought of 
the person spoken of. Certainly in the large majority 
of the passages in the N. T. avTov is correctly restored ; 
but apparently we ought to write Si' avrov (Rec. tavrov 
[so L mrg. T WH]), Ro. xiv. 14 [L txt. Tr St' avr.'] ; tk 
avrov, Col. i. 20 [al. els avr-l ', avros irepl avrov [T Tr txt. 
WHeauroC], Jn.ix.21. Cf. W. 151 (143); [B. Ill (97) sq.; 
Bp. Lghtft. on Col. 1. c, and see esp. Hort in Westcott and 
Hort's Grk. Test., App. p. 144 sq. ; these editors have in- 
troduced the aspirated form into their text " nearly twen- 
ty times " (e. g. Mt. vi. 34 ; Lk. xii. 1 7, 21 ; xxiii. 1 2 ; xxiv. 
12; Jn. ii. 24 ; xiii. 32; xix. 17; xx. 10; Acts xiv. 17; Ro. 
i. 27 ; 2 Co. iii. 5 ; Eph. ii. 15 ; Phil. iii. 21 ; 1 Jn. v. 10 ; 
Rev. viii. 6, etc.). Cf. Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 432]. 

avT64>(opos, -ov, (avTos and cf)d}p a thief, (pcopd a theft), 
[fr. Soph, down] ; prop, caught in the act of theft ; then 
univ. caught in the act of perpetrating any other crime ; 
very often in the phrases iir avro(f)oipco (as one word 
fTravrocpapco) riva \ap^dvfiv, pass. }<ap(3dvf(Tdai, KaraXap.- 
^dvta-dai, dXiaKfadai, (fr. Hdt. 6, 72 on), the crime being 
specified by a participle : poixfvopivt), Jn. viii. 4 [R G], 
as in Ael. nat. an. 11,15; Plut. mor. vi. p. 446 ed. Tauchn. 
[x. p. 723 ed. Reiske, cf. Nicias 4, 5 ; Eumen. 2, 2] ; Sext. 
Empir. adv. Rhet. 65 [p. 151 ed. Fabric.].* 

avT6-\€ip, -pos, 6, {avros and x^'P' ^^- l^'^'^pox^'-Pi aSiKo- 
;^fip), doing a thing with one's own hand: Acts xxvii. 19. 
(Often in the tragedians and Attic orators.) * 

avx«'w ; (in pres. and impf. fr. Aeschyl. and Hdt. down, 
but rare in prose) ; prop, to lift up the neck, hence to 
boast : peydXa avx"> J^s. iii- 5 L T Tr WH for R G pe- 
yaXavx^t '!• '^■* 

avxiA^pos, -a, -ov, {avxpf(^ to be squalid), squalid, dirty, 
(Xen., Plat., sqq.), and since dirty things ai-e destitute of 
brightness, dark: 2 Pet. i. 19, Aristot. de color. 3 to 
XapTTpbv fj ariX^ov . . . ^ Tovvavrlov avxp^pbv Ka\ dXapnes. 
(Hesych., Suidas, Pollux.) * 

du|>-aipe'<o, -w ; fut. d(j)aipfi(Ta> (Rev. xxii. 1 9 Rec. [fr. 
Erasmus, apparently on rio Ms. authority ; see Tdf.'s 
note]), and dc^eXaJ (ibid. G L T Tr WH ; on this rarer fut. 
cf. Bftm. Ausf. Spr. ii. p. 100) ; 2 aor. d(f)flXov ; 1 fut. pass. 
d(pat.p€6T]aropai ; Mid., pres. d(f)aipo\Jpai; 2 aor. d(f)fLX6pTjv; 
[see aiptM'} ; in Grk. writ. fr. Horn, down ; to take from, 
take away, remove, carry off: rl, Lk. i. 25 ; to cut off, to 
^Tiov, Mt. xxTi. 51 ; Mk. xiv. 47 [L T Tr WH rb utrdpiov} ; 
Lk. xxii. 50 [^To oils'], {rrjv Ke<paXr)v rivos, 1 Mace. vii. 47 ; 
for nT3, 1 S. xvii. 51) ; to take away, t\ and with gen. 
of a thing. Rev. xxii. 19; t\ and with gen. of pers. Lk. 
X. 42 [T WH om. L Tr br. aird], (Gen. xxxi. 31 ; Job 
xxxvi. 7 ; Prov. iv. 16 [Alex.], etc.) ; mid. (prop, to 
take away or bear off for one's self), Lk. xvi. 3, (Lev. 
iv. 10 ; Mic. ii. 8 ; in Grk. writ, with a simple gen. for 
dno Tivos) ', dcpaipflv ras dpaprlas to take away sins, of 



a^ai/^9 



88 



a(f)ir)fii. 



victims expiating them, Heb. x. 4, (Jer. xi. 15 ; Sir. xlvii. 
11) ; mid. of God putting out of his sight, remembering 
no more, the sins committed by men, i. e. granting par- 
don for sins (see Afiapria, 2 a.) : Ro. xi. 27.* 

d<|>aWjs, -4i, ((})aiva>),not manifest, hidden : Heb. iv. 13. 
(Often in Grk. writ. fr. [Aeschyl. and] Hdt. down.) [Cf. 
tijXos, and Schmidt ch. 130.]* 

ou^avC^co ; [Pass., pres. d4)avi(ofiai] ; 1 aor. T](})apl<T6T]v ; 
(^a<pavr)s) ; a. to snatch out of sight, to put out of view, to 
make unseen, (Xen. an. 3, 4, 8 17X101/ vf(f>f\r] napaKokvyl^aaa 
^(f)dvi(T€ sc njv iroXiv, Plat. Phil. 66 a. d(j)avi(ovT(s Kpv- 
TTTOfieu). b. to cause to vanish away, to destroy, consume : 
Mt. vi. 19 sq. (often so in Grk. writ, and Sept. [cf. B. 
§130, 5]); Pass, to perish: Acts xiii. 41 (Luth. vor 
Schrecken vergehen) ; to vanish away, Jas. iv. 14, (Hdt. 7, 
6; 167; Plat, et sqq.). c. to deprive of lustre, render 
unsightly; to disfigure: to Trpoa-uirop, Mt. vi. 16.* 

d(|>avur|i6s, -ov, 6, (d(f)avi^(D, q. v.), disappearance ; de- 
struction : Heb. viii. 13. (Theophr., Polyb., Diod., Plut., 
Lcian., al. ; often in Sept., particularly for HQiy and 

nooij'.)* 

a-<|>avTOs, -ov, (fr. (f>aivofiai), taken out of sight, made 
invisible : acpavros eyevero an avrav, he departed from 
them suddenly and in a way unseen, he vanished, Lk. 
xxiv. 31. (In poets fr. Horn, down ; later in prose writ. 
also ; Diod. 4, 65 ffnreaav fls to xdarfia ■ ■ ■ a(f)avTos iytvfTO, 
Plut. orac. def. c. 1. Sometimes angels, withdrawing 
suddenly from human view, are said d(f)ave2s yivea-Oai : 
2 Mace. iii. 34; Acta Thom. §§27 and 43.)* 

ou{>{8p(ov, -ojvoi, 6, apparently a word of Macedonian 
origin, which Suidas calls ' barbarous ' ; the place into 
which the alvine discharges are voided; a privy, sink; 
found only in Mt. xv. 17; Mk. vii. 19. It appears to 
be derived not from a(/)' ibpS>v a podicibus, but from 
a(f)(8pos, the same Macedon. word which in Lev. xii. 5 ; 
XV. 19 sqq. answers to the Hebr. TTHJ snrdes menstruorum. 
Cf. Fischer's full discussion of the word in his De vitiis 
lexx. N. T. p. 698 sqq.* 

diJMiSCa {d^t'ibeia Lchm.,see s.v. et,t),-af, f], (the dispo- 
sition of a man who is dcpeiBrjs, unsparing), unsparing 
severity : with gen. of the object, tov aafiaTos, Col. ii. 23 
(toiv o-w/idTwi/ d^etSeii/, Lys. 2, 25 (193, 5) ; Diod. 13, 60; 
79 etc. [see Bp. Lghtft. on Col. 1. c] ; in Plat, defin. p. 
412 d. d(pfi8la means liberality')* 

d«J>-«i8ov, i. q. dirfibov, q. v, Cf. B. 7 ; Mullacn p. 22 ; 
W. 45 (44) ; [Tdf Proleg. p. 91 sq., Sept. ed. 4 Proleg. 
p. xxxiii. ; Scrivener's ed. of cod. Cantab. Intr. p. xlvii. 
(11) ; esp. WH. App. p. 143 sq., Meisterhans § 20, and 
Bp. Lghtft. on Phil. ii. 23; Curtius p. 687 sq.]. 

d<|>€X.6TT)s, -T]TOi, fj, (fr. d<pe\ris without rock, smooth, 
plain, and this fr. ^eXXevj rocky land), simplicity, [A.V. 
singlenessi : Kapdlas, Acts ii. 46, (found only here [and in 
eccl. writ.]. The Greeks used dcpeXeia).* 

a^XiTllm, i. q. dnfXTTi^a), q. v. ; cf. d(f)fl8ov. 

d4>-€<ris, -f<os, 17, (d0t7;/xi) ; 1. release, as from bond- 
age, imprisonment, etc.: Lk. iv. 18 (19), (Is. Ixi. 1 sq. ; 
Polyb. 1, 79, 12, etc.). 2. a(f>((ns afiapTtav forgiveness, 
pardon, of sins (prop, the letting them go, as if they had 



not been committed [see at length Trench § xxxiii.])» 
remission of their penalty : Mt. xxvi. 28 ; Mk. i. 4 ; Lk, 
i. 77 ; iii. 3 ; xxiv. 47 ; Acts ii. 38 ; v. 31 ; x. 43 ; xiii. 38 ; 
xxvi. 18 ; Col. i. 14 ; Tciv napaTrTafidTuv, Eph. i. 7 ; and 
simply a(f)t(Tis: Mk. iii. 29; Heb. ix. 22; x. 18, (^oi/ou, 
Plat. legg. 9 p. 869 d. ; <y*cXjj^dTa)i/, Diod. 20, 44 [so 
Dion. Hal. 1. 8 § 50, see also 7, 33 ; 7, 46 ; esp. 7, 64 ; 
dfj-apTTjuaTav, Philo, vit. Moys. iii. 17; al.]).* 

«*4>1> -^f) V' (oiTTa to fasten together, to fit), (Vulg. 
junctura [and nexus"]), bond, connection, [A. V. joint (see 
esp. Bp. Lghtft. on Col. as below)] : Eph. iv. 16 ; Col. ii. 
19. (Plut. Anton, c. 27.)* 

d()>Oap<r(a, -as, 17, {d(j)6apTos, cf. dKaOapa-ia), (TertuU. 
and subseq. writ, incorruptibilitas, Vulg. incorruptio [and 
incorruptelay),incorruption, perpetuity: tov Koa-fiov, Philo 
de incorr. mund. §11; it is ascribed to to 6(iov in Plut. 
Arist. c. 6 ; of the body of man exempt from decay after 
the resurrection, 1 Co. xv. 42 (tv d(p6. sc. Bv), 50, 53 sq. ; 
of a blessed immortality (Sap. ii. 23; vi. 19; 4 Mace, 
xvii. 12), Ro. ii. 7 ; 2 Tim. i. 10. Tii>d dyairdv iv dcftOap- 
aia to love one with never diminishing love, Eph. vi. 
24 [cf . Mey. ad loc. The word seems to have the mean- 
ing purity, sincerity, incorruptness in Tit. ii. 7 Rec.*'].* 

d-<t>9apTos, -ov, ((p6fipco), uncorrupted, not liable to cor- 
ruption or decay, imperishable : of things, 1 Co. ix. 25 ; 
1 Pet. i. 4, 23 ; iii. 4 ; \jd<^6. Ktjpvyfia ttjs alavlov aoiTTjpias, 
IVIk. xvi. WH in (rejected) ' Shorter Conclusion ']. m- 
mortal: of the risen dead, 1 Co. xv. 52; of God, Ro. i. 
23 ; 1 Tim. i. 1 7. (Sap. xii. 1 ; xviii. 4. [Aristot.], 
Plut., Lcian., al. [Cf. Trench § Ixviii.])* 

d,-(j>6opCa, -as, fj, (a(pdopos uncorrupted, fr. <p6fip<o), un^ 
corruptness : Tit. ii. 7 L T Tr WH ; see d8La(f)6opia.* 

d((>-CT]|jii ; pres. 2 pers. sing, dcpels (fr. the form d({ifai. 
Rev. ii. 20 for Rec. eas), [3 pers. plur. d(f)iovaiv Rev. xi. 
9 Tdf. edd.2, 7,fr. a form d^teo) ; cf. B. 48 (42)] ; impf. 3 
pers. sing, ^^le, with the augm. before the prep., Mk. i. 
34; xi. 16, fr. the form dq^t'o ; whence also pres. 1 pers. 
plur. d(piofjifv Lk. xi. 4 L T Tr WH for d^iUpev Rec. and 
3 pers. dcjiiovaiv Rev. xi. 9 L T Tr WH ; [see WH. App. 
p. 167]; fut. d(j)T](Tco; 1 aor. dcpiJKa, 2 pers. sing. -/ces Rev. 
ii. 4 T Tr WH [cf . AcoTridw] ; 2 aor. impv. a<}>fs, acjieTe, subj. 
3 pers. sing, dcf)^, 2 pers. plur. d(^^rf, [inf. d(})flvai. (Mt. 
xxiii. 23 L T Tr WH; Lk. v. 21 L txt. T Tr WH)], 
ptcp. d(j)fU, d(f)evTes; Pass., pres. d(f>iffiai, [yet 3 pers. 
plur. dcf)iovTai Jn. xx. 23 WH mrg. etc. ; cf. dcfiico above] ; 
pf. 3 pers. plur. d(f)t(ovTai (a Doric form [cf. W. § 14, 3 a. ; 
B 49 (42) ; Kuliner § 285, 4], Mt. ix. 2, 5 ; Mk. ii. 5, [9] 
— in both these Gospels L [exc. in Mk. mrg.] T Tr WH 
have restored the pres. 3 pers. plur. dcfiievTai; Lk. v. 20, 
23 ; vii. 47, [48]; Jn. xx. 23 L txt. T Tr txt. WH txt. ; 
1 Jn. ii. 12) ; 1 aor. dcfiidr/v; fut. dcfiedrjtropai ; cf. W. § 14, 
3; B. 48 (42) ; [WH. App. p. 167 ; Veitch s. v. ?;,;ii] ; 
(f r. djro and trjpi) ; [f r. Hom. down] ; to send from (dno) 
one's self; 1. to send away ; a. to bid go away or 
depart: tovs oxXovs, Mt. xiii. 36 [al. refer this to 3 be- 
low] ; TTjv yvvaiKa, of a husband putting away his wife, 
1 Co. vii. 11-13, (Hdt. 5, 39 ; and subst. acfieais, Plut. 
Pomp. c. 42, 6). b. to send forth, yield up, emit: ri 



a^VH''' 



89 



d(f)Ofjboio(o 



irvtvyta, to expire, Mt. xxvii. 50 (t^v "^^xriv, Gen. xxxv. 
18 ; Hdt. 4, 190 and often in other Grk. writ, [see nvfvjxa, 
2]), (fxovTiv to utter a cry (emittere vocem, Liv. 1, 58), Mk. 
XV. 37 (Gen. xlv. 2 and often in Grk. writ. ; [cf. Heinichen 
on Euseb. h. e. 8, 14, 17]). c. to let go, let alone, let he ; 
a. to disregard : Mt. xv. 14. p. to leave, not to discuss 
noto, a topic, used of teachers, writers, speakers, etc. : 
Heb. vi. 1, (Eur. Andr. 392 ; Theophr. char, praef. § 3 ; 
for other examples fr. Grk. writ, see Bleek on Heb. vol. 
ii. 2 p. 144 sq.), [al. take the word in Heb. 1. c. as expres- 
sive of the duty of the readers, rather than the purpose of 
the writer ; and consequently refer the passage to 3 be- 
low], y. to omit, neglect : Mt. xxiii. 23, [Lk. xi. 42 R G] ; 
Mk. vii. 8 ; Ro. i. 27. d. to let go, give up, a debt, by not 
demanding it (opp. to Kpareiv, Jn. xx. 23), i. e. to remit, 
forgive : rb bdveiov, Mt. xviii. 27 ; rr^v 64)ei.\T)v, Mt. xviii. 
32 ; TO. 6(f)ei\TjfiaTa, Mt. vi. 12 ; to TrapanTaynara, vi. 14 sq. ; 
Mk. xi. 25 sq. [T Tr WH om. verse 26] ; ras dfxaprias, ra 
a(iapTr]tiaTa, ras dvofiias, Mt. ix. 2, 5 sq. ; xii. 31 ; Mk. ii. 5, 
7 ; iii. 28 ; Lk. v. 20 sq. 23 ; Ro. iv. 7 (fr. Ps. xxxi. (xxxii.) 
1) ; 1 Jn. i. 9 ; Jas. v. 15, (Is. xxii. 14 ; xxxiii. 24, etc.) ; 
T. enivoiau ttjs Kap8ias, Acts viii. 22, (ttjv ahiav, Hdt. 6, 
30 ; TO. XP««) -^sl- V- ^^- l"*' -4) ' absolutely, d<^uvai rivl to 
forgive one: Mt. xii. 32; xviii. 21, 35 ; Mk. iv. 12; Lk. 
xi. 4 ; xii. 10 ; xvii. 3 sq. ; xxiii. 34 [L br. WH reject the 
pass.], e. to give up, keep no longer : nji/ nparriv dycnrqv, 
Rev. ii. 4. 2. to permit, alloiv, not to hinder ; a. foil, by 
a pres. inf. [B. 258 (222)] : Mk. x. 14 ; Lk. xviii. 16 S^trt 
fpXf(Tdai Koi pf) KcoXiere avrd, Mt. xiii. 30 ; Mk. i, 34 ; Jn. 
xi. 44; xviii. 8. by the aor. inf. : Mt. viii. 22; xxiii. 13 
(14); Mk. V. 37; vii. 12, 27; Lk. viii. 51 ; ix. 60 ; xii. 39 ; 
Rev. xi. 9. b. without an inf. : Mt. iii. 15 (cicpts apri per- 
mit it just now), with ace. of the pers. or thing permitted : 
Mt. iii. 15 Tore d(})ir](nv avrov, Mk. v. 19 ; xi. 6 ; xiv. 6 ; Lk. 
xiii. 8 ; Jn. xii. 7 R G ; xi. 48 ; Acts v. 38 (L T Tr WH ; 
R G edaare) ; Rev. ii. 20 (Rec. eas). c. d(j)ir]pi rivi ri, to 
give up a thing to one : Mt. v. 40 {cicfyes avTco koL to Ipdriou). 
d. foil, by iva : Mk. xi. 16 ; Jn. xii. 7 L T Tr WH, a later 
construction, cf. W. § 44, 8 ; B. 238 (205). e. foil, by 
the simple hortative subjunc. : Mt. vii. 4 ; Lk. vi. 42 
(a(f>es fK^dXco) ; Mt. xxvii. 49 ; Mk. xv. 36, (S(pfTe 'idcopev) ; 
Epict. diss. 1, 9, 15 a(f)€s 8ei^cop.(v, 3, 12, 15 acres' I'Sw. 
Cf. B. 209 (181) sq. ; W. 285 (268). 3. to leave, go 
away from one ; to depart from any one, a. in order to 
go to another place : Mt. xxii. 22 ; xxvi. 44 ; Mk. viii. 13 
(Mt. xvi. 4 (caraAiTTo)!/); xii. 12; xiii. 34; Jn. iv. 3; xvi. 
28. b. to depart from one whom one wishes to quit : 
Mt. iv. 1 1 ; so of diseases departing, d(pr)Kiv riva 6 nvpfros, 
Mt. viii. 15 ; Mk. i. 31 ; Lk. iv. 39 ; Jn. iv. 52. c. to de- 
part from one and leave him to himself, so that all mutual 
claims are abandoned : tov irarepa, Mt. iv. 22 ; Mk. i. 20 ; 
Mt. xviii. 12 (Lk. xv. 4 KaToKeinei). Thus also d(f)uvai 
TO eavTov to leave possessions, home, etc. : Mt. iv. 20 ; 
xix. 27, 29 ; Mk. i. 18 ; x. 28 sq. ; Lk. v. 1 1 ; xviii. 28 sq. 
d. to desert one (wrongfully) : Mt. xxvi. 56 ; Mk. xiv. 
^0 ; Jn. X. 12. e. to go away leaving something behind : 
Mt. V. 24 ; Jn. iv. 28. f. to leave one by not taking him 
as a companion : opp. to ivapakap^dvew, Mt. xxiv. 40 sq. ; 



Lk. xvii. 34 sq. g. to leave on dying, leave behind one : 
TfKva, yvvaiKa, Mt. xxii. 25 ; Mk. xii. 20, 22, (Lk. xx. 31 
AcaraXfiTrw). h. to leave so that what is left may re- 
main, leave remaining: ov pfj d({)fd^ wSe \i6os fVt Xidop 
[or Xt'^o)], Mt. xxiv. 2 ; Mk. xiii. 2 ; Lk. xxi. 6. i. d(f>i.fVM 
foil, by the ace. of a noun or pron. with an ace. of the 
predicate [B. § 144, 18]: Lk. x. 30 (fjpieav^) ; Jn. xiv. 
18 {rivd opcpavop) ; Mt. xxiii. 38 ; Lk. xiii. 35, (but Lchm. 
om. eprjpos in both pass., WH txt. om. in Mt., G T Tr 
WH om. in Luke ; that being omitted, dcpUvai means to 
abandon, to leave destitute of God's help) ; Acts xiv. 1 7 
{apdprvpou iavrov [L T Tr avrov (WH avT. q. v.)]). 

d({>-iKveo(i,ai, -ovpai : 2 aor. dc^iKoprfv ; (iKviopai to come) ; 
very often in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down ; to come from 
(d-uo) a place (but often the prep, has almost lost its 
force) ; to come to, arrive at ; in the N. T. once, tropically : 
Ro. xvi. 19 (JjpSiv vnaKof) fls ndmas d(plKfTo your obedi- 
ence has reached the ears of [A. V. is come abroad unto'j 
all men; Sir. xlvii. 16 els vrjcovs dcfiiKfTo to ovopd trov. 
Joseph, antt. 19, 1, 16 ety to dearpov . . . dcpiKfTo 6 Xoyof).* 

d-({>iX-d-ya6os, -ov, (a priv. and <pi\dyados), opposed to 
goodness and good men, [R. V. no lover of good'] ; found 
only in 2 Tim. iii. 3.* 

a-(f>i.X-dp'yvpos, -ov, (a priv. and (f)i\dpyvpos), not loving 
money, not avaricious ; only in the N. T., twice viz. 1 
Tim. iii. 3 ; Heb. xiii. 5. [Cf. Trench § xxiv.] * 

d<{>-i^is, -foos, f}, (dcpiKVfopai), in Grk. writ, generally 
arrival ; more rarely departure, as Hdt. 9, 17; Dem. 
1463, 7; [1484, 8] ; Joseph, antt. 4, 8, 47; 3 Mace. vii. 
18 ; and so in Acts xx. 29.* 

d(j)-i<mf)jii : 1 aor. dnea-Tija-a ; 2 aor. dneo'TTjv ; Mid., 
pres. d(f)LaTapai, impv. d(j)LaTaao (1 Tim. vi. 5 Rec. ; cf. 
W. § 14, 1 e.) ; [impf. dipiardpTjv'}; fut. dnoaTTjaopai ; 
1. transitively, in pres., impf., fut., 1 aor. active, tn 
make stand off, cause to withdraw, to remove; trop. to 
excite to revolt : Acts v. 3 7 (^dnecTTriae Xaov . . . ottio-oj avrov 
drew away after him ; rivd dno rivos, Deut. vii. 4, and in 
Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. 1, 76 down). 2. intransitively, 
in pf., plpf., 2 aor. active, to stand off, stand aloof, in 
various senses [as in Grk. writ.] ace. to the context : dwo 
with gen. of pers. to go away, depart, from any one, Lk. 
xiii. 27 (fr. Ps. vi. 9 ; cf. Mt. vii. 23 drroxcopelre an epov) ; 
Acts xii. 10 ; xix. 9 ; to desert, withdraw from, one, Acts 
XV. 38 ; to cease to vex one, Lk. iv. 13 ; Acts v, 38 ; xxii. 
29 ; 2 Co. xii. 8 ; to fall away, become faithless, dnb 0€ov, 
Heb. iii. 12 ; to shun, flee from, dm ri^s ddiKias, 2 Tim. 
ii. 19. Mid. to withdraw one's self from: absol. to fall 
away, Lk. viii. 13 ; [t^s iria-rews, 1 Tim. iv. 1, cf. W. 427, 
428 (398)] ; to keep one's self away from, absent 07ie's 
self from, Lk. ii. 37 (ovk dcpioTaro dwb [T Tr WH om. 
otto] TOV lepov, she was in the temple every day) ; from 
any one's society or fellowship, 1 Tim. vi. 5 Rec* 

d({>v6), adv., (akin to a'icjivrjs, see in alcpviBios above), sud- 
denly : Acts ii. 2 ; xvi. 26 ; xxviii. 6. (Sept. ; [Aeschyl.], 
Thuc. and subseq. writ.) * 

d(|>6Pb>s, adv., (<^o^oy), without fear, boldly: Lk. i. 74; 
Phil. i. 14 ; 1 Co. xvi. 10 ; Jude 12. [From Xen. down.] * 

d<|>-opioi6<i>, -w : [pf. pass. ptcp. ({(^(^/[iotcoMeVof (on augm. 



d<f>opd 



aa> 



90 



aj^Xus 



see WH. App. p. 161)]; to cause a model to pass off 
(ajro) into an image or shape like it, — to express itself in 
it, (cf. aTTdKa^dV, dntiKovi^fiv, dnonXaaaeiv, dTrofUfiflaffaty, 
to copy ; to produce a facsimile : ra KaXa€i8r], of painters, 
Xen. mem. 3, 10, 2; often in Plato. Pass, to be made 
like, rendered similar : so Heb. vii, 3. (Ep. Jer. 4 (5), 
62 (63), 70 (71) ; and in Plato.) * 

a^-opoM, -S) ; to turn the eyes away from other things 
andjix them on something; cf. dirofiXtna). trop. to turn 
one's mind to: t'ls nva, Heb. xii. 2 [W. § 66, 2 d.], (els 
6f6v, 4 Mace. xvii. 10; for exx. fr. Grk. writ. cf. Bleek 
on Heb. vol. ii. 2 p. 862). Further, cf. dnflSov* 

6.^-opLX,oi ; impf. dcjxiipi^ov ; Attic fut. dcpopiio Mt. xxv. 32 
(T WII a^opiVco) ; xiii. 49, [W. § 13, 1 c. ; B. 37 (32)] ; 

1 aor. d(poipiaa ; Pass., pf. ptcp. d<p(>>pia-fi€vos ; 1 aor. 
impv. d(f)opL(r6r^T( ; (opi^o) to make a opos or boundary) ; 
to mark off from {dtro) others by boundaries, to limit, to 
separate : tavrov, from others. Gal. ii. 1 2 ; tous paOrjrds, 
from those unwilling to obey the gospel. Acts xix. 9 ; in 
fj.f(Tov TLvoiv, Mt. xiii. 49; di:6 rivos, xxv. 32. Pass, in a 
reflex, sense : 2 Co. vi. 1 7. absol. : in a bad sense, 
to exclude as disreputable, Lk. vi. 22 ; in a good sense, riva 
(Is Ti, to appoint, set apart, one for some purpose (to do 
something). Acts xiii. 2 ; Ro. i. 1 ; rivd foil, by a telic 
inf.. Gal. i. 15 [(?) seetheComm.adloc.]. ([Soph.], Eur., 
Plat., Isocr., Dem., Polyb., al. ; very often in Sept. esp. for 

ViDH, ^'Jn, Dnn, -ijd, etc.) * 

d()>-op|j.Ti, -TJs, f), (aTTo and 6p/xij q. v.) ; 1, prop, a 
place from tvhich a movement or attack is made, a base 
of operations : Thuc. 1, 90 (ttji/ YliKoivovvqcTov irdtriv dva- 
\d)pr]aii> T( Kal dcpopfifjv iKavfjv eiVat) ; Polyb. 1,41, 6. 2. 
metaph. that by which endeavor is excited and from ivhich 
it goes forth ; that which gives occasion and supplies matter 
for an undertaking, the incentive ; the resources we avail 
ourselves of in attempting or performing anything : Xen. 
mem. 3, 12, 4 {rols iavTcov naiaX koKXIovs d(popp.a.s els rou 
^lov KaTuXeinova-i), and often in Grk. writ. ; XapL^dveiv, to 
take occasion, find an incentive, Ro. vii. 8, 1 1 ; bibovai, 2 
Co. V. 12 ; 1 Tim. v. 14, (3 Mace. iii. 2 ; both phrases often 
also in Grk. writ.) ; 2 Co. xi. 1 2 ; Gal. v. 1 3. On the mean- 
ings of this word see Viger. ed. Herm. p. 81 sq. ; Phryn. 
ed.Zo6. p. 223 sq. ; ^Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 304].* 

d4)pC?o> ; {d^pos) ; to foam : Mk. ix. 18, 20. (Soph. El. 
719; Diod. 3, 10; Athen. 11, 43 p. 472 a.; [al.].) 
[COMP. : en-a({)pi(a>.']* 

tt<j>p6s, -oS, 6, foam: Lk. ix. 39. (Horn. II. 20, 168; 
[al.].) * 

w^poa~!ivr], -rjj, f], (a(f)p(ou), foolishness, folly, senseless- 
ness : 2 Co. xi. 1, 17, 21 ; thoughtlessness, recklessness, Mk. 
vii. 22. [From Hom. down.] * 

a({>p<DV, -ovos, 6, f), -ov, TO, (fr. a priv. and <f)pf]v, cf. ev- 
(l)puv, a-(j)(f)p(ov), [fr. Hom. down], prop, without reason 
([etSojXa, Xen. mem. 1, 4, 4] ; of beasts, ibid. 1, 4, 14), 
senseless, foolish, stupid ; without reflection or intelligence, 
acting rashly : Lk. xi. 40; xii. 20; Ro. ii. 20; 1 Co. xv. 
36 ; 2 Co. xi. 16, 19 (opp. to (f>p6viixos, as in Prov. xi. 29) ; 

2 Co. xii. 6,11; Eph. v. 1 7 (opp. to a-vvievres) ; 1 Pet. 
ii. 15. [A strong term; cf. Schmidt ch. 147 § 17.]* 



d^virv<S«>, -« : 1 aor. d<f>virvu<Ta ; (xmvou to put to sleep, 
to sleep) ; a. to awaken from sleep (Anthol. Pal. 9, 517, 
5). b. to fall asleep, to fall off to sleep : Lk. viii. 23 ; 
for this the ancient Greeks used Ka6vnv6(i>; see Lobeck 
ad Phryn. p. 224. [Herm. vis. 1, 1.]* 

a(j>-v<rT€p€», -« : (a later Grk. word) ; 1. to be be- 
hindhand, come too late (divo so as to be far from, or to 
fail, a person or thing) ; used of persons not present at 
the right time : Polyb. 22, 5, 2 ; Posidon. ap. Athen. 4, 
37 (i. e. 4 p. 151 e.) ; [al.] ; dnb dyadris r)p.epas to fail (to 
make use of) a good day, to let the opportunity pass by, 
Sir. xiv. 14. 2. transitively, to cause to fail, to with- 
draw, take away from, defraud: to fidwa aov ovk ac^ucrre- 
prjaas dno crTop,aTos avTOtv, Neh. ix. 20 (for J,'J0 to with- 
hold) ; pf. pass. ptcp. dcpva-TepTjfiepos (fitados), Jas. v. 4 
T Tr WH after X B *, [Rec. dTve(Trfpr)p.evos, see dnoare- 
peco, also s. v. aTro, H. 2 d. bb., p. 59''].* 

d({>«>vos, -ov, ((pcovTj), voiceless, dumb; without the faculty 
of speech ; used of idols, 1 Co. xii. 2 (cf. Ps. cxv. 5 (cxiii. 
13) ; Hab. ii. 18) ; of beasts, 2 Pet. ii. 16. 1 Co. xiv. 10 
ToaavTa yevrf (f)Q)vav Ka\ ov8ev avTav [L T Tr WH om. 
avT.^ acpcovov, i. e. there is no language destitute of the 
power of language, [R. V. txt. no kind (of voice) is with- 
out signification'], (cf. the phrases ^los d^ia)Tos a life un- 
worthy of the nalne of life, x"P's axapis). used of one 
that is patiently silent or dumb : djjLvos, Acts viii. 32 fr. 
Is. liii. 7. (In Grk. writ. fr. [Theog.], Pind., Aeschyl. 
down.)* 

"Axa^ [WH 'Axas], 6, (so Sept. for mvi possessing, pos- 
sessor ; in Joseph. ^Axd^^s, -ov, 6), Ahaz, king of Judah, 
[fr. c. B. c. 741 to c. B. c. 725 ; cf. B. D. s. v. Israel, king- 
dom of], (2 K. xvi. 1 sqq. ; 2 Chr. xxviii. 16 sqq. ; Is. vii. 1 
sqq.) : Mt. i. 9.* 

'Axata [WH 'A^ata (see I, t)], -as, ^, Achaia; 1. 
in a restricted sense, the maritime region of northern 
Peloponnesus. 2. in a broader sense, fr. B. c. 146 
on [yet see Diet, of Geog. s. v.], a Roman province em- 
bracing all Greece except Thessaly. So in the N. T. : 
Acts xviii. 12, 27; xix. 21 ; Ro. xv. 26; xvi. 5 Rec; 1 
Co. xvi. 15 ; 2 Co. i. 1 ; ix. 2 ; xi. 10 ; 1 Th. i. 7 sq. [B. D. 
s. v.] * 

'AxaiKos, -ov, 6, A chaicus, the name of a Christian of 
Corinth : 1 Co. xvi. 1 7.* 

axdpwrTOs, -ov, (xaplCopai), ungracious ; a. unpleasing 
(Hom. Od. 8, 236 ; 20, 392; Xen. oec. 7, 37; al.). b. 
unthankful (so in Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. 1, 90 down) : Lk. 
vi. 35 ; 2 Tim. iii. 2. (Sir. xxix. 1 7 ; Sap. xvi. 29.) * 

["Axas, Mt. i. 9 WH ; see'Axaf.] 

'A\el\L, 6, Achim, prop, name of one of the ancestors 
of Christ, not mentioned in the O. T. : Mt. i. 14.* 

d-xeipo-^oCtjTos, -ov, (xecpoTroirjTos, q. v.), not made with 
hands : Mk. xiv. 58 ; 2 Co. v. 1 ; Col. ii. 11 [where cf. Bp. 
Lghtft.]. (Found neither in prof. auth. nor in the Sept. 
[W. §34, 3].)* 

['AxtXaajidx : Acts i. 1 9 T Tr for R G 'AKeX8afid q. v.] 

dx^vs, -Cos, Tj, a mist, dimness, (Lat. caligo), esp. over 
the eyes, (a poetic word, often in Hom. ; then in Hesiod, 
Aeschyl. ; in prose writ. fr. [Aristot. meteor. 2, 8 p. 36 7'', 



a'y^pei.o'i 



91 



a-\^V')(0^ 



17 etc. and] Polyb. 34, 11, 15 on; [of a cataract, Dios- 
cor. Cf. Trench § c.]) : Acts xiii. 11. (Joseph, antt. 9, 

4, 3 ras rav noXf fxiav o>/^etf dfiavpaaai t6i> 6(6v naptKoXft 
dx^vv avrals (TTi^akovTa. Metaph. of the mind, Clem. 
Rom. 2 Cor. 1 , 6 dxXvos yefieiv.) * 

ck-Xfxios, -ov, (xpetof useful), useless, good for nothing: 
Mt. XXV. 30 (SoOAor, cf. Plat. Ale. i. 17 p. 122 b. rap 
oUfTav Tov axpfi-oTaTov) ; by an hyperbole of pious mod- 
esty in Lk. xvii. 10 'the servant' calls himself dxpei-ov, 
because, although he has done all, yet he has done noth- 
ing except what he ought to have done; accordingly 
he possesses no m e r i t, and could only claim to be called 
^profitable,' should he do more than what he is bound to 
do; cf. Bengel ad loc. (Often in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. 
down ; Xen. mem. 1, 2, 54 tixpdov koI dvcotpfXes. Sept. 
2 S. vi. 22 equiv. to SsE/ low, base.) [Syn. cf. Tittmann 
ii. p. 11 sq. ; EUic. on Philem. 11.]* 

dxpciow, -co : 1 aor. pass. r^xp^i'OiOrjv ; (dxpe'i-os, q. v.) ; to 
make useless, render unserviceable : of character, Ro. iii. 
12 (fr. Ps. xiii. (xiv.) 3), where L mrg. T Tr WH read 
T]xpfa)6TjTav fr. the rarer axpfos i. q. dxpf'ios- (Several 
times prop, in Polyb.) * 

a-xpTi<rTos, -ov, {xPT^^s, and this fr. xpoofiai), useless, 
unprofitable: PhUem. 11 (here opp. to fi);^p?;(Troj). (In 
Grk. writ. fr. Hom. [i. e. Batrach. 70 ; Theogn.] down.) 
[Syn. cf. Tittmann ii. 11 sq. ; Trench § c. 17 ; EUic. on 
Philem. 11.]* 

oxpi and axpis (the latter of which in the N. T. is 
nowhere placed before a consonant, but the former be- 
fore both vowels and consonants, although euphony is 
so far regarded that we almost constantly find axpi tjs 
Tjpfpas, axpis ov, cf. B. 10 (9) ; [W. 42] ; and axpi ov is 
not used except in Acts vii. 18 and Rev. ii. 25 by L T 
Tr WH and Lk. xxi. 24 by T Tr WH ; [to these in- 
stances must now be added 1 Co. xi. 26 T WH ; xv. 25 
T WH ; Ro. xi. 25 WH (see their App. p. 148) ; on the 
usage in secular authors (' where -pi is the only Attic 
form, but in later auth. the Epic -pis prevailed ', L. and 

5. s. V.) cf. Lobeck, Pathol. Elementa, vol. ii. p. 210 sq.; 
Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 64 ; further, Klotz ad Devar. 
vol. ii. 1 p. 230 sq.]); a particle indicating the terminus 
ad quem. (On its use in the Grk. writ. cf. Klotz u. s. p. 
224 sqq.) It has the force now of a prep. *now of a 
conj., even to; until, to the time that; (on its derivation 
see below). 1. as a Preposition it takes the gen. 
[cf. W. § 54, 6], and is used a. of Place: Acts xi. 5 ; 
xiii. 6 ; xx. 4 [T Tr mrg. WH om., Tr txt. br.] ; xxviii. 
15 ; 2 Co. x. 13 sq. ; Heb. iv. 12 (see pfpiapios, 2) ; Rev. 
xiv. 20 ; xviii. 5. b. of Time : axpi naipov, until a sea- 
son that seemed to him opportune, Lk. iv. 13 [but cf. 
Kaipos, 2 a.] ; until a certain time, for a season. Acts 
xiii. 1 1 ; [axpi (vel pexP'-i ^- "^- ^ ^•) Toi' Sepia-pov, Mt. xiii. 
SO WH mrg. cf. ea)s, II. 5] ; axpi tjs fjpepas until the day 
that etc. Mt. xxiv. 38; Lk. i. 20; xvii. 27; Acts i. 2; 
[axpi (Rec. et al. ecos) r^s fjpepas rjs, Acts i. 22 Tdf.] ; 
uxpi ravTTjs rfjs rjptpas and axpi. r^f fifiepas ravTTjs, Acts 



ii. 29 ; xxiii. 1 ; xxvi. 22 ; axpi {-pis R G] Tip.(pwv irivre 
even to the space of five days, i. e. after [A. V. in^ five 
days, Acts xx. 6 ; axpn [-piTTr WHJ avyrjs, Acts xx. 11 ; 
ovQi row vxiv, Ro. viii. 22; Phil. i. 5; axpi rikovs, ileb. 
vi. 11 ; Rev. ii. 26 ; see besides, Acts iii. 21 ; [xxii. 22] ; 
Ro. i. 13 ; V. 13 ; 1 Co. iv. 11 ; 2 Co. iii. 14 ; Gal. iv. 2 ; 
Phil. i. 6 [-pi L T WH]. c. of Manner and Degree: 
axpi- Oavdrov, Acts xxii. 4 (even to delivering unto 
death) ; Rev. ii. 10 (to the enduring of death itself) ; Rev. 
xii. 11 ; and, in the opinion of many interpreters, Heb. 
iv. 12 [see pepiapoi, 2]. d. joined to the rel. ov (axpis 
ov for axpi TovTov, a) it has the force of aconjunc- 
tion, U7itil, to the time that : foil, by the indie, pret., of 
things that actually occurred and up to the beginning of 
which something continued. Acts vii. 18 {axpis ov 
dvecTTT) ^acriKevs) ; xxvii. 33. foil, by a subj. aor. having 
the force of a fut. pf., Lk. xxi. 24 L T Tr WH ; Ro. xi. 
25 ; 1 Co. xi. 26 [Rec. «XP« ov av} ; Gal. iii. 1 9 [not 
WH txt. (see 2 below)]; iv. 19 [T Tr WH ^fxpif] ; 
Rev. vii. 3 Rec.*^^ G ; axpn ov av until, whenever it may 
be [cf. W. § 42, 5 b.], 1 Co. xv. 25 [Rec] ; Rev. ii. 25. 
with indie, pres. as long as : Heb. iii. 13 ; cf. Bleek ad loc. 
and B. 231 (199). 2. a^pts without ov has the force 
of a simple Conjunction, until, to the time that : 
foil, by subj. aor., Lk. xxi. 24 R G; Rev. vii. 3 L T Tr 
WH ; XV. 8 ; [xvii. 17 Rec] ; xx. 3, [5 '^ L T Tr WH] ; 
with indie fut.. Rev. xvii. 17 [L T Tr WH] ; [&xP's av 
foil, by subj. aor.. Gal. iii. 19 WH txt. (see 1 d. above)]. 
Since axpi- is akin to aioj and uKpos [but cf. Vanicek p. 
22; Curtius § 166], and pexpi- to p,jJKos, paKpos, by the 
use of the former particle the reach to which a thing is 
said to extend is likened to a height, by the use of 
pexpi, to a length; axpii indicating ascent, signifies up 
to; pexP'' indicating extent, is unto, as far as ; cf. Klotz 
u. s. p. 225 sq. But this primitive distinction is often 
disregarded, and each particle used of the same thing ; 
cf. axpi Tekovs, Heb. vi. 11 ; pexP'- tcXous, ibid. iii. 6, 14 ; 
Xen. symp. 4, 37 TrepieaTi poi Koi eadiovTi axpt tov ixfj 
TTf ivTjv d<piK€(T6ai Koi n'lvovTi pexpi- fov firj diylrrju. Cf . Fritz- 
sche on Ro. v. 13, vol. i. p. 308 sqq. ; [EUic on 2 Tim. 
ii. 9. "Axpt occurs 20 times in the writings of Luke ; else- 
where in the four Gospels only in Mt. xxiv. 38.].* 

axvpov, -ov, TO, a stalk of grain from which the kernels 
have been beaten out ; straio broken up by a threshing 
lyiachine, chaff: Mt. iii. 12; Lk. iii. 17. (In Grk. writ, 
fr. Hdt. 4, 72 ; Xen. oec. 18. 1, 2, 6 down ; mostly in plur. 
TO. axvpa ; in Job xxi. 1 8 Sept. also of the chaff wont to 
be driven away by the wind.) * 

dr»|/«v8^s, -«, (■^evdos), without lie, truthful : Tit. i. 2. 
(In Grk. writ. fr. Hes. theog. 233 down.) * 

a^/ivOos, -ov, ff, wormwood. Absinthe: Rev. viii. 11; 6 
ayf/iv6os ibid, is given as a prop, name to the star which 
fell into the waters and made them bitter.* 

atjfuxos, -ov, (yl^vxr))^ ivithout a soul, lifeless : 1 Co. xiv. 7. 
(In Grk. writ, from [Archil., Simon, and] Aeschylus 
down.) * 



92 



B 



BaaX 

BoaX [so accented also by Pape (Eigenn. s. v.), Kue- 
nen and Cobet (Ro. as below) ; but L T (yet the name 
of the mon th, 1 K. vi. 5 (38), BadX) Tr WII etc. BdaX ; 
so Etym. Magn. 194, 19; Suid. 174G a. etc. Bind, in 
Steph. Thesaur. s. v. BaaX or BaaX], 6, 17, an indecl. noun 
(Hebr. hy2, Chald. ^3 contr. fr. '?;:3), lord : Ro. xi. 4. 
This was the name of the supreme heavenly divinity 
worshipped by the Shemitic nations (the Phoenicians, 
Canaanites, Babylonians, Assyrians), often also by the 
Israelites themselves, and represented by the Sun: r^ 
BadX, Ro. xi. 4. Cf. Win. RWB. [and BB.DD.] s. v. 
and /. G. Mailer in Herzog i. p. 637 sqq. ; il/erx in Schen- 
kel i. 322 sqq.; Schlottmann in Riehm p. 126 sq. Since 
in tliis form the supreme power of nature generating 
all things, and consequently a male deity, was wor- 
shipped, with which the female deity Astarte was as- 
sociated, it is hard to explain why the Sept. in some 
places say 6 Bar^"* (Num. xxii. 41 ; Judg. ii. 13 ; 1 K. xvi. 
31 ; xix. 18, etc.), in others 17 BadX (Hos. ii. 8 ; 1 S. vii. 
4, etc. [yet see Dillmann, as below, p. 617]). Among 
the various conjectures on this subject the easiest is 
this : that the Sept. called the deity 17 BadX in derision, 
as weak and impotent, just as the Arabs call idols 
goddesses and the Rabbins mriSx ; so Gesenius in 
Rosenmiiller's Repert. i. p. 139 and Thioluck on Ro. 1. c. ; 
[yet cf. Dillmann, as below, p. 602 ; for other opinions 
and reff. see Meyer ad loc. ; cf. W. § 27, 6 N. 1. But 
Prof. DiUmann shows (in the Monatsbericht d. Akad. zu 
Bei'lin, 16 Juni 1881, p. 601 sqq.), that the Jews (just 
as they abstained from pronouncing the word Jehovah) 
avoided uttering the abhorred name of Baal (Ex. xxiii. 
13). As a substitute in Aramaic they read rilJ-'D, K 7m 
or X"iDj13, and in Greek alax^vr] (cf. 1 K. xviii. 19, 25). 
This substitute in Grk. was suggested by the use of 
the fem. article. Hence we find in the Sept. ^ B. every- 
where in the prophetic bks. Jer., Zeph., Hos., etc., while 
in the Pentateuch it does not prevail, nor even in Judges, 
Sam., Kings, (exc. 1 S. vii. 4 ; 2 K. xxi. 3). It disap- 
pears, too, (when the worship of Baal had died out) in 
the later versions of Aq., Sym., etc. The apostle's use in 
Ro. 1. c. accords with the sacred custom ; cf. the substi- 
tution of the Hebr. Hti/S in Ish-bosheth, Mephi-bosheth, 
etc. 2 S. ii. 8, 10 ; iv. 4 with 1 Chr. viii. 33, 34, also 2 S. 
xi. 21 with Judg. vi. 32 ; etc.] * 

BapvXwv, -WW?, 17, (Hebr. S^a fr. SS^ to confound, ace. 
to Gen. xi. 9; cf. Aeschyl. Pers. .52 Ba/SvX&ji/ 8' 17 ttoXv- 
Xpvtros TrdfMfiiKTov o^Xov ireimei (Tvph-qv. But more cor- 
rectly, as it seems, fr. S5 3X3 the gate i. e. the court or 
city of Belus [Assjt. Bab-Il the Gate of God ; (perh. of 
H, the supreme God) ; cf. Schrader, Keilinschr. u. d. 



Alt. Test. 2te Aufl. p. 127 sq.; Oppert in the Zeitsch. d. 
Deutsch. Morg. Gesellschaft, viii. p. i95]), Babylon, 
formerly a very celebrated and large city, the residence 
of the Babylonian kings, situated on both banks of the 
Euphrates. Cyrus had formerly captured it, but Darius 
Hystaspis threw down its gates and walls, and Xerxes 
destroyed [?] the temple of Belus. At length the city 
was reduced almost to a solitude, the population hav- 
ing been drawn off by the neighboring Seleucia, built 
on the Tigris by Seleucus Nicanor. [Cf. Prof. Rawlin- 
son in B. D. s. v. and his Herodotus, vol. i. Essays vi, 
and viii., vol. ii. Essay iv.] The name is used in the 
N. T. 1. of the city itself: Acts vii. 43; 1 Pet. 
V. 13 (where some have understood Babylon, a small 
town in Egypt, to be referred to ; but in opposition cf. 
Mayerhoff, Einl. in die petrin. Schriften, p. 1 26 sqq. ; 
[cf. 3 fin. below]). 2. of tlie territory. Babylonia: 
Mt. i. 11 sq. 17; [often so in Grk. writ.]. 3. alle- 
gorically, of Rome as the most corrupt seat of idolatry 
and the enemy of Christianity : Rev. xiv. 8 [here Rec.*'^ 
Ba/3ouXci)j/] ; xvi. 19; xvii. 5; xviii. 2, 10, 21, (in the 
opinion of some 1 Pet. v. 13 also; [cf. 1 fin. above]).* 

^aOccos, adv., deeply : opdpov ^adeas sc. ovtos (cf. Bnhdy. 
p. 338), deep in the morning, at early dawn, Lk. xxiv. 1 
L T Tr WH ; so Meyer ad loc. But ^adetos here is more 
correctly taken as the Attic form of the gen. fr. ^advs, 
q. v.; cf. B. 26 (23) ; [Lob. Phryn. p. 247].* 

PaOfios, -ov, 6, (fr. obsol. ^dco i. q. ^aiva, like crradfios 
[fr. 1-(rTi]-p.iJ), threshold, step; of a grade of dignity and 
wholesome influence in the church, [R. V. standing'], 1 
Tim. iii. 13 [cf. Ellic. ad loc.]. (Used by [Sept. 1 S. v. 
5 ; 2 K. XX. 9 ; also Sir. vi. 36] ; Strabo, [Plut.], Lcian., 
Appian, Artemid., [al.] ; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 324.) * 

PaOos, -fos (-ovs), TO, (connected with the obsol. verb 
^dCco,fSdco "[but cf. Curtius § 635; Vanicek p. 195]; cf. 
^a6vs, ^da-cav, and 6 ISvdos, 6 ^vaaos ; Germ. Boden), 
depth, height, — [ace. as measured down or up] ; 1. 
prop. : Mt. xiii. 5 ; Mk. iv. 5 ; Ro. viii. 39 (opp. to v^(cp.a) ; 
Eph. iii. 18 (opp. to v^os) ; of ' the deep ' sea (the ' high 
seas '), Lk. v. 4. 2. metaph. : f] Kara ^d6ovs rrraxda 

avrav, deep, extreme, poverty, 2 Co. viii. 2 ; to. ^dffj] rod 
deov the deep things of God, things hidden and above 
man's scrutiny, esp. the divine counsels, 1 Co. ii. 10 {rov 
2aTava, Rev. ii. 24 Rec. ; /capSiar dvdpanov, Judith viii. 
14 ; [to ^. TTji deias yvaaeas, Clem. Rom. 1 Cor. 40, 1 (cf. 
Lghtft. ad loc.)]) ; inexhaustible abundance, immense 
amount, TrXoiirou, Ro. xi. 33 (so also Soph. Aj. 130 ; ^advs 
nXovTos, Ael. v. h. 3, 18; kokcov, [Aeschyl. Pers. 465, 
712]; Eur. Ilel. 303; Sept. Prov. xviii. 3).* 

PaOvvw : [impf. t^dBwov'] ; (I3a6vs) ; to make deep : Lk. 



^a^y? 



93 



ySaWw 



vi. 48, where ea-Koyj/'f koX e^ddwe is not used for ^aOeas 
effKayUe, but e^dSvve expresses the continuation of the 
work, [he dug and deepened i. e. went deep'] ; cf . W. § 54, 
5. (In Grk. writ. fr. Horn, down.) * 

PaOvs, -eta, -v, [cf. ^a6of\, deep\ prop.: Jn. iv. 11. 
metaph. : v-kvo^, a deep sleep. Acts xx. 9 (Sir. xxii. 7 ; 
often also in Grk. writ.) ; opQpos (see ^aOeoa), Lk. xxiv. 
1 ([Arstph. vesp. 216] ; Plat. Crito 43 a. ; Polyaen. 4, 9, 
1 ; en jSadtoi opOpov, Plat. Prot. 310 a. [cf. also Philo 
de mutat. nom. §30; de vita Moys. i. § 32]) ; to. (iadea 
Toi larava, Rev. ii. 24 (G L T Tr WH ; cf. /3cl5oy).* 

Patov [al. also /3dtoi» (or even jSaioj/, Chandler ed. 1 p. 
272) ; on its deriv. (fr. the Egyptian) cf. Steph. Thesaur. 
s. V. /3ais], -ov, TO, a palm-branch ; with tcov <f)oii>iKuiv added 
[so Test. xii. Patr. test. Naph. § 5] (after the fashion of 
ot/coSeo-TTOTJjff TTJs olKias, vnonobiou rav nodSiv, [cf. W. 603 
(561)]), Jn. xii. 13. (A bibl. and eccles. word : 1 Mace, 
xiii. 51 ; Cant. vii. 8 Symm. ; Lev. xxiii. 40 unknown trans. 
In the Grk. church Palm-Sunday is called 17 KvpiaKfj tu>v 
^atcov. Cf. Fischer, De vitiis Lexx. N. T. p. 18 sqq. ; 
[Sturz, Dial. Maced. etc. p. 88 sq. ; esp. Soph. Lex. s. v.].)* 

BoXadp,, 6, indecl., (in Sept. for D;;S3, ace. to Gesenius 
[" perhaps "] fr. '?3 and D>? non-populus, i. e. foreign ; ace. 
to Jo. Simonis equiv. to DJ^ J/Ss a swallowing up of the 
people ; in Joseph. 6 BaXa/ios), Balaam (or Bileam), a 
native of Pethor a city of Mesopotamia, endued by Je- 
hovah with prophetic power. He was hired by Balak 
(see BaXoK) to curse the Israelites ; and influenced by the 
love of reward, he wished to gratify Balak ; but he was 
compelled by Jehovah's power to bless them (Num. xxii.- 
xxiv. ; Deut. xxiii. 5 sq. ; Josh. xiii. 22 ; xxiv. 9 ; Mic. vi. 
5). Hence the later Jews saw in him a most abandoned 
deceiver: Rev. ii. 14; 2Pet. ii. 15; Jude 11. Cf. Win. 
RWB. [and BB.DD.] s. v.* 

BaXciK, 6, indecl., (p ^3 empty [so Gesen. in his Thesaur., 
but in his later works he adopts (with Fiirst et al.) an act. 
sense ' one who makes empty,' ' a devastator,' ' spoiler * ; 
see BD. Am. ed. s. v.]), Balak, king of the Moabites 
(Num. xxii. 2 sq. and elsewhere) : Rev. ii. 14.* 

PaXdvTiov and ^aKkavriov (so L T Tr WH ; cf. [Tdf. 
Proleg. p. 79] ; Fritzsche on Mk. p. 620 ; W. p. 43 ; Passow, 
Lex. [also L. and S.] s. v.), -ov, to, a money-bag, purse : 
Lk. X. 4 ; xii. 33 ; xxii. 35 sq. (Sept. Job xiv. 1 7 cf. [Simon. 
181]; Arstph. ran. 772; Xen. symp. 4, 2; Plat. Gorg. 
p. 508 e. ; Hdian. 5, 4, 4 [3 ed. Bekk.], and other writ.) * 

pd\\(i> ; fut. /3aXw ; pf. jBejiXrjKa ; 2 aor. e^aXov (3 pers. 
plur. fjSaXov in Lk. xxiii. 34 ; Acts xvi. 23, e^aXav, the 
Alex, form, in Acts xvi. 37 L T Tr WH ; [Rev. xviii. 19 
Lchm., see WH. App. p. 165 and] for reff. dnepxafiai 
init.) ; Pass., [pres. jSuWofiai'] ; pf. /3€/3Xj;/Liai ; plpf. e/3e- 
^\r]pr)v ; 1 aor. fjSXrjdrjv ; 1 fut. ^\T]dr](Top.ai ; to throw, — 
either with force, or without force yet with a purpose, 
or even carelessly; 1. with force and effort: 
/SaXXeti/ Tiva pa-niapatn to smite one with slaps, to buifet, 
Mk. xiv. 65 Rec. (an imitation of the phrases, Tiva ^ak- 
Xeij/ Xidois, ^fXecri, to^ois, etc., KaK.o7s, r/^-o-yo), aKoifipacn, 
etc., in Grk. writ. ; cf. Passow i. p. 487 ; [L. and S. s. v. 
T. 1 and 3] ; for the Rec. e/3aXXoi/ we must read with 



Fritzsche and Schott e/3aXoi/, fr. which arose eXafiov, 
adopted by L T Tr AVII ; ^aXe'iu and Xa^flv are often 
confounded in codd. ; cf. Grimm on 2 Mace. v. 6 ; [^Scriv- 
ener, Introd. p. 10]) ; /SaXXetj/ Xldovs eni rivi or riva, Jn. 
viii. (7), 59; j^ovv enl tos KfcfioXdi, Rev. xviii. 19 [WH 
mrg. €7r«/3.] ; Kovioprov ets top dipa. Acts xxii. 23 ; t\ fts 
Tr]v Bakaacrav, Mk. Lx. 42 ; Rev. viii. 8 ; xviii. 21 ; ety to 
niip, Mt. iii. 10 ; xviii. 8 ; Lk. iii. 9 ; Mk. ix. 22 ; Jn. xv. 
6 ; els K\i^avov, Mt. vi. 30 ; Lk. xii. 28 ; els yeevvav, Mt. v. 
[29], 30 [R G] ; Mk. ix. 47 ; els t. yfjv, Rev. viii. 5, 7 ; xii. 
4, 9, 13; elsT. Xrjvov, Rev. xiv. 19 ; els r. Xt/xvT^i', Rev. xix. 
20; XX. 10, 14 sq. ; els t. a^vcra-op. Rev. xx. 3 ; absol. and 
in the pass, to be violently displaced from a position 
gained. Rev. xii. 10 LT Tr WH. an attack of disease 
is said ^dXXeiv tivu els kKivtjv, Rev. ii. 22 ; Pass, to lie sick 
abed, be prostrated by sickness : ^e/3Xij/Liat en\ kXivtjs, Mt. 
ix. 2 ; Mk. vii. 30 [R G L mrg.] ; with eVi kKIvtjs omitted, 
Mt. viii. 6, 14, cf. Lk. xvi. 20 ; nva els (pvXoKTjp, to cast one 
into prison, Mt. v. 25; xviii. 30; Lk. xii. 58; xxiii. 19 
[R G L], 25 ; Jn. iii. 24 ; Acts xvi. 23 sq. 37 ; Rev. ii. 10 ; 
[/3. eVt Tiva Trjv Xf'pa oi" ''"^ x^'P*^^ '^ ^^'^ hand or hands 
on one, apprehend him, Jn. vii. 44 L Tr WH, also 30 L 
mrg.] ; dpenavov els yrjv to apply with force, thrust in, the 
sickle, Rev. xiv. 19 ; fidxaipau ^dWeiv (to cast, send) enl 
r. yrjv, Mt. X. 34, which phrase gave rise to another 
found in the same passage, viz. elprji/rjv j3dW. enl r. yfjv 
to cast (send) peace ; e^ai, to cast out or forth : Mt. v. 
13 ; xiii. 48 ; Lk. xiv. 35 (34) ; 1 Jn. iv. 18 ; Jn. xv. 6 ; 
iavTov KdTO) to cast one's self down : Mt. iv. 6; Lk. iv. 9 ; 
eavTov els t. ddXaaaav, Jn. xxi. 7 ; pass, in a reflex, sense 
[B. 52 (45)], ^XriOriTi, Mt. xxi. 21 ; Mk. xi. 23 ; ri a0' 
eavTor) to cast a thing from one's self, throw it away : ]\It. 
V. 29 sq. ; xviii. 8 ; uSwp c'k toi) aTofiaros, Rev. xii. 15 sq. 
(cast out of his mouth, Luther schoss aus ihrem Munde) ; 
evwwiov with gen. of place, to cast before (eagerly lay 
down). Rev. iv. 10; of a tree casting its fruit because 
violently shaken by the wind. Rev. vi. 13. Intrans. to 
rush (throw one'sselflcL W. 251 (236) ; 381 (357) note^; 
B. 145 (127)]) : Acts xxvii. 14; (Horn. II. 11, 722; 23, 
462, and other writ. ; [cf. L. and S. s. v. III. 1]). 2. 
without force and effort; to throio or let go of a thing 
without caring where it falls : icX^pov to cast a lot into the 
urn [B. D. s. v. Lot], Mt. xxvii. 35 ; Mk. xv. 24 ; Lk. 
xxiii. 34 ; Jn. xix. 24 fr. Ps. xxi. (xxii.) 19 ; (kv^ovs, Plat, 
legg. 12 p. 968 e. and in other writ.), to scatter: Konpia 
[Rec.^ KOTvpiav], Lk. xiii. 8 ; seed ein. ttjs yrjs, Mk. iv. 26 ; 
els KrjTTOv, Lk. xiii. 19. to throw, cast, into : dpyvpiov els 
Tov Kop^avdv [L mrg. Tr mrg. Kop^av'], Mt. xxvii. 6 ; 
XoKkov, 8apa, etc, els to ya^o(pv\dKLov, Mk. xii. 41-44 ; 
Lk. xxi. 1-4, cf. Jn. xii. 6. ^dWeiv tI tivi, to throw, ccust, 
a thing to : tov apTov toIs Kvvapiois, Mt. xv. 26 ; Mk. vii. 
27 ; epTrpocrdev Tivos, Mt. vii. 6 ; evatnov twos. Rev. ii. 14 
(see (TKavbakov, b. ^.) ; to give over to one's care uncertain 
about the result : dpyvpiov toIs TpaTre^iTais, to deposit, Mt. 
XXV. 27. of fluids, to pour, to pour in : foil, by els, Mt. 
ix. 17; Mk. ii. 22; Lk. v. 37; Jn. xiii. 5, (olvov els top 
niSov, Epictet. 4, 13, 12 ; of rivers, poov els a\a, Ap. Rhod. 
2, 401, etc. ; Sept. Judg. vi. 19 [Aid., Compl.]) ; to pour 



jSaTTTt'^a) 



94 



^diTTLaixa 



out, tni Tivos, Mt. xxvi. 12. 3. to move, give motion 
to, not with force yet with attention and for a p u r- 
pose; (ts Ti, to put into, insert : ^Ik. vii. 33 (tovs baKvvXovs 
fls Ta ara) ; Jn. xx. 25, 2 7 ; xviii. 1 1 ; ^aXivovs «t? to arofia, 
Jas. iii. 3; to let down, cast down: Jn. v. 7; Mt. iv. 18 
[cf. Mk. i. 16 Rec] ; Mt. xvii. 27. Metaph. : eh rqv KapBi- 
av Tivos, to suggest, Jn. xiii. 2 (tI tV ^v/xw rivos, Horn. Od. 
1, 201 ; 14, 2G9; ds vodv, schol. ad Find. Pyth. 4, 133; 
al. ; (fi^iiWdv fis vovvTivi, Plut. vit. Timol. c. 3). [Comp. : 
afKpi-, dva-, dvTi-, dno-, 8ia-, eV, fix-, nap-cfi-, eVi-, Kara-, 
fifra-, napa-, nepi-, npo-, crvp.-, vrrep-, i7ro-/3aXXa).] 

PairrCtw ; [impf. e/3a7rri^oi'] ; fut. ^airTiaco ; 1 aor. e'^d- 
TTTiaa; Pass., [pres. /3a7rr/^o/iat] ; impf. 6/3a7rTt^o/x7;i'; pf. 
ptcp. ^e^a7^Tto•/xf I'D? ; 1 aor. (^anTladrji/:, 1 fut. ^anTCcrdfj- 
crop.ai ; 1 aor. mid. i^anTiadpriv ; (frequent. [?] fr. ^airroi, 
like ^aWlCo) fr. jSdXXco) ; here and there in Plat., Polyb., 
Diod., Strab., Joseph., Plut., al. I. 1. prop, to dip 
repeatedly, to immerge, submerge, (of vessels sunk, Polyb. 

1, 51, 6 ; 8, 8, 4 ; of animals, Diod. 1, 3G). 2. to cleanse 
by dipping or submerging, to wasli, to make clean with 
water ; in the mid. and the 1 aor. pass, to icash one's self, 
bathe ; so Mk. vii. 4 [where WH txt. pai/riVwi/rai] ; Lk. 
xi. 38, (2 K. V. 14 f^anriaaro ev rat 'lopddvrj, for i20 ; 
Sir. xxxi. (.\x.xiv.) 30; Judith xii. 7). 3. metaph. to 
overichelm, as tSicorar rats tlacfyopais, Diod. 1, 73 ; dcf>\fipa(ri, 
Plut. Galba 21 ; t§ avpcpopa ^f^anTt(Tp.ivo<:, Heliod. Aeth. 

2, 3 ; and alone, to inflict threat and abounding calamities 
on one : e^dnTicrav ttjv itoXiv, Joseph, b. j. 4, 3, 3 ; ij dvop.ia 
fie /SaTnr/fei, Is. xxi. 4 Sept. ; hence ^aTrri^eadai ^dnricrpa 
(cf. W. 225 (211) ; [B. 148 (129)] ; cf. Xoueo-<9ai to \ov- 
rpov, Ael. de nat. an. 3, 42), to be overwhelmed ivith ca- 
lamities, of those who must bear them, Mt. xx. 22 sq. Rec. ; 
Mk. x. 38 sq. ; Lk. xii. 50, (cf. the Germ, etwas auszubaden 
haben, and the use of the word e. g. respecting those who 
cross a river with difficulty, eus Tav paa-Tav ol Trt^oi /3a- 
wTtfo/iei/oi bif^aivov, Polyb. 3, 72, 4 ; [for exx. see Soph. 
Lex. s. V. ; also T. J. Conant, Baptizein, its meaning and 
use, N. Y. 1864 (printed also as an Apjj. to their revised 
version of the Gosp. of Mt. by the " Am. Bible Union ") ; 
and esp. four works by J. W. Dale entitled Classic, Ju- 
daic, Johannic, Christie, Baptism, Phil. 1867 sqq. ; D. B. 
Ford, Studies on the Bapt. Quest, (including a review of 
Dr. Dale's works), Bost. 18 79]). II. In the N. T. it 
is used particularly of the rite of sacred ablution, first in- 
stituted by John the Baptist, afterwards by Christ's com- 
mand received by Christians and adjusted to the con- 
tents and nature of their religion (see /3d7rTio-/xa, 3), viz. 
jan immersion in water, performed as a sign of the re- 
moval of sin, and administered to those who, impelled by 
a desire for salvation, sought admission to the benefits 
of the Messiah's kingdom ; [for patristic reff. respecting 
the mode, ministrant, subjects, etc. of the rite, cf. Soph. 
Lex. s. V. ; Diet, of Chris. Antiq. s. v. Baptism], a. The 
word is used absolutely, to administer the rite of ablu- 
Hon, to baptize, (Vulg. baptizo; Tertull. tingo, tinguo, [cf. 
mergito, de corona mil. § 3]) : Mk. i. 4 ; Jn. i. 25 sq. 28 ; 
iii. 22 sq. 26 ; iv. 2; x. 40; 1 Co. i. 1 7 ; with the cognate 
noun TO QdiTTicrpa, Acts xix. 4 ; 6 ^anTi^oiv substantively 



i. q. 6 ^anTKTTijs, Mk. vi. 14, [24 T Tr WH]. Tivd, Jn. 
iv. 1 ; Acts viii. 38 ; 1 Co. i. 14, 16. Pass, to be baptized : 
Mt. iii. 13 sq. 16 ; Mk. xvi. 16 ; Lk. iii. 21 ; Acts ii. 41 ; 
viii. 12, 13, [36]; x.47; xvi. 15; 1 Co. i. 15 L T Tr WH; 
X. 2 L T Tr mrg. WH mrg. Pass, in a reflex, sense [i. e. 
Mid. cf. W. § 38, 3], to allow one's self to be initiated by 
baptism, to receive baptism ; Lk. [iii. 7, 12] ; vii. 30 ; Acts ii. 
38 ; ix. 1 8 ; xvi. 33 ; xviii. 8 ; with the cognate noun to /3d- 
TTTicrpa added, Lk. vii. 29 ; 1 aor. mid., 1 Co. x. 2 (L T Tr 
mrg.WH mrg. e^aTTTia-drja-av [cf.W. § 38, 4 b.]) ; Acts xxii. 
16. foil, by a dat. of the thing with which baptism is per- 
formed, v8aTi, see bb. below, b. with Prepositions; 
aa. els, to mark the element into which the immersion 
is made : els t6v ^lopMvrjv, Mk. i. 9. to mark the end : 
eis perdvoiav, to bind one to repentance, Mt. iii. 1 1 ; els 
TO ^ladvvov ^dnTi(Tp.a, to bind to the duties imposed by 
John's baptism, Acts xLx. 3 [cf. W. 397 (371)] ; els ovop.d 
TIVOS, to profess the name (see ovop.a,2) of one whose fol- 
lower we become, Mt. xxviii. 19 ; Acts viii. 16 ; xix. 5 ; 
1 Co. i. 13, 15 ; els ci(j)eaiv apapTi(i)v, to obtain the forgive- 
ness of sins. Acts ii. 38; els t6u Mcova-rjv, to follow Moses 
as a leader, 1 Co. x. 2. to indicate the effect: els iv 
aapa, to unite together into one body by baptism, 1 Co. 
xii. 13; els Xpiarov, els tov ddvoTov avTov, to bring by bap- 
tism into fellowship with Christ, into fellowship in his 
death, by which fellowship we have died to sin. Gal. iii. 
27 ; Ro. vi. 3, [cf. Mey. on the latter pass., Ellic. on the 
former], bb. iv, with dat. of the thing in which one is 
immersed : iv tm 'lopSdvj], Mk. i. 5 ; iv Ta v8aTi, Jn. i. 31 
(L T Tr WH iv uS., but cf. Mey. ad loc. [who makes the 
art. deictic]), of the thing used in baptizing : iv vBari, 
J\lt. iii. 11 ; Mk. i. 8 [T WH Tr mrg. om. Tr txt. br. tV] ; 
Jn. i. 26, 33; cf. B. § 133, 19; [cf. W. 412 (384); see 
iv, I. 5 d. a.] ; with the simple dat., vbaTi, Lk. iii. 1 6 ; 
Acts i. 5 ; xi. 16. iv irvevpaTi dyia>, to imbue richly with 
the Holy Sjiirit, (just as its large bestowment is called an 
outpouring) : Mt. iii. 11 ; Mk. i. 8 [LTrbr. iv] ; Lk. iii. 
16 ; Jn. i. 33 ; Acts i. 5 ; xi. 16 ; with the addition Kuinvpl 
to overwhelm with fire (those who do not repent), i. e. to 
subject them to the terrible penalties of hell, Mt. iii. 11. 
iv ovopari Toi> Kvplov, by the authority of the Lord, Acts 
X. 4S. cc. J^ass. iwl [LTr WH iv] tco dvopari 'irjaov 

Xpia-Toii, relying on the name of Jesus Clinst, i. e. repos- 
ing one's hope on him, Acts ii. 38. dd. vnip twv 
veKpwv on behalf of the dead, i. e. to promote their eternal 
salvation by undergoing baptism in their stead, 1 Co. xv. 
29; cf.[W. 175(165); 279(262); 382(358); Meyer (or 
Beet) ad loc] ; esp. Neander ad loc. ; Ruckert, Pro"-r. 
on the passage, Jen. 1847; Paret in Ewald's Jahrb. d. 
bibl. Wissensch. ix. p. 247 ; [cf. B. D. s. v. Baptism XII. 
Alex.'s Kitto ibid. VL].* 

pdTm.o-(ia, -ros, to, (^anTi^a), a word peculiar to N. T. 
and eccl. writ., immersion, submersion ; 1. used trop. 
of calamities and afflictions with which one is quite over- 
whelmed : ]Mt. XX. 22 s([. Rec. ; Mk. x. 38 sq. ; Lk. xii. 50, 
(see /SaTTTifctf, I. 3). 2. of John's baptism, that 
pui-ificatorv rite by which men on confessing their sins 
were bound to a spiritual reformation, obtained the par- 



^aTTTC(TfJ,6<i 



95 



Bap66Xofiaio<; 



don of their past sins and became qualified for the benefits 
of the Messiali's kingdom soon to be set up : Mt. iii. 7 ; 
xxi. 25 ; Mk. xi. 30 ; Lk. vii. 29 ; xx. 4 ; Acts i. 22 ; x. 37 ; 
xviii. 25 ; [xix. 3] ; jSanT. fjLtTavoias, binding to repentance 
[W. 188 (177)], Mk. i. 4; Lk. iii. 3; Acts xiii. 24; xix. 4. 
3. of Christian baptism; this, according to the view 
of the apostles, is a rite of sacred immersion, commanded 
by Christ, by which men confessing their sins and pro- 
fessing their faitli in Christ are born again by the Holy 
Spirit unto a new life, come into the fellowship of Christ 
and the church (1 Co. xii. 13), and are made par- 
takers of eternal salvation ; [but see art. " Baptism " in 
BB.DD., McC. and S., Schaff-Herzog] : Eph. iv. 5 ; Col. 
ii. 12 [L mrg. Tr -/xw q. v.] ; 1 Pet. iii. 21 ; els t6v Oavarov, 
Ro. vi. 4 (see ^anTi(a), II. b. aa. fin.). [Trench § xcix.] * 

patrrwTfi.os, -oO, 6, (/SuTrrifo)), a ivashing, purification 
effected by medns of ivater : Mk. vii. 4, 8 [R G L Tr in 
br.] (^fffTwv Koi noT-qpiav) ; of the washings prescribed 
by the jNIosaic law, Ileb. ix. 10. ^aTTTLo-ncop di.da\ris 
equiv. to StSa;^^? Trepl ^aTTTia-fiav, Ileb. vi. 2 [where L txt. 
WH txt. /SaTTT. SiSa;^)7i/], which seems to mean an expo- 
sition of the difference between the washings prescribed 
by the Mosaic law and Christian baptism. (Among 
prof. writ. Josephus alone, antt. 18, 5, 2, uses the word, 
and of John's baptism ; [respecting its interchange with 
^amiafia cf. exx. in Soph. Lex. s. v. 2 and Bp. Lghtft. 
on Col. ii. 12, where L mrg. Tr read )3a7n-Kr/i6s ; cf. 
Trench § xcix.].) * 

Pairrio-TTis, -oi),6, (/SaTrri^o)), a baptizer; one loJio ad- 
ministers the rite of baptism ; the surname of John, the 
forerunner of Christ: Mt. iii. 1 ; xi. 11 sq. ; [xiv. 2, 8; 
xvi. 14 ; xvii. 13] ; Mk. vi. 24 [T Tr WH rod ^anriCovTos], 
25; viii. 28 ; Lk. vii. 20, 28 [T Tr WHom.], 33; ix. 19; also 
given him by Josephus, antt. 18,5, 2, and found in no other 
prof. writ. [ Joh. d. Tiiuferby Breest(l 881), Kdhler ('84).] * 

PaiTTO) : [fut. /3a\/^a), Jn. xiii. 26 T Tr WH] ; 1 aor. 
e^ayjra ; pf. pass. ptcp. (ie^afijMevos ; in Grk. writ. fr. Horn, 
down ; in Sept. for S^D ; a. to dip, dip in, immerse : ri, 
Jn. xiii. 2G [but in 26» Lchm. €fi^ay\ras, as in 26" L txt. 
R G] ; foil, by a gen. of the thing into which the object is 
dipped (because only a part of it is touched by the act 
of dipping), Lk. xvi. 24 (cf. aTrrea-dal Tivos,\ovf(Tdai rrora- 
Holo, Hom. II. 5, 6 ; 6, 508 ; cf. B. § 132, 25; [W. § 30, 
8 c.]). b. to dip into dye, to dye, color : IfxaTiov aliiari, 
Rev. xix. 13 [Tdf. -Kepipepafifievov, see s. v. Trepippaivo)', 
WH pepavTiapevov, see pavTi^ui]. (Hdt. 7, 67 ; Anth. 11, 
68; Joseph, antt. 3, 6, 1.) [Comp. : iy.-^aiTTu>.'] * 

Pdp, Chald. 13 [cf. Ps. ii. 12 ; Prov. xxxi. 2] ; /3ap 'iwm 
son of Jonah (or Jonas) : Mt. xvi. 17, where L T WH 
Bapicova (q. v.) Barjonah (or Barjonas), as if a surname, 
like BapTO/3ay, etc. \B,.\. Bar-Jonah. Cf. 'lams, 2.]* 

Bapappds, -a, 6, (fr. 13 son, and {<3X father, hence son 
of a father i. e. of a master [cf. Mt. xxiii. 9]), a captive 
robber whom the Jews begged Pilate to release instead of 
Christ: Mt. xxvii. 16 sq. (where codd. mentioned by 
Origen, and some other authorities, place ^l-qaovv before 
^apa^^av, approved by Fritzsche, De Wette, Meyer, 
Bleek, al. ; [cf. WH. App. and Tdf.'s note ad loc. ; also 



Treg. Printed Text, etc. p. 194 sq.]), 20 sq. 26; Mk. xv. 
7, 1 1 , 1 5 ; Lk. xxiii. 1 8 ; Jn. xviii. 40.* 

BapdiK, 6, indecl., (pi3 lightning), Barak, a commander 
of the Israelites (Judg' iv. G, 8) : Ileb. xi. 32. [BB.DD.] * 

Bapax^as, -ov, 6, [noi3 Jehovah blesses], Barachiah : 
in ]\lt. xxiii. 35 said to have been the father of the Zach- 
ariah slain in the temple ; cf. Za^apias-* 

pdpPapos, -ov ; 1. prop, one whose speech is rudcy 
rough, harsh, as if repeating the syllables ^ap^ap (cf. 
Strabo 14, 2, 28 p. 662; (ovofiaToncnoirjTai rj Xe'lty, Etym. 
Magn. [188, 11 (but Gaisf. reads ^payxos for fiapfiapoi); 
cf. Curtius § 394; Vanicek p. 561]); hence 2. 

one who speaks a foreign or strange language which is 
not understood bi/ another (Hdt. 2, 158 0apj3dpovs navras 
oi Aiyvnrioi AcaXeoucri tovs fifj acpici opoyAcocrcrovy, Ovid. 
trist. 5, 10, 37 barbarus hie ego sum, quia non intelligor 
ulli) ; so 1 Co. xiv. 11. 3. The Greeks used ^aplBapos 
of any foreigner ignorant of the Greek language and the 
Greek culture, ichether mental or moral, with the added 
notion, after the Persian war, of rudeness and brutality. 
Hence the word is applied in the N. T., but not re- 
proachfully, in Acts xxviii. 2, 4, to the inhabitants of 
Malta [i. e. MfXir?;, q. v.], who were of Phoenician or 
Punic origin ; and to those nations that had, indeed, 
some refinement of manners, but not the opportunity of 
becoming Christians, as the Scythians, Col. iii. 11 (but 
cf. Bp. Lghtft. ad loc.]. But the phrase "'EWr^vks re Koi 
^ap^apoi forms also a periphrasis for all peoples, or indi- 
cates their diversity yet without reproach to foreigners 
(Plat. Tlieaet. p. 175 a.; Isocr. Euag. c. 17 p. 192 b.; 
Joseph, antt. 4, 2, 1 and in other writ.) ; so in Ro. i. 14. 
(In Philo de Abr. § 4."^ sub fin. of aU nations not Jews. 
Josephus b. j. prooem. 1 reckons the Jews among bar- 
barians.) Cf. Grimm on 2 Mace. ii. 21 p. 61 ; [Bp. 
Lghtft. on Col. u. s. ; B. D. s. v. Barbarian].* 

Papeo), -tc> : to burden, weigh down, depress ; in the N. T. 
found only in Pass., viz. pres. ptcp. ^apovfxevoi, impv. 
^apfi(T6a>; 1 aor (^aprjdrjV, pf. ptcp. ^e^apr)p.ivos ', the 
better writ, do not use the pres. ; they use only the 
ptcps. ^e^nprims and ^f^aprjuevos] see Matth. § 227 ; W. 
83(80); [B. 54(47); Veitch s. v.]. Used simply: to be 
weighed doion, oppressed, with external evils and calami- 
ties, 2 Co. i. 8 ; of the mental oppression which the 
thought of inevitable death occasions, 2 Co. v. 4 ; 6(pda\- 
(io\ ^f^apT]p.evoi, sc. virvai, weighed down with sleep, Mk. 
xiv. 40 (LTTrWIl Kara/Sapwopej/m) ; Mt. xxvi. 43; 
with virvcp added, Lk. ix. 32 ; eV (3) KpamaXj], Lk. xxi. 
34 Rec. ^apvvdaxTiv, [see ^upwco], (Horn. Od. 19, 122 
o'ivM ^e^aprjores, Diod. Sic. 4, 38 rfj v6(Ta>) ; firj ^apelaOca 
let it not be burdened, sc. with their expense, 1 Tim. v. 
16, (fl(T(f)opats, Dio Cass. 46, 32). [Comp.: (tti-, Kora- 
^apeo).^ * 

Pape'ws, adv., (^apvs, q. v.), heavily, with difficulty: Mt. 
xiii. 15; Acts xxviii. 27, (Is. vi. 10). [From Hdt. on.]* 
BapeoXo|xatos, -ov, 6, ("oSn 13 son of Tolmai), Bar- 
tholomew, one of the twelve apostles of Christ : ]\It. x. 3 ,• 
Mk. iii. 18; Lk. vi. 14; Acts i. 13. [See Na^avan^ and 
BB.DD.] * 



Bapir]aov<i 



96 



fSaacXeta 



Bap-iYfo-ovs, 6, ("13 son, ywi Jesus), Bar-Jesus, a cer- 
tain false prophet : Acts xiii. 6 [where Tdf . -aov ; see 
his note. Cf. 'EXvfias].* 

Bap-iwvds, -a [cf. B. 20 (17 sq.)], 6, (fr. "13 son, and 
r\:y Jonah [al. jjnr i. e. Johanan, Jona, John; cf. Mey. 
on Jn. i. 42 (43) and Lghtft. as below]), Bar-Jonah [or 
Bar-Jonas], the surname of the apostle Peter : Mt. xvi. 1 7 
[L T WH ; in Jn. i, 42 (43) ; xxi. 15 sqq. son of John ; 
see Lghtft. Fresh Revision, etc., p. 159 note (Am. ed. 
p. 137 note)] ; see in /Sn'p and 'latvas, 2* 

Bapvdpas, -a [B. 20 (18)], 6, (13 son, and t<3J ; ace. to 
Luke's interpretation vlos napaK\r](recos, i. e. excelling in 
the power rijs TrapoKXTjaecos, Acts iv. 36 ; see rrapaK'krfais, 
5), Barnabas, the surname of Joses [better Joseph], a 
Levite, a native of Cyprus. He was a distinguished 
teacher of the Christian religion, and a companion and 
colleague of Paul: Acts be. 27; xi. 22, [25 Rec], 30; xii, 
25 ; xiii.-xv. ; 1 Co. Lx. 6 ; Gal. ii. 1, 9, 13 ; Col. iv. 10.* 

Pdpos, -eos, TO, heaviness, weight, burden, trouble : load, 
imriOfvai rivi (Xen. oec. 1 7, 9), to impose upon one diffi- 
cult requirements, Acts xv. 28 ; jSaXXety eW riva. Rev. ii. 
24 (where the meaning is, ' I put upon you no other in- 
junction which it might be difficult to observe ' ; cf. 
Diisterdieck ad loc.) ; ^aa-rd^eip to (Sdpos nvos, i. e. either 
the burden of a thing, as to ^apos TJ}y r)p.epas the weari- 
some labor of the day Mt. xx. 12, or that which a person 
bears, as in Gal. vi. 2 (where used of troublesome moral 
faults ; the meaning is, ' bear one another's faults '). 
alaviov ^apos do^rjs a weight of glory never to cease, i. e. 
vast and transcendent glory (blessedness), 2 Co. iv. 17; 
cf. W. § 34, 3 ; (nXovTov, Plut. Alex. M. 48). weight i. q. 
authorili/ : e'j/ /Sapei elvai, to have authority and influence, 
1 Th. ii. 7 (6), (so also in Grk. writ. ; cf. Wesseling on 
Diod. Sic. 4, 61 ; [exx. in Suidas s. v.]). [Syn. see 
oyKoy.J 

Bapo-apds l-aa^dis L T Tr WII ; see WH. App. p. 
159], -5 [B. 20 (18)], 6, Barsabas [or Barsabbas] (i. e. 
son of Saba [al. Zaba]) ; 1. the surname of a certain 
Joseph : Acts i. 23, [B. D. s. v. Joseph Barsabas]. 2. 
the surname of a certain Judas: Acts xv. 22, [B. D. s. v. 
Judas Barsabas].* 

Bap^Cfiaios [Tdf. -fialos, yet cf. Chandler § 253], -ov, 6, 
(son of Timaeus), Bartimceus, a certain blind man : Mk. 
X. 46.» 

Papvvw : to weigh down, overcharge : Lk. xxi. 34 (1 aor. 
pass, suhj.) Hapvveaa IV Rec. [cf. W. 83 (80) ; B. 54 (47)], 
ioT ^apr)6u}(Tiv; see ^apea. [CoMP. : KaTa-^apvixo.']* 

papvs, -€ia, -V, heavy ; 1. prop. i. e. heavy in weight : 
(popTiov, Mt. xxiii. 4 (in xi. 30 we have the opposite, 
fXa(pp6v). 2. metaph. a. burdensome : emoXrj, the 
keeping of which is grievous, 1 Jn. v. 3. b. severe, stern : 
fTrt.(TTo\r), 2 Co. X. 10 [al. imposing, impressive, cf. Wet- 
stein ad loc]. c. weighty, i. e. of great moment : to. ^apv- 
Tepa tov vnpov the weightier precepts of the law, Mt. 
xxiii. 23 ; ahiaiiaTa [better alnwuaTa (q. v.)]. Acts xxv. 
7. d. violent, cruel, unsparing, [A. V. grievous'] : \vkoi. 
Acts XX. 29 (so also Horn. II. i. 89; Xen. Ages. 11, 12).* 

)}<ipvTi)u>s, -oi/, (^apvs and Tifxfj), of weighty (i. e. great) 



value, very precious, cosily : Mt. xxvi. 7 [R G Tr txt. 
WH], (so Strabo 17 p. 798; selling at a great price, 
Heliod. 2, 30 [var.] ; possessed of great honor, Aeschyl. 
suppl. 25 [but Dindorf (Lex. s. v.) gives here (after a 
scliol.) severely punishing']).* 

PacravCtw : [impf. ejSaa-dviCov] ; 1 aor. ejSaaavura ; Pass., 
[pres. ^aaavl^ofjiai] ; 1 aor. e^aaaviadrjv ; 1 fut. ^a(ravi- 
(r6rjaop.ai ; {^aa-avos) ; 1. prop, to test (metals) by the 
touchstone. 2. to question by applying torture. 3. 
to torture (2 Mace. vii. 13) ; hence 4. univ. to vex with 
grievous pains (of body or mind), to torment : Tivd, Mt. 
vui. 29 ; Mk. v. 7 ; Lk. viii. 28 ; 2 Pet. ii. 8 ; Rev. xi. 10 ; 
passively, Mt. viii. 6 ; Rev. ix. 5 ; xx. 10 ; of the pains of 
child-birth, Rev. xii. 2 (cf. Anthol. 2, p. 205 ed. Jacobs) ; 
with (V and the dat. of the material in which one is tor- 
mented. Rev. xiv. 10. 5. Pass, to be harassed, dis- 
tressed ; of those who at sea are struggling with a head 
wind, Mk. vi. 48 ; of a ship tossed by the waves, Mt. 
xiv. 24. (In Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. down. Often in O. T. 
Apoer.) * 

Pa(ravi(r|j.6s, -oC, 6, (^acravi^o), q. v.) ; 1. a testing by 
the touchstone or by torture. 2. torment, torture; a. 
the act of tormenting: Rev. ix. 5. b. the state or con- 
dition of those tormented : Rev. xviii. 7, 1 0, 15 ; 6 Kawvos 
TOV ^aaavia-fjiov avTotv the smoke of the fire by which they 
are tormented. Rev. xiv. 11. (4 Mace. ix. 6 ; xi. 2 ; [al.] ; 
bad wine is' called ^acraviapios by Alexis in Athen. 1, 56 
p. 30 f .) * 

Pao-avicTTTis, -ov, 6, (^aa-aui^o)), one who elicits the truth 
by the use of the rack, an inquisitor, torturer, ([Antiphon ; 
al.]; Dem. p. 978, 11 ; Philo in Place. § 11 end; [de 
concupisc. § 1 ; quod omn. prob. lib. 1 6 ; Plut. an vitios. 
ad infel. suff. § 2]) ; used in Mt. xviii. 34 of a jailer 
(Secr/xo0tlXa| Acts xvi. 23), doubtless because the busi- 
ness of torturing was also assigned to him.* 

pdo-avos, -ov, T), [Curtius p. 439] ; a. the touchstone, 
[called also basanite, Lat. lapis Lydius], by which gold 
and other metals are tested, b. the rack or instrument 
of torture by luliich one is forced to dividge the truth, c. 
torture, torment, acute pains : used of the pains of disease, 
Mt. iv. 24 ; of the torments of the wicked after death, 
iv ISacrdvois vndpxeiv, Lk. xvi. 23 (Sap. iii. 1 ; 4 Mace, 
xiii. 14) ; hence 6 tottos ttjs ^aadvov is used of Gehenna, 
Lk. xvi. 28. (In Grk. writ. fr. [Theogn.], Pind. down.) ♦ 

Pao-i\eCa, -as, fj, (fr. ^aotXeva ; to be distinguished fr. 
/SaortXeia a queen ; cf. Upeia priesthood fr. Upfva, and 
lepeta a priestess fr. Upevs), [fr. Hdt. down] ; 1. royal 
power, kingship, dominion, rule: Lk. i. 33; xLx. 12, 15; 
xxii. 29 ; Jn. xviii. 36 ; Acts i. 6 ; Heb. i. 8 ; 1 Co. xv. 
24 ; Rev. xvii. 12; of the royal power of Jesus as the 
triumphant Messiah, in the phrase tpxto-Bai iv ttj ^acr. 
avTov, i. e. to come in his kingship, clothed with this pow- 
er : Mt. xvi. 28 ; Lk. xxiii. 42 [els rfjv ^. L mrg. Tr mrg. 
WH txt.] ; of the royal power and dignity conferred on 
Christians in the Messiah's kingdom : Rev. i. 6 (ace. to 
Tr txt. WH mrg. i-rroirjcrfv rjpiv or L Tjpav [yet R G T WH 
txt. Tr mrg. Tjp.ds] ^acriXeiav [Rec. ^acriXels]) ', tov deov, 
the royal power and dignity belonging to God, Rev. xii. 



^aaCkela 



97 



^aaiXeia 



10. 2. a kingdom i. e. the territory subject to the 
rule of a king : Mt. xii. 25 sq. ; xxiv. 7 ; Mk. iii. 24 ; vi. 
23 ; xiii. 8 ; Lk. xi. 17 ; xxi. 10 ; plur. : Mt. iv. 8 ; Lk. iv. 
5 ; Heb. xi. 33. 3. Frequent in the N. T. in refer- 
ence to the Reign of the Messiah are the following 
phrases : 17 ^aa-iXfia roii 6eov (J<n'7KT NniD^D, Targ. Is. 
xl. 9 ; Mic. iv. 7), prop, the kingdom over which God rules ; 
t) ^acTiKe'iaTovXpidTov (Xn't^m J^dSq, Targ. Jonath. ad 
Is. liii. 10), the kingdom of the Messiah, which will be 
founded by God through the Messiah and over which the 
Messiah will preside as God's vicegerent ; 17 /3ao-. toiv 
ovpavwv, only in Matthew, but very frequently [some 33 
times], the kingdom of heaven, i. e. the kingdom which is 
of heavenly or divine origin and nature (in rabbin, writ. 
D'ptJ'n noSo is the rule of God, the theocracy viewed 
universally, not the Messianic kingdom) ; sometimes 
simply rj ^aaiKeia : Mt. iv. 23, etc. ; Jas. ii. 5 ; once tj ^aa. 
Tov Aavfld, because it was supposed the Messiah would be 
one of David's descendants and a king very like David, 
Mk. xi. 10 ; once also fj ^aa-. tov Xpicrrov koI 6eov, Eph. v. 
5. Relying principally on the prophecies of Daniel — 
who had declared it to be the purpose of God that, after 
four vast and mighty kingdoms had succeeded one an- 
other and the last of them shown itself hostile to the 
people of God, at length its despotism should be broken, 
and the empire of the world pass over for ever to the holy 
people of God (Dan. ii. 44; vii. 14, 18, 27) — the Jews 
were expecting a kingdom of the greatest felicity, which 
God through the Messiah would set up, raising the dead 
to life again and renovating earth and heaven ; and that 
in this kingdom they would bear sway for ever over aU 
the nations of the world. This kingdom was called the 
kingdom of God or the kingdom of the Messiah ; and in 
this sense must these terms be understood in the utter- 
ances of the Jews and of the disciples of Jesus when 
conversing with him, as Mt. xviii. 1 ; xx. 21 ; Mk. xi. 10 ; 
Lk. xvii. 20; xix. 11. But Jesus employed the phrase 
kingdom of God or of heaven to indicate that perfect order 
of things which he was about to establish, in which all those 
of every nation who should believe in him were to be gathered 
together into one society, dedicated and intimately united 
to God, and made partakers of eternal salvation. This 
kingdom is spoken of as now begun and actually pres- 
ent, inasmuch as its foundations have already been 
laid by Christ and its benefits realized among men 
that beheve in him: Mt. xi. 12; xii. 28; xiii. 41 (in 
this pass, its earthly condition is spoken of, in which it 
includes bad subjects as well as good) ; Lk. xvii. 21 ; 1 
Co. iv. 20 ; Ro. xiv. 1 7 (where the meaning is, ' the es- 
sence of the kingdom of God is not to be found in ques- 
tions about eating and drinking') ; Col. i. 13. But far 
more frequently the kingdom of heaven is spoken of as 
a future blessing, since its consummate establishment 
is to be looked for on Christ's solemn return from the 
skies, the dead being called to life again, the ills and 
wrongs which burden the present state of things being 
done away, the powers hostile to God being vanquished : 
Mt. vi 10 ; viii. 11 ; xxvi. 29 ; Mk. ix. 1 ; xv, 43 ; Lk. ix. 



27; xiii. 28 sq. ; xiv. 15; xxii. 18; 2 Pet. i. 11 ; also in 
the phrases datpxtadai els t. /3acr. t. ovpaviv or t. deoi) : 
Mt. V. 20; vii. 21 ; xviii. 3 ; xix. 23, 24 ; Mk. ix. 47 ; x. 
23, 24, 25 ; Lk. xviii. 24 [T Tr txt. WH elaTroptvovrai'], 
25 ; Jn. iii. 5 ; Acts xiv. 22 ; /cXj^poi/o/xos ttjs ^aaiXdas, 
Jas. ii. 5 ; KKripovop.(lv r. j3. t. 6. ; see d. below. By a sin- 
gular use fj iiacT. TOV Kvplov Tj tnovpavios God's heavenli/ 
kingdom, in 2 Tim. iv. 1«, denotes the exalted and perfect 
order of things which already exists in heaven, and into 
which true Christians are ushered immediately after 
death ; cf. Phil. i. 23 ; Heb. xii. 22 sq. The phrase ^aa: 
Tutv ovpavav or tov 6eov, while retaining its meanino- king- 
dom of heaven or of God, must be understood, according 
to the requirements of the context, a. of the beginning, 
growth, potency, of the divine kingdom : Mt. xiii. 31-33 ; 
Mk. iv. 30 ; Lk. xiii. 18. b. of its fortunes : Mt. xiii. 24 ; 
Mk. iv. 26. c. of the conditions to be complied with in 
order to reception among its citizens : Mt. xviii. 23 ; xx. 
1 ; xxii. 2 ; xxv. 1. d. of its blessings and benefits, 
whether present or future : Mt. xiii. 44 sq. ; Lk. vi. 20 ; 
also in the phrases ^rjrelv ttjv ^aa. t. 6fov, Mt. vi. 33 
[L T WH om. T. e€ov] ; Lk. xii. 31 [uvtov L txt. T Tr 
WH] ; dixfodai T. )3ao-. t. 0. U Traidiov, Mk. x. 15 ; Lk. 
xviii. 1 7 ; KKr]povop.fiv t. /3. t. 6. Mt. xxv. 34 ; 1 Co. vi. 
9 sq. ; XV. 50 ; Gal. v. 21 ; see in KXrjpovofieco, 2. e. of 
the congregation of those who constitute the royal ' city 
of God ' : TToifh Tivas ^aaiKe'iav, Rev. i. 6 G T WH txt. 
Tr mrg. [cf. 1 above] ; v. 10 (here R G /SacrtXeis, so R in 
the preceding pass.), cf. Ex. xix. 6. Further, the foil, 
expressions are noteworthy: of persons fit for admis- 
sion into the divine kingdom it is said avTuv or toiovtcov 
e(TTiv i) ^acr. tu>v ovp. or tov 6eov : Mt. v. 3, 10 ; xix. 14 ; 
Mk. X. 14; Lk. xviii. 16. 8i86vai tivI t. j3aa. is used of 
God, making men partners of his kingdom, Lk. xii. 32; 
TrapaXafi^dvfiv of those who are made partners, Heb. xii. 
28. dia TTjv ^aa- t. ovp. to advance the interests of the 
heavenly kingdom, Mt. xix. 1 2 ; evtKfv ttjs ^aa. t. 6. for the 
sake of becoming a partner in the kingdom of God, Lk. 
xviii. 29. Those who announce the near approach of the 
kingdom, and describe its nature, and set forth the condi- 
tions of obtaining citizenship in it, are said biayyiWeiv t. 
^aa. T. 6. Lk. Lx. 60 ; tvayye'kiCfardai ttju /3. t. 6. Lk. iv. 43 ; 
viii. 1 ; xvi. 16 ; nepl ttjs /3a(7. t. 6. Acts viii. 12 ; Krjpvaa-av 
Trjv ^aa: t. B- Lk. ix. 2; Acts xx. 25; xxviii. 31 ; to fu'ay- 
yfXiov TTjs ^aa. Mt. iv. 23 ; ix. 35 ; xxiv. 14 ; with the addi- 
tion of TOV 6eov, Mk. i. 14 R L br. fjyy(.Kfv f] ^acr. t. ovp. 
or Toi; ^f oC, is used of its institution as close at hand : Mt. 
iii. 2 ; iv. 17 ; Mk. i. 15 ; Lk. x. 9, 11. it is said epx^adai 
i. e. to be established, in Mt. vi. 10; Lk. xi. 2 ; xvii. 20; 
Mk. xi. 10. In accordance with the comparison which 
likens the kingdom of God to a palace, the power of ad- 
mitting into it and of excluding from it is called KXels 
T^s ^. T. ovp. Mt. xvi. 19 ; Kheieiv ttjv )3. t. ovp. to keep 
from entering, Mt. xxiii. 13 (14). viol ttjs ^aar. are those 
to whom the prophetic promise of the heavenly kingdom 
extends : used of the Jews, Mt. viii. 12 ; of those gathered 
out of all nations who have shown themselves worthj' -af 
a share in this kingdom, Mt. xiii. 38. (In the O. It 



^aai\eLo<i 



98 



^aaTci^Q) 



Apocr. ^ /3a(r. tov 0(ov denotes God's rule, the divine ad- 
ministration, Sap. vi. 5 ; X. 10 ; Tob. xiii. 1 ; so too in Ps. 
cii. (ciii.) 19; civ. (cv.) 11-13; Dan. iv. 33; vi. 26; the 
universe subject to God's swny, God's royal domain, Song 
of the Three Children 32; f] ^aaiXda, simply, the O. T. 
theocratic commonwealth, 2 i\lacc. i. 7.) Cf. Fleck, De 
regno divino, Lips. 1829; Baumg.-Crusius, Bibl. Theol. 
p. 147 sqq. ; Tholuck, Die Bergrede Christi, 5te Aufl. p. 
55 sqq. [on Mt. v. 3] ; Colin, Bibl. Theol. i. p. 567 sqq., 
ii. p. 108 sqq. ; Schmid, Bibl. Theol. des N. T. p. 262 sqq. 
ed. 4; Baur, Neutest. Theol. p. 69 sqq.; Weiss, Bibl. 
Theol. d. N. T. § 13 ; [also in his Leben Jesu, bk. iv. ch. 
2] ; Schiircr, [Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 29 (esp. par. 8) and 
refE. there ; also] in the Jahrbb. fUr protest. Theol., 
1876, pp. 166-187 (cf. Lipsius ibid. 1878, p. 189) ; [B.D. 
Am. ed. s. v. Kingdom of Heaven, and reff. there]. 

Pao-CXcios, (rarely -ei'a), -etou, royal, kingly, regal: 1 Pet. 
ii. 9. As subst. to ^ao-iXeiov (Xen. Cyr. 2, 4, 3 ; Prov. 
xviii. 19 Sept. ; Joseph, antt. 6, 12, 4), and much oftener 
(fr. Hdt. 1, 30 down) in plur. ra /3atrtXeia (Sept. Esth. 
i. 9, etc.), the royal palace : Lk. vii. 25 [A. V. kings' 
courts'}.* 

Pao-iXevs, -ewf, 6, leader of the people, prince, com- 
mander, lord of the land, king ; univ. : ot /SatTiXeiy rrjs 
yfji, Mt. xvii. 25 ; Rev. xvi. 14 [L T Tr WH om. r^s 7^s]> 
etc. ; riovedvav, Lk. xxii. 25 ; of the king of Egypt, Acts 
vii. 10, 18 ; Heb. xi. 23, 27 ; of David, Mt. i. 6 ; Acts xiii. 
22 ; of Herod the Great and his successors, Mt. ii. 1 sqq. ; 
Lk. i. 5 ; Acts xii. 1 ; xxv, 13 ; of a tetrarch, Mt. xiv. 9 ; 
Mk. vi. 14, 22, (of the son of a king, Xen. oec. 4, 16 ; " re- 
ges Syriae, regis Antiochi pueros, scitis Romae nuper 
fuisse," Cic. Verr. ii. 4, 27, cf. de senectute 1 7, 59 ; [Verg. 
Aen. 9, 223]) ; of a Roman emperor, 1 Tim. ii. 2 ; 1 Pet. ii. 
17, cf. Rev. xvii. 9 (10), (so in prof. writ, in the Roman 
age, as in Joseph, b. j. 5, 13, 6 ; Hdian. 2, 4, 8 [4 Bekk.] ; 
of the son of the emperor, ibid. 1, 5, 15 [5 Bekk.]) ; of 
the Messiah, 6 ^aaiXevs tu>u 'lovbalcou, Mt. ii. 2, etc. ; tov 
'laparjX, Mk. xv. 32 ; Jn. i. 49 (50) ; xii. 13 ; of Chris- 
tians, as to rei^n over the world with Christ in the mil- 
lennial kingdom. Rev. i. 6 ; v. 10 (Rec. in both pass, and 
Grsb. in the latter; see ^aatKela, 3 e.) ; of God, the su- 
preme ruler over all, Mt. v. 35 ; 1 Tim. i. 1 7 (see aloiv, 
2) ; Rev. xv. 3 ; ^aa-ikfi/s ^acriXfcou, Rev. xvii. 14 [but 
here as in xix. 16 of the victorious Messiah] ; 6 /Jaer. 
Twi/ /SacriXf uoi/rwc, 1 Tim. vi. 15, (2 Mace. xiii. 4 ; 3 Mace. 
V. 35 ; Enoch 9, 4 ; [84, 2 ; Philo de decal. § 10] ; cf. [kv- 
pios Ttov ^aa. Dan. ii. 47] ; Kvpios r. Kvpia>v, Deut. x. 17; 
Ps. cxxxv. (cxxxvi.) 3 ; [so of the king of the Par- 
thians, Plut. Pomp. § 38, 1]). 

PcuriXcvco ; f ut. ^acriKtvcrai ; 1 aor. i^aa-iKtvtra ; (fiacri- 
Xf us) ; — in Grk. writ. [fr. Hom. down] with gen. or dat., 
m the sacred writ., after the Hebr. (h}} Sk^D), foil, by 
cVri' with gen. of place, Mt. ii. 22 (where LT WHom. 
■±rbr. eVt) ; Rev. v. 10; foil, by tni with ace. of the 
pers., Lk. i. 33 ; xix. 14, 27 ; Ro. v. 14 ; [cf. W. 206 (193 
eq.) ; B. 169 (147)] — to be king, to exercise kingly power, 
tt reign: univ., 1 Tim. vi. 15; Lk. xix. 14, 27 ; of the 
governor of a country, although not possessing kingly 



rank, Mt. ii. 22; of God, Rev. xi. 15, 17; xix. 6 ; of the 
rule of Jesus, the Messiah, Lk. i. 33 ; 1 Co. xv. 25 ; Rev. 
xi. 15 ; of the reign of Christians in the millennium, 
Rev. v. 10 ; XX. 4, 6 ; xxii. 5 ; hence Paul transfers the 
word to denote the supreme moral dignity, liberty, bless- 
edness, which will be enjoyed by Christ's redeemed ones: 
Ro. V. 17 (cf. De Wette and Thol. ad loc.) ; 1 Co. iv. 8. 
Metaph. to exercise the highest influence, to control : Ro. 
V. 14, 17, 21; vi. 12. The aor. i^aalXtvaa denotes I 
obtained royal power, became king, hare come to reign, in 
1 Co. iv. 8 [cf. W. 302 (283); B. 215 (185)]; Rev. xi. 
17 ; xix. 6, (as often in Sept. and prof. writ. ; cf. Grimm 
on 1 Mace. p. 11 ; Breitenbach or Kiihner on Xen. 
mem. 1, 1, 18; on the aor. to express entrance into a 
state, see Bnhdy. p. 382; Kriiger § 53, 5, 1 ; [Kiihner 
§ 386, 5; Goodwin § 19 N. 1]). [Comp. : avfi-jiaa-i- 
Xevco.] * 

Pao-iXiKos, -fj, -6v, of or belonging to a king, kingly, 
royal, regal; of a man, the officer or minister of a prince, 
a courtier: Jn. iv. 46, 49, (Polyb. 4, 76, 2; Plut. Sol. 27; 
often in Joseph.), subject to a king : of a country, Acts 
xii. 20. befitting or worthy of a king, royal : (o-dfjs, Acts 
xii. 21. Hence metajDh. principal, chief: vofxos, Jas. ii. 

8 (Plat. Min. p. 317 c. to opBbv vofios eVrl ^aaiXiKos, 
Xen. symp. 1, 8 ^aaiXiKov (cdXXoy; 4 Mace. xiv. 2).* 

[PacriXCo-Kos, -ov, 6, (dimin. of ^aaiKevs), a petty king', 
a reading noted by WH in their (rejected) marg. of Jn. 
iv. 46, 49. (Polyb., al.)*] 

Pa<r(Xi(ro-a, -?;?, fj, queen : Mt. xii. 42; Lk. xi. 31 ; Acts 
viii. 27; Rev. xviii. 7. (Xen. oec. 9, 15; Aristot. oec. 

9 [in Bekker, Anecd. i. p. 84 ; cf. frag. 385 (fr. Poll. 8, 
90) p. 1542% 25]; Polyb. 23, 18, 2 [excrpt. Vales. 7], 
and often in later writ. ; Sept. ; Joseph. ; the Atticists 
prefer the forms ^aaikis and ^aa-iXeia ; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. 
p. 225 ; [on the termination, corresponding to Eng. -ess, 
cf. W. 24; B. 73; Soph. Lex. p. 37; Sturz, De dial. 
Maced. et Alex. p. 151 sqq. ; Curtius p. 653].)* 

pdo-is, -((OS, f), (BAQ, ^alva) ; 1. a stepping, walk' 
ing, (Aeschyl., Soph., al.). 2. that with which one 
steps, the foot: Acts iii. 7, (Plat. Tim. p. 92 a. et al. ; 
Sap. xiii. 18).* 

poo-KaCvw: 1 aor. i^aaKava, on which form cf. W. [75 
(72)] ; 83 (80) ; [B. 41 (35); Lob. ad Phryn. p. 25 sq. ; 
Paralip. p. 21 sq.] ; Odfo), ^daKca [</)d(rKa)] to speak, talk) ; 
Tivd [W. 223 (209)] ; 1. to speak ill of one, to slander, 
traduce him, (Dem. 8, 19 [94, 19] ; Ael. v. h. 2, 13, etc.). 
2. to bring evil on one by feigned praise or an evil eye, 
to charm, bewitch one, (Aristot. probl. 20, 34 [p. 926'', 
24] ; Theocr. 6, 39 ; Ael. nat. an. 1, 35) ; hence, of those 
who lead away others into error by wicked arts (Diod. 
4, 6) : Gal. iii. 1. Cf. Schott [or Bp. Lghtft.] ad loc; 
Lob. ad Phryn. p. 462.* 

Pao-TcL^w ; f ut. /Sao-rdtro) ; 1 aor. e /3d(rra(ra ; 1. to take 
up with the hands : Xldovs, Jn. x. 31, (Xaap, Hom. Od. 11, 
594 ; TTjv p.d)^aipav dno r^s yrjs, Joseph, antt. 7, 11, 7). 
2. to take up in order to carry or bear ; to put upori one's 
self (something) to be carried ; to bear what is burden- 
some : TOV aravpov, Jn. xix. 17 ; Lk. xiv. 27, (see oTotros 



0aTO<i 



99 



ySe/Sat 



00) 



2 a. and b.) ; Metaph. : fBaa-rdCeiv rt, to be equal to un- 
derstanding a matter and receiving it calmly, Jn. xvi. 
12 (Epict. encli. 29, 5); <f)opTiov, Gal. vi. 5; ^aardaei 
TO Kpifia, must take upon himself the condemnation of 
the judge. Gal. v. 10 (aDdO «K/J, Mic. vii. 9). Hence 
to bear, endure: Mt. xx. 12; Acts xv. 10 ((vyov) ; Ro. 
XV. 1 ; Gal. vi. 2; Rev. ii. 2 sq. (Epict. diss. 1, 3, 2; 
Anthol. 5, 9, 3 ; in this sense the Greeks more com- 
monly use (fiepeiv.) 3. simply to hear, carry : Mt. iii. 
11; Mk. xiv. 13; Lk. vii. 14; xxii. 10; Rev. x vii. 7; 
pass., Acts iii. 2 ; xxi. 35. to ouofxd pov eVwTrioj/ i6vu)v, 
so to bear it that it may be in the presence of Gentiles, 
i. e. by preaching to carry the knowledge of my name 
to the Gentiles, Acts ix. 15. to carry on one's person: 
Lk. X. 4 ; Gal. vi. 1 7 [cf. Ellic. ad loc] ; of the womb 
carrying the foetus, Lk. xi. 27; to sustain, i. e. uphold, 
support: Ro. xi. 18. 4. by a use unknown to Attic 
writ., to bear away, carry off: voaovs, to take away or 
remove by curing them, Mt. viii. 17 (Galen de compos, 
medicam. per gen. 2, 14 [339 ed. Bas.] ^^a)pa? re 6epa- 
Tveiiei KUL vTrdoTTLa ^aard^ei) [al. refer the use in Mt. 1. c. 
to 2 ; cf. Meyer]. Jn. xii. G (J^dcrra^e used to pilfer [R. 
V. txt. took away; cf. our ' shop/i/?ing ', though perh. this 
lift is a diff. word, see Skeat s. v.]) ; Jn. xx. 15, (Polyb. 
1, 48, 2 6 avepLOs rovs Trvpyovs tjj ^la ^aard^fi, Apollod. 
bibl. 2, 6, 2; 3,4,3; Athen. 2, 26 p. 46 f.; 15, 48 p. 693 e.; 
very many instances fr. Joseph, are given by Krebs, 
Observv. p. 152 sqq.). [Syn. cf. Schmidt ch. 105.] * 

pdros, -ov, f] and (in Mk. xii. 26 GLTTrWH) 6, 
(the latter ace. to Moeris, Attic ; the former Hellenistic ; 
of. Fritzsche on Mk. p. 532; W. 63 (62) [cf. 36; B. 12 
(11)]), [fr. Horn, down], a thorn or bramble-bush [cf. 
B. D. s. V. Bush] : Lk. vi. 44 ; Acts vii. 30, 35 ; eVl rod 
(jris) ^drov at the Bush, i. e. where it tells about the Bush, 
Mk. xii. 26 ; Lk. xx. 37 ; cf. Fritzsche on Ro. xi. 2 ; [B.D. 
s. v. Bible IV. 1].* 

pdros, -ov, 6, Hebr. n3 a hath, [A. V. measure^, a Jew- 
ish measure of liquids containing 72 sextarii [between 
8 and 9 gal.], (Joseph, antt. 8, 2, 9) : Lk. xvi. 6 [see B.D. 
s. V. Weights and Measures II. 2].* 

pArpaxos, -ov, 6, a frog, (fr. Hom. [i. e. Batrach., and 
Hdt.] down) : Rev. xvi. 13.* 

PaTTo\oY€w [T WH ^arraX. (with K B, see WH. App. 
p. 152)], -o): 1 aor. subj. /3aT-ToAoy^(rci) ; a. to stammer, 
and, since stammerers are accustomed to repeat the 
same sounds, b. to repeat the same things over and 
over, to use many and idle words, to babble, prate ; so Mt. 
vi. 7, where it is explained by eV t^ TroXuXoyi'a, (Vulg. 
multum loqui ; [A. V. to use vain repetitions^) ; cf. Tho- 
luck ad loc. Some suppose the word to be derived from 
Battus, a king of Cyrene, who is said to have stuttered 
(Ildt. 4, 155) ; others from Battus, an author of tedious 
and wordy poems ; but comparing ^arrapl^eiv, which 
has the same meaning, and ^dp^apoi (q. v.), it seems 
far more probable that the word is onomatopoetic. (Sim- 
pUc. in Epict. [ench. 30 fin.] p. 340 ed. Schweigh.) * 

pSeXv-yixa, -ros, to, (^8e\v(T(Topai), a bibl. and eccl. word ; 
in Sept. mostly for ^^2il^^\, also for V'lpV and ypK?, afoul 



thing (loathsome on acct. of its stench), a detestable thing; 
(Tertull. abominamentum) ; Luth. Greuel ; [A. V. abom- 
ination']; a. univ. : Lk. xvi. 15. b. in the O. T. often 
used of idols and things pertaining to idolatry, to be 
held in abomination by the Israelites ; as 1 K. xi. 6 (5) ; 
XX. (xxi.) 26 ; 2 K. xvi. 3 ; xxi. 2 ; 1 Esdr. vii. 13 ; Sap. 
xii. 23 ; xiv. 1 1 ; hence in the N. T. in Rev. xvii. 4 sq. 
of idol-worship and its impurities ; ^^o^e'lv ^beXvypa k. 
\JAev8oi, Rev. xxi. 27. c. the expression to /35. Trjs fprj- 
p.<j)a€a)i the desolating abomination [al. take the gen. al. ; 
e. g. Mey. as gen. epex.] in Mt. xxiv. 15 ; Mk. xiii. 14, 
(1 Mace. i. 54), seems to designate some terrible event 
in the Jewish war by which the temple was desecrated, 
perh. that related by Joseph, b. j. 4, 9, 11 sqq. (Sept. 
Dan. xi. 31 ; xii. 11, /3S. (r^r) eprjpwaecos for UDWO y^PW 
and Dpjjr '^ly, Dan. ix. 27 ^8. tcov ipr^pmcreav for D'V^pI?' 
DOii'p the abomination (or abominations) icrought by the 
desolator, i. e. not the statue of Jupiter Olympius, but a 
little idol-altar placed upon the altar of whole burnt- 
offerings; cf. Grimm on 1 Mace. p. 31; Hengstenberg, 
Authentic des Daniel, p. 85 sq. ; [the principal explana- 
tions of the N. T. phrase are noticed in Dr. Jas. Mori- 
son's Com. on Mt. 1. c.].) * 

pScXvKTos, -T], ov, (fiSeXvacropai), abominable, detestable : 
Tit. i. 16. (Besides only in Prov. xvii. 15; Sir. xii. 5; 
2 Mace. i. 27 ; [cf. Philo de victim, offer. § 12 sub fin.].)* 

pScXvo-o-u : (/3Seci) quietly to break wind, to stink) ; 

1. to render foul, to cause to be abhorred: ttjv oaprjv, Ex. 
V. 21 ; to defile, pollute : ray il/vxds, t. yfrvxrip, Lev. xi. 43 ; 
XX. 25 ; 1 Mace. i. 48 ; pf. pass. ptcp. e^deXvypevos abomi- 
nable. Rev. xxi. 8, (Lev. xviii. 30 ; Prov. viii. 7 ; Job xv. 
16; 3 Mace. vi. 9; ^dtXvaaopevos, 2 Mace. v. 8). In 
native Grk. writ, neither the act. nor the pass, is found. 

2. ^BeXvaa-opai ; depon. mid. (1 aor. e^deXv^dprjv often 
in Sept. [Joseph, b. j. 6, 2, 10] ; in Grk. writ, depon. pas- 
sive, and f r. Arstph. down) ; prop, to turn one's self away 
from on account of the stench ; metaph. to abhor, detest : 
Ti, Ro. ii. 22.* 

P«paios, -am (W. 69 (67); B. 25 (22)), -aiov, (BAG, 
^alvco), [fr. Aeschyl. down], stable, fast, frm; prop. : ay/cw- 
pa, Heb. vi. 19; metaph. sure, trusty: eirayyeXia, Ro. iv. 
16; kX^o-is Koi fKXoyfi, 2 Pet. i. 10; Xoyoy TrpocPririKos, 2 
Pet. i. 19; unshaken, constant, Heb. iii. 14 ; (Xtris, 2 Co. 
i. 7 (6), (4 Mace. xvii. 4) ; irapprjcria, Heb. iii. 6 (but WH 
Tr mrg. in br.) ; valid and therefore inviolable, Xo'yor, 
Heb. ii. 2 ; diadrjKT], Heb. ix. 1 7. (With the same mean- 
in<TS in Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. down.) * 

PtPaidw, -a ; fut. ^e^aiaxra ; 1 aor. f^e^aioxra ; Pass., 
[pres. ^e^aiovpai] ; 1 aor. e/3e^aid)5rji/ ; (/Se/Saios) ; to make 
Jirm, establish, confirm, make sure : tov Xoyov, to prove its 
truth and divinity, Mk. xvi. 20; tcls tVayyeXta? make 
good the promises by the event, i. e. fulfil them, Ro. xv. 
8 (so also in Grk. writ, as Diod. 1,5); Pass. : to paprvpiov 
TOV XpKTTOv, 1 Co. i. 6 ; ^ (TdTijpla . . . ds f)pds i^(^aia>6ri, 
a constructio praegnans [W. § 66, 2 d.] which may be re- 
solved into els fjpds impehodt) Kai iv fjplv ^e^aioi eyeveTO, 
Heb. ii. 3 cf. 2 ; see ^e^aios. of men made steadfast and 
constant in soul : Heb. xiii. 9 ; 1 Co. i. 8 (fie^aiaaet ipdi 



^e/3ai(i)cn<i 



100 



Br)0eaBd 



dvfyKXrjTovs will SO confirm you that ye may be unre- 
provable [W. § 59, 6 fin.]); 2 Co. i. 21 (/3e/3aiwi/ ly/iS? 
fls Xpiarov, causing us to be steadfast in our fellow.sliip 
with Christ ; cf. Meyer ad loc.) ; tv rfj marei, Col. ii. 7 
[L T Tr WH om. fV]. (In Grk. writ. fr. Thuc. and Plat, 
down.) [CoMP. : Sia-/3ei3aioo/iat.] * 

P«PaCu(ris, -ecos, 17, {(Sf^aiooi), conjiiination : tov evayye- 
Xiov, Phil. i. 7 ; ds jif^aicnaiv to produce confidence, Ileb. 
vi. 16. (Sap. vi. 1!). Time, Plut., Dio Cass., [al.]) * 

Pt'PriXos, -01', (BAQ, /3a(Vo), ^rjKos threshold) ; 1. ac- 
cessible, lairful to be trodden ; jjrop. used of places ; hence 
2. profane, equiv. to Sh [i. e. unhallowed, common]. 
Lev. X. 10 ; IS. xxi. 4 ; opp. to ayios (as in [Ezek. xxii. 
26]; Philo, vit. Moys. iii. § 18): 1 Tim. iv. 7; vi. 20; 
2 Tim. ii. 16; of men, profane i. c. ungodly : 1 Tim. i. 9 ; 
Heb. xii. 16. (Often in Grk. writ. fr. Aeschyl. down.) 
[Cf. Trench § ci.] * 

PePijXoo), -o) ; 1 aor. e^e^TjXaxj-a ; (^e0r]Xoi) ; to profane, 
desecrate : to ad^^arov, Mt. xii. 5 ; ro lepov, Acts xxi v. 6. 
(Often in Sept. for SSn ; Judith ix. 8 ; 1 Mace. ii. 1 2, 
etc. ; Ilehod. 2, 25.) * 

BeeX^cPovX and, as written by some [yet no Greek] 
authorities, BeeX^e/3ou'/3 [cod. B Bee^e^ovX, so cod. ^ exc. 
in Mk. iii. 22 ; adopted by WH, see their App. p. 159 ; cf. 
B. 6], 6, indecl., Beelzebul or Beelzebub, a name of Satan, 
the prince of evil spirits: Mt. x. 25 ; xii. 24, 27 ; Mk. iii. 
22 ; Lk. xi. 15, 18, 19. The form Be6Afe/3oi;X is composed 
of 7OI (rabbin, for 75?. dung) and '7>'3, lord of dung 
or of filth, i. e. of idolatry; cf. Lightfoot on Mt. xii. 24. 
The few who follow Jerome in preferring the form BeeX- 
(f^ov^ derive the name fr. 2)2\ '7>*3, lord of flies, a false 
god of the Ekronites (2 K. i. 2) having the power to 
drive away troublesome flies, and think the Jews trans- 
ferred the name to Satan in contempt. Cf. Win. RWB. 
s. V. Beelzebub : and /. G. M(uller) in Herzog vol. i. p. 
768 sqq. ; [BB.DD. ; cf. also Meyer and Dr. Jas. Mori- 
son on Mt. x. 25 ; some, as Weiss (on Mk. 1. c. ; Bibl. Theol. 
§ 23 a.), doubt alike whether the true derivation of the 
name has yet been hit upon, and whether it denotes Satan 
or only some subordinate ' Prince of demons ']. (Besides 
only in eccl. writ., as Ev. Nicod. c. 1 sq.) * 

BeX(aX, o, (7j/2!73 worthlessness, wickedness), Belial, a 
name of Satan, 2 Co. vi. 15 in Rec.''"''^^ L. But BeXiap 
(q. V.) is preferable, [see WH. App. p. 159 ; B. 6].* 

BeXCap, o, indecl., Beliar, a name of Satan in 2 Co. vi. 
1 5 Rec.'t G T Tr WH, etc. This form is either to be as- 
cribed (as most suppose) to the harsh Syriac pronuncia- 
tion of the word BeXi'aX (q. v.), or must be derived from 
"^yS. '3 lord of the forest, i. e. who rules over forests and 
deserts, (cf. Sept. Is. xiii. 21 ; Mt. xii. 43 ; [BB.DD. s. v. 
Belial, esp. Alex.'s Kitto]). Often in eccl. writ.* 

PeXbvTi, -r}s, f], (^e'Xor) ; a. the point of a spear, b. a 
needle : Lk. xviii. 25 L T TrWH ; see pa(f)is. ([Batr. 1 30], 
Arstph., Aeschin., Aristot., al. ; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 90.)* 

P«Xos, -(OS, TO, OaXXw), a missile, a dart, Javelin, arrow: 
Eph. vi. 16. [From Hom. down.]* 

^{XtUov, -ov. gen. -ovos, better ; neut. adverbially in 2 
Tim. i. 18 [W. 242 (227); B. 27 (24). Soph., Tnuc., al.]* 



Bcviajiiv [-pdv L T TrWH ; see WH. App. 155, and 
s.v. «, t],6,(pp;;3, i. e. pp;-|3 son of the right hand, i. e. 
of good fortune. Gen. xxxv. 18), Benjamin, Jacob's 
twelfth son ; ^wXr) Beviafiiv the tribe of Benjamin : Acts 
xiii. 21 ; Ro. xi. 1 ; Phil. iii. 5 ; Rev. vii. 8.* 

BepviKT], -Tjs, Tj, (for BepfvUr], and this the Macedonic 
form [cf. Sturz, De dial. Mac. p. 31] of ^epevUrj [i. e. vic- 
torious]), Bernice or Berenice, daughter of Herod Agrip- 
pa the elder. She married first her uncle Herod, king 
of Chalcis, and after his death Polemon, king of Cilicia. 
Deserting him soon afterwards, she returned to her 
brother Agrippa, with whom previously when a widow 
she was said to have lived incestuously. Finally she 
became for a time the mistress of the emperor Titus 
(Joseph, antt. 1 9, 5, 1 ; 20, 7, 1 and 3 ; Tacit, hist. 2, 2 
and 81 ; Suet. Tit. 7) : Acts xxv. 13, 23 ; xxvi. 30. Cf. 
Hausrath in Schenkel i. p. 396 sq. ; [^Farrar, St. Paul, ii. 
599 sq.].* 

Bc'poia, -as, 17, (also Beppoia [i. e. well-watered]), Beroea, 
a city of Macedonia, near Pella, at the foot of Mount 
Bermius : Acts xvii. 10, 13.* 

Bcpoiatos, -a, -ou, Beroean : Acts xx. 4.* 
[BT]8trai8a, given by L mrg. Tr mrg. in Lk. x. 13 where 
Rec. etc. Brjdadiba, q. v.] 

BTiOaPapd, -5f, [-pa Rec^'^'^^S indecl.], 77, (n^3;,' n'3 
place of crossing, i. e. where there is a crossing or ford, 
cf. Germ. Furthhausen), Bethabara : Jn. i. 28 Rec. [in 
Rec.«'^ of 1st decl., but cf. W. 61 (60)]; see [WH. 
App. ad loc. and] Brjdavla, 2.* 

Bi^Oavia, -as, 17, (H' JJ? r\'3 house of depression or misery 
[cf. B.D. Am. ed.]), Bethany ; 1. a town or village 
beyond the Mount of Olives, fifteen furlongs from Jeru- 
salem : Jn. xi. 1, 18 ; xii. 1 ; Mt. xxi. 1 7 ; xxvi. 6 ; Lk. xix. 
29 [here WH give the accus. -pid (see their App. p. 160), 
cf. Tr mrg.] ; xxiv. 50 ; Mk. xi. 1, 11 sq. ; xiv. 3 ; now a 
little Arab hamlet, of from 20 to 30 families, called el- 
'Azi)ii/eh or cl-'Azir (the Arabic name of Lazarus) ; cf. 
Robinson i. 431 sq. ; [BB.DD. s. v.]. 2. a town or 
village on the east bank of the Jordan, where John bap- 
tized : Jn. i. 28 L T Tr WH, [see the preceding word]. 
But Origen, although confessing that in his day nearly 
all the codd. read iv Brjdavla, declares that when he 
journeyed through those parts he did not find any place 
of that name, but that Bethabara was pointed out as the 
place where John had baptized ; the statement is con- 
firmed by Eusebius and Jerome also, who were well ac- 
quainted with the region. Hence it is most probable that 
Bethany disappeared after the Apostles' time, and was 
restored under the name of Bethabara ; cf. Liicke ad 
loc. p. 391 sqq. [Cf. Prof. J. A. Paine in Pliila. S. S. 
Times for Apr. 16, 1881, p. 243 sq.]* 

Btie€o-8a, fi, indec, (Chald. Nipn n'3, i. e. house of 
mercy, or place for receiving and caring for the sick), 
Bethesda, the name of a pool near the sheep-gate at 
Jerusalem, the waters of which had curative powers : 
Jn. V. 2 [here L mrg. WH mrg. read Br)6a-dibd, T WH txt. 
BT)6(ada (q. v.)]. What locaUty in the modern city is 
its representative is not clear ; cf . Win. RWB. s. v. ; 



BvO^ada 



101 



/Si/3Xt( 



LOl 



Arnold in Ilerzog ii. p. 117 sq. ; Robinson i. 330 sq. 
342 sq. ; [B.D. s. v. ; " The Recovery of Jerusalem " 
(see index)].* 

Brje^aea, fj, (peril, fr. Chald. Nn;i n-1 house of olives; 
not, as some suppose, KPn.n n'3 house of newness, Germ. 
Neuhaus, since it cannot be shown that the Hebr. n is 
ever represented by the Grk. (), Bethzatha : Jn. v. 2 
T[WIItxt.] after codd. X LD and other authorities 
(no doubt a corrupt reading, yet approved by Keim ii. 
p. 177, [see also WH. App. ad loc.]), for Rec. BT^^eo-Sa, 
q. V. [Cf. Kautzxch, Gram. d. Bibl.-Aram. p. 9.] * 

BtjeXeeV, fj, [indecl.], (in Joseph, not only so [antt. 8, 
10, 1], but also BrjdXeefjLT], -rjs, antt. 6, 8, 1 ; 11, 7 ; [7, 1, 
3] ; dno BrjdXefjimv, 5, 2, 8 ; (k B^dXee/jLVV, 5, 9, 1 ; [cf. 7, 
13 ; 9, 2]), Bethlehem, (uvh n'5 house of bread), a little 
town, named from the fertility of its soil, six Roman 
miles south of Jerusalem ; now Beit Lachm, with about 
3000 [" 5000 ", Baedeker] inhabitants : Mt. ii. 1, 5 sq. 8, 
16 ; Lk. ii. 4, 15 ; Jn. vii. 42. Cf. Win. RWB. s. v. ; Rob- 
inson i. p. 470 sqq. ; Raumer p. 313 sqq. ; Tobler, Beth- 
lehem in Palastina u.s.w. 1849 ; [^Socin (i.e. Baedeker), 
Hdbk. etc., s. v. ; Porter (i. e. Murray) ib. ; BB.DD.].* 

BTiOo-aiStt [WH -aacBa; see I, i] and (Mt. xi. 21 RG 
T WH) -8av, 1], indecl. but with ace. [which may, how- 
ever, be onl}^ the alternate form just given ; cf. WH. 
App. p. 160] Br]6(Ta:i8dv [B. 17 (16 sq.) ; AVin. 61 (60); 

Tdf. Proleg. p. 119 sq.], (Syr. \^. K^r:^ i. e. house or 

place of hunting or fisliing), Bethsaida ; 1. a small 
city (ttoXu, Jn. i. 44 (45)) or a village (acwjut;, Mk. viii. 22, 
23) on the western shore of the Lake of Gennesaret : 
Jn. i. 44 (45) ; Mt. xi. 21 ; Mk. vi. 45 ; Lk. x. 13 [here 
L mrg. Tr mrg. B/yScratSa ; cf. Tdf. Proleg. u. s.] ; Jn. 
xii. 21 (where rrfs Takika'ias is added). 2. a village 
in lower Gaulanitis on the eastern shore of Lake Gennes- 
aret, not far from the place where the Jordan empties 
into it. Phihp the tetrarch so increased its population 
that it was reckoned as a city, and was called Julias in 
honor of Julia, the daughter of the emperor Augustus 
(Joseph, antt. 18, 2, 1 ; Plin. h. n. 5, 15). Many think 
that this city is referred to in Lk. ix. 10, on account of 
Mk. vi. 32, 45 ; Jn. vi. 1 ; others that the Evangelists 
disagree. Cf. Win. RWB. s. v.; Raumer p. 122 sq. ; 
[BB.DD. s. V. 3. In Jn. v. 2 Lchm. mrg. WH mrg. 
read Brjdaa'iba; see s. v. Bj/^eo-Sa.]* 

Br)e<j>a7'^ [but Lchm. uniformly, Treg. in Mt. and Mk. 
and R G in Mt. -y^ (B. 15 ; W. 52 (51) ; cf. Tdf. Proleg. 
p. 103) ; in Mt. xxi. 1 Tdf. ed. 7 -o-c^ay^], "7, indecl, (fr. 
n'3 and Jp house of unripe figs), Betliphage, the name 
of a country-seat or hamlet (Euseb. calls it Acwfir;, Jerome 
villula), on the Mount of Olives, near Bethany: Mt. xxi. 
1 ; Mk. xi. 1 RGTrtxt. WHtxt., but Triarg. in br. ; 
Lk. xix. 29. [BB.DD. s. v.] * 

Pfjiio, -Toy, TO, (fr. BAQ, jSaiVo)), [fr. Horn. (h. Merc), 
Pind. down] ; 1. a step, pace : ^rjfia noSos the space 
which the foot covers, a foot-breadth. Acts vii. 5 (for 
S^.-^-t]3 Deut. ii. 5, cf. Xen. an. 4, 7, 10; Cyr. 7, 5, 6). 
2. a raised place mounted by steps ; a platform, tribune : 



used of the official seat of a judge, Mt. xxvii. 19; Jn 
xix. 13 ; Acts xviii. 12, 16 sq. ; xxv. 6, 10, [17]; of the 
judgment-seat of Christ, Ro. xiv. 10 (LTTrWH tov 
6fov) ; 2 Co. V. 10; of the structure, resembling a throne, 
which Herod built in the theatre at Csesarea, and from 
which he used to view the games and make speeches to 
the people, Acts xii. 21 ; (of an orator's pulpit, 2 Mace, 
xiii. 26; Neh. viii. 4. Xen. mem. 3, 6, 1 ; Hdian. 2, 10, 
2 [1 ed. Bekk.]).* 

PripvWos, -ov, 6, T), beryl, a precious stone of a pale 
green color (Plin. h. n. 37, 5 (20) [i. e. 37, 79]) : Rev. 
xxi. 20. (Tob. xiii. 1 7 ; neut. ^r^pvWiov equiv. to DHt^, 
Ex. xxviii. 20 ; xxxvi. 20 (xxxix. 13)). Cf. Win. RWB. 
s. V. Edelsteine, 11 ; [esp. Riehm, HWB. ib. 3 and 12].* 
pCa, -a J, t] ; 1. strength, whether of body or of mind* 
Hom. and subseq. writ. 2. strength in violent action, 
force : ynTa /3t'aj by the use of force, with violence, Acts 
V. 26 ; xxiv. 7 [Rec] ; shock twv KVfiarwv, Acts xxvii. 41 
[R G, but Tr txt. br. al. om. twv KVfiarcov^ ; 8ia r. ^lav tov 
ox^ov, the crowd pressing on so violently, Acts xxi. 35. 
[Syn. see dwafjus, fin.] * 

Pid^o) : (jSi'a) ; to use force, to apply force ; nva, to 
force, inflict violence on, one; the Act. is very rare and 
almost exclusively poetic, [fr. Hom. doAvn] ; Pass. [B. 
53 (46)] in Mt. xi. 12 17 ^aaiXeta t. ovp. ^la^eTai, the king- 
dom of heaven is taken by violence, carried by storm, i. e. 
a share in the heavenly kingdom is sought for with the 
most ardent zeal and the intensest exertion ; cf. Xen. 
Hell. 5, 2, 15 (23) iroXeis Tas ^e^iaafievas; [but see Weiss, 
Jas. Morison, Norton, in loc]. The other explanation : 
the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence sc from its ene- 
mies, agrees neither with the time when Christ spoke the 
words, nor with the context ; cf. Fritzsche, De Wette, 
Meyer, ad loc. Mid. ^laCofiai foil, by ets ti to force one's 
icay into a thing, (ts ttjv HoTibaiav, Thuc. 1,63; is to e^co, 
7, 69 ; els ttju nape iJ.^o\r]v, Polyb. 1, 74, 5 ; els to. e'woj, 
Philo, vit. Moys. i. § 19; els to o-TpaTonebov, Plut. Otho 
12, etc.) : els t. ^aaikeiav Toii Beoxi, to get a share in the 
kingdom of God by the utmost earnestness and effort, 
Lk. xvi. 16. [CoMP. : Trapa^ta^o^xai.] * 

Piaios, -a, -ov, i^ia), violent, forcible : Acts ii. 2 [A. V. 
mighty']. (In Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down.) * 

Piao-Tir|s, -ov, 6, (^id(ai) ; 1. strong, forceful : Pind. 
01. 9, 114 [75] ; Pyth. 4, 420 [236 ; but Pind. only uses 
the form ^laras, so al.]. 2. using force, violent : Philo, 
agric § 19. In Mt. xi. 12 those are called ^laa-ral by 
whom the kingdom of God ^idferai, i. e. who strive to 
obtain its privileges with the utmost eagerness and 
effort.* 

PiPXapCSiov, -ov, TO, (dimin. of the dimin. ^i^Xdpiou fr. 
fj /St/SXoy), a little book : Rev. x. 2, 8 [L Tr WH ^i^Xiov, 
Tdf. 2 and 7 ^i^XMpiov, q. v.], 9, 10. Not found in prof, 
auth. [Herm. vis. 2, 4, 3]; cf. W. 96 (91).* 

PipXiSdpiov, -ov, TO, (fr. 0i^Xi8iov, like IfiaTiSdpiov fr. 
IfiaTiBiov), a little book: Rev. x. 8 Tdf. [edd. 2 and] 7. 
(Arstph. frag. 596.) * 

PiPXCov, -ov, TO, (dimin. of /Si'/SXos), a small book, a 
scroll : Lk. iv. 17, 20; Jn. xx. 30; Gal. iii. 10; 2 Tim. iv. 



^t/3^09 



102 



^Xacrc^rjixla 



13, etc.; a written document; a sheet on which some- 
thinor has been written, /3. airoa-Tatriov {_h'dl of divorce- 
ment]: Mt. xix. 7 ; ]Mk. X. 4 ; see dTroo-rdo-toi', 1. ^ijSXlov 
fojTjf, the list of those whom God has appointed to eter- 
nal salvation : Rev. xiii. 8 [Rec. ttj /3i/iiXa>] ; xvii. 8 ; xx. 
12 ; xxi. 27 ; see fojiy, 2 b. [From lldt. down.] 

pcpXos, -ov, fj, (or rather ^ ^v^\os [but the form ^i^X. 
more com. when it denotes a writing], the plant called 
papyrus, Theophr. hist, plant. 4, 8, 2 sq. ; [PUn. h. n. 
13, 11 sq. (21 sq.)] ; fr. its bark [rather, the cellular sub- 
stance of its stem (for it was an endogenous plant)] 
paper was made [see Tristram, Nat. Hist. etc. p. 433 sq. ; 
esp. Bureau de la Malle in the Memoires de I'Acad. d. 
Inscrr. etc. torn. 19 pt. 1 (1851) pp. 140-183, and (in 
correction of current misapprehensions) Prof. E. Abbot 
in the Library Journal for Nov. 1878, p. 323 sq., where 
other reff. are also given]), a written book, a roll or scroll: 
Mt. i. 1 ; Lk. iii. 4 ; Mk. xii. 26 ; Acts i. 20 ; t^s C^^s, 
Phil. iv. 3 ; Rev. iii. 5, etc. ; see jSi^Xlov. [From Aeschyl. 
down.] 

PiPpioo-Kw: pf. iSf /3pa)(ca ; to eat: Jn. vi. 13. (In Grk. 
writ. fr. Hom. down ; often in Sept.) * 

BiOvvta, -as, fj, Bithynia, a province of Asia Minor, 
bounded by the Euxine Sea, the Propontis, Mysia, 
Phrygia, Galatia, Paphlagonia: Acts xvi. 7; 1 Pet. i. 1. 
[Cf. B. D. s. V. ; Diet, of Grk. and Rom. Geog. s. v. ; Cony- 
beare and Howson, St. Paul, etc. ch. viii.] * 

pCos, -ov, 6, [fr. Hom. down] ; a. life extensively, 
i. e. the period or course of life [see below and 
Trench § xxvii.] : Lk. viii. 14 ; 1 Tim. ii. 2 ; 2 Tim. ii. 4 ; 
1 Jn. ii. 16 ; 1 Pet. iv. 3 [Rec.]. b. (as often in Grk. 
writ. fr. Hes. opp. 230, 575 ; Hdt., Xen.) that by which 
life is sustained, resources, wealth, [A. V. living'] : Mk. 
xii. 44 ; Lk. viii. 43 [WH om. Tr mrg. br. cl.] ; xv. 1 2, 
30; xxi. 4; 1 Jn. iii. 17 \_goods'\. (For DIlS in Prov. 
xxxi. 14 (xxix. 32).) ♦ 

[Syn. filos,^o)T]: C existence (having death as its antithe- 
sis) ; /S.the period, means, manner, of existence Ileuce 
the former is more naturally used of animals, the latter of 
men ; cf . z o o logy, b i o graphy. N. T. usage exalts ^ai^, and 
so tends to debase fiios. But see Bp Lghlft. Ign. ad Rom. 7.] 

Pi6w, -at : 1 aor. inf. ^laxrai ; for which in Attic the 2 
aor. inf. ^lavai is more common, cf. W. 84 (80) ; [B. 54 
(48) ; Veitch or L. and S. s. v.] ; Ot'oy) ; [fr. Hom. down] ; 
to spend life, to live : t6v xpovov, to pass the time, 1 Pet. iv. 
2; (Job xxix. 18; fj/xepas, Xen. mem. 4, 8, 2). [Syn. 
see /3i'os, fin.]* 

Piwo-is, -f toy, i;, manner of living and acting, way of life : 
Acts xxvi. 4. (Sir. prolog. 10 Bia ttjs ivvofiov ^Luxretos', 
not found in prof, auth.) * 

PiwTiKos, -fj, -6v, pertaining to life and the affairs of this 
life : Lk. xxi. 34 ; 1 Co. vi. 3 sq. (The word, not used in 
Attic, first occurs in Aristot. h. a. 9, 17, 2 [p. 616'', 27] ; 
Xpt'iai ^iwTiKai is often used, as Polyb. 4, 73, 8 ; Philo, vit. 
Moys. iii. § 18 fin. ; Diod. 2, 29; Artemid. oneir. 1, 31. 
Cf. Loh. ad Phryn. p. 354 sq.) * 

p\aP(p6s, -a, -6v, OXaTTTO)), hurtful, injurious, (Xen. 
mem. 1, 5, 3 opp. to w^eXt/ioj) : 1 Tim. vi. 9 eniOvfilai 



^Xa/Sfpai, cf. fjBovai ^X. Xen. mem. 1, 3, 11. (Often in 
Grk. writ. fr. Hom. [i. e. h. Merc. 36 (taken fr. Hes. opp. 
3G5)] down ; once in Sept., Prov. x. 26.) * 

pXdirTw : fut. j3Xd>|/o) ; 1 aor. e^Xayjra ; to hurt, harm, in- 
jure : Tiva, Mk. xvi. 18 ; Lk. iv. 35. (Very often in Grk. 
writ. fr. Hom. down ; Tob. xii. 2 ; 2 Mace. xii. 22, etc.) * 

pXao-TcLvo), 3 pers. sing. pres. subj. fiXaaTa fr. the form 
^Xao-rdo), Mk. iv. 27 LTTr WH (cf. B. 55* (48) ; [Eccl. 
ii. 6 ; Herm. sim. 4, 1 sq.]) ; 1 aor. f'/SXdcrrjja-a (cf. W. 
84 (80) ; [B. I.e.]) ; 1. intransitively, to sprout, budj 
put forth leaves: Mk. iv. 27 ; Mt. xiii. 26 ; Heb. ix. 4 ;^ 
(Num. xvii. 8 ; Joel ii. 22, etc. ; in Grk. writ. fr. Pind. 
down). 2. in later Grk. writ, transitively, ^o^roc/wcc: 
Tov Kapnov, Jas. v. 18. (Gen. i. 11, etc.) * 

BXdo-Tos [i. e. a sprout], -ov, 6, Blastus, the chamber- 
lain of king Herod Agripjja I. : Acts xii. 20 [cf. Mey. 
ad loc.].* 

pXa(r<j)T](j.€'«, -o) ; impf. i^\a(T(pfjp.ovv ; 1 aor. f^\a(T(j)fj- 
prja-a; Pass., [pres. (3Xaa-(fir]povpai,]; 1 iut. ^Xaa-cfjrjprjdrj- 
a-opai ; (l3\dac{)r]pos, q. v.) ; to speak reproachfully, rail at, 
revile, calumniate, (Vulg. blasphemo) ; absol. : Lk. xxii. 
65 ; Acts xiii. 45 ; xviii. 6 ; xxvi. 1 1 ; 1 Tim. i. 20 ; 1 Pet. 
iv. 4 ; with ace. of pers. or thing (as in later Grk., Joseph., 
Plut., Appian, etc.) : Mt. xxvii. 39; Mk. iii. 28 L T Tr 
WH ; XV. 29 ; Lk. xxiii. 39 ; Tit. iii. 2 ; Jas. ii. 7 ; Jude 
10; with the cognate noun QXa(T(pr]p'iav, to utter blasphe- 
my (Plat. legg. 7 p. 800 c. ; see aynnau) ad fin.), Mk. iii. 
28 R G (where L T Tr WH oaa for oa-as, see above) ; 
[foil, by eV, 2 Pet. ii. 12; cf. Bttm. as at end, and see 
dyfoeo), a.]. Pass. ^\a(T(PT]p.ovpai to be evil spoken of re- 
viled, railed at : Ro. iii. 8 ; xiv. 16 ; 1 Co. iv. 13 (T WH 
Tr mrg. 8v(Tcf)r]poiip€voi) ; x. 30 ; Tit. ii. 5 ; 2 Pet. ii. 2 ; 
TO oi/o/id Tivos, Ro. ii. 24 ; 1 Tim. vi. 1. Spec, of those 
who by contemptuous speech intentionally come short 
of the reverence due to God or to sacred things (for 
n'lJ, 2 K. xix. 6, 22 cf. 4 ; cf. Grimm on 2 Mace. x. 34) ; 
absol. : Mt. ix. 3 ; xxvi. 65 ; Mk. ii. 7 L T Tr WH ; [Jn. 
X. 36]; TOV 6e6v, Rev. xvi. 11, 21 ; TrjvBeav, Acts xix. 37 
(G L T Tr WH ttjv 6e6v) ; to ovopa TOV 6eov, Rev. xiii. 
6 ; xvi. 9; to nvti/pa tov Oeoii {(SXaatprjpflTat.}., 1 Pet. iv. 
14 Rec. ; 86^as, Jude 8 ; 2 Pet. ii. 10 (see 86$a, III. 3 b. y.) ; 
els TO TTVfvpa to ay. Mk. iii. 29 ; Lk. xii. 10, (els deovs, 
Plat. rep. 2 p. 381 e.). The earlier Grks. say j3\a<T(}). 
fis Tiva, TTfpi or KOTO. Tivos ; [on the N. T. constructions 
cf. W. 222 (208); 629 (584); B. 146 (128)].* 

pXacr4>ii[i.£a, -ay, tj, railing, reviling, (Vulg. blasphemia) ; 
a. univ. slander, detraction, speech injurious to another's 
good name : Mt. xii. 31 ; xv. 19 ; Mk. iii. 28 ; vii. 22 ; Eph. 
iv. 31 ; Col. iii. 8; 1 Tim. vi. 4; Jude 9 (dcpiVty /SXa- 
a({)T]pias, i. q. Kpiais ^\d(T(f)T]fjLos in 2 Pet. ii. 11, a judgment 
pronounced in reproachful terms) ; Rev. ii. 9. b. spe- 
cifically, impious and reproachful speech injurious to the 
divine majesty : Mt. xxvi. 65 ; Mk. ii. 7 [R G] ; xiv. 64 ; 
Lk. V. 21 ; Jn. x. 33 ; Rev. xiii. 5 [not Lchm.] ; ouop.a or 
ovopara ^\aa(pr]p[as i. q. ^\d(T(})T]pa (cf. W. § 34, 3 b. ; 
[B. § 132, 10]) : Rev. xiii. 1 ; xvii. 3 [R G Tr, see yepco] ; 
TOV TTVtvpaTos, gen. of obj., Mt. xii. 31 ; nposrov Oeov, Rev. 
xiii. 6. (Eur., Plat., Dem., al. ; for ni'XJ, Ezek. xxxv. 



^\da<i>r]ixo<i 



103 



fiodco 



12.) [BB.DD. s. V. Blasphemy ; Campbell, Diss, on the 
Gospels, diss. ix. pt. ii.] * 

pXd«r<j>T)nos, -01/, OXrt^ sluggish, stupid, and 0^/ir; speech, 
report, [al. /SXaTrro) (q. v.) and </).]), speaking evil, slan- 
derous, reproach fid, raiUnfj, abusive : Acts vi. 1 1 (prjuara 
^Xda(f)r]fia ds Mcov(Trjv Koi rov 6f6v) ; [vi. 13 Rec. {p. jiX- 
Kara rov tottov rov ayiov)^ ; 2 Pet. ii. 11 (see ^\aa(pr]fj,ia, 
a.) ; Rev. xiii. 5 [Lchm.] ; ^Xaa-cprjfios as subst. a blas- 
phemer: 1 Tim. i. 13 ; 2 Tim. iii. 2. (Is. Ixvi. 3 ; Sap. i. 
6 ; Sir. iii. 16 ; 2 Mace. ix. 28 ; [x. 36 (cf. 4)] ; in Grk. 
writ. fr. Dem. down.) * 

p\€[i|j.a, Tos, TO, (/SXeTTco) ; a look, glance : ^Xififian k. oKotj 
in seeing and hearing, 2 Pet. ii. 8 [cf. Warfield in i'resbyl. 
Rev. for 1 883 p. 629 s(|q.]. (Eur., Arst ph., Dem., Plut., al.) * 

pXe'irw ; [impf. e^'kenov] ; fut. /3Xe\|/'cD ; 1 aor. e^Xc^a ; 
[pres. pass. /3Xe'7ro/iai] ; Sept. for n5<";, nj3, Hin, 0'3n ; 
in Grk. writ. fr. Aeschyl. down ; to see, discern ; 1. 
with the bodily eye ; a. to be possessed of sight, have 
the power of seeing, opp. to rwc^Xdy : Mt. xii. 22 : xiii. 16 ; 
XV. 31 ; Jn. ix. 7, 15, 19, 25 ; Acts ix. 9 ; Ro. xi. 8, lO; 
Rev. iii. 18, etc. (Soph. Oed. Col. 73; Arstph. Plut. 15; 
Xen. mem. 1, 3, 4; Ael. v. h. 6, 12, etc. Ex. iv. 11 ; 
xxiii. 8, etc. Tob. xi. 15). to ^Xiireiv sight, the power 
of seeing, Lk. vii. 21 (GLTTrAVHom. ro). b. to 
perceive by the use of the eyes, to see, look, descry ; o. 
absol. : ^XeTTovrayv avrwv while they were looking. Acts i. 
9 ; [xxii. 1 1 Tr mrg. WH mrg.] ; epxov Ka\ /SXeVe, Rec. in 
Rev. vi. 1, 3, 5, 7. p. with ace. of pers. or thing: Mt. 
▼ii. 3 ; xi. 4 ; xxiv. 2 ; Mk. v. 31 ; viii. 23 sq. ; xiii. 2 ; 
Lk. vi. 41 ; xxiv. 12 [T om. L Tr br. WH reject the vs.] ; 
Jn. i. 29 ; Acts iv. 14, etc. ; [Rev. xviii. 18 Rec. opwin-fs] ; 
TTjv (^(ji)vf]v, him who uttered the voice, Rev. i. 1 2 ; opafia. 
Acts xii. 9 ; he who has free access to one, as princes, 
ministers, and personal friends have to a king, is said 
jSX. TO npoaaTTov rivos ("ij'^Qn "JS 'Ni, 2 K. xxv. 19 ; Jer. 
hi. 25 ; Esth. i. 14) ; hence in Mt. xviii. 10 angels of 
closest access or of highest rank are referred to (see 
dpxdyyeXos)- Pass, ra ^XeTTnp.fva the things that are 
seen : 2 Co. iv. 18 ; Heb. xi. 3 (L T Tr WH ro ^Xeirop-evov, 
the sum-total or complex of things seen) ; cXttis /SXeTroyuew; 
hope of things that are seen, i. e. that are present, Ro. 
viii. 24. c. to turn the eyes to anything, to look at, 
look upon, gaze at : yvvaiKa, Mt. v. 28 ; ei? rt or riva [W. 
§ 33 g.], Lk. ix. 62; Jn. xiii. 22; Acts iii. 4; els rbv 
ovpavov, Acts i. 1 1 T Tr WH ; in the sense of looking into 
(i. e. in order to read), jStiSXioi/, Rev. v. 3 sq. d. univ. 
to perceive by the senses, to feel : rhv avepov laxvpov [T WH 
om. ItTX-l, Mt. xiv. 30, (Krvnov Se'Sopxa, Aeschyl. sept. 104). 
e. to discover by use, to know by experience : rl, Ro. vii. 
23 ; foil, by on, 2 Co. vii. 8 ; by attract, to drjplov, on ktX. 
Rev. xvii. 8 ; inep 6 ySXeVei pe for vnep tovto, 6 jSXeVet pe 
ovra, lest he think me greater than on personal knowl- 
edge he finds me to be, 2 Co. xii. 6. 2. metaph. to see 
with the m i n d' s eye ; a. to have (the power of) un- 
derstanding : /SXeVoi/ref ol ^XeTTovan, though endued with 
understanding they do not understand, Mt. xiii. 13; Lk. 
viii. 10. b. to discern mentally, observe, perceive, dis- 
cover, understand; absol. : Si' ia-onrpov, 1 Co. xiii. 12 ; of 



the omniscient God ffXiiroiv iv rm Kpvirra seeing in secret, 
where man sees nothing, Mt. vi. 4, 6, 18 [here L T Tr 
WH /3X. fi> T. Kpv(f>aLa>^ ; (yyl^ovaav rrfV fjpepav, Heb. x. 
25 (fr. certain external signs) ; 'irjaovv . . . fcrrfcfiavQipe- 
vov, we see (from his resurrection and from the eifects 
and witness of the Holy Spirit) Jesus crowned, Heb. ii. 
9 ; foil, by oti, Heb. iii. 19 ; Jas. ii. 22. c. to turn the 
thoughts or direct the mind to a thing, to consider, contem- 
plate, look to ; absol. ^Xtntre take heed : ]\Ik. xiii. 23, 33 ; 
with an ace. of the thing or pers., 1 Co. i. 26; x. 18; 
2 Co. X. 7 ; Phil. iii. 2 ; Col. ii. 5 ; foil, by ttcos with indie. 
[W. 300 (282); B. 255 (219)], Lk. viii. 18; 1 Co. iii. 
10; Eph. V. 15; to iveigh carefully, examine, foil, by 
interrog. ri with indie. Mk. iv. 24 ; els Trpoaunov rivos, 
to look at i. e. have regard to one's external condition, 
— used of those who are influenced by partiality : Mt. 
xxii. 16 ; Mk. xii. 14. By a use not found in Grk. auth. 
iavrov ^Xeneiv to look to one's self (i. q. sibi cavere) : Mk. 
xiii. 9 ; foil, by ha prj [cf. B. 242 (209)], 2 Jn. 8 ; /3Xe- 
neiu dno rivos (i. q. sibi cavere ab aliquo) to beware o/one 
[W. 223 (209), cf. 39 (38) ; B. 242 (209), cf. 323 (278)], 
Mk. viii. 15 ; xii. 38 ; look to in the sense of providing, 
taking care: foil, by Xva, 1 Co. xvi. 10; foil, by pr^ with 
subj. aor., Mt. xxiv. 4 ; ]\Ik. xiii. 5 ; Lk. xxi. 8 ; Acts xiii. 
40; 1 Co. viii. 9 (/xryTrco?) ; x. 12; Gal. v. 15; Heb. xii. 
25; foil, by pf) with fut. indie. Col. ii. 8; Heb. iii. 12. 
The Grks. say 6pdv pi], [cf. W. 503 (468 sq.) ; B. 242 sq. 
(209)]. 3. in a geographical sense, like Lat. specto 
[Eng. look'], of places, mountains, buildings, etc., turned 
towards any quarter, as it were facing it : foil, by Kara 
with ace. Acts xxvii. 12 [cf. B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Phenice], 
(Sept. [Num. xxi. 20]; Ezek. xi. 1 ; [xliv. 1 ; xlvii. 1]; 
Tipos, Xen. Hell. 7, 1, 17; mem. 3, 8, 9 ; Hdian. 6, 5, 2 ; 
Diog. Laert. 1, 2, 48; Sept. Ezek. ix. 2; xl. 24; [xlvi. 
1] ; fls, viii. 3, etc. [for other exx. see Soph. Lex. s. v.]). 
[Syn. see s. v. opaa. Comp. : dva-, dwo-, 8ia-, ip.-, em-, 
ire pi-, Trpo-jSXeTTti).] 

pXi^Teos, -a, -ov, (/SaXXco), which must be throivn or put, 
(see ^aXXo), 2) ; found only in neut. : Mk. ii. 22 (WH 
T om. Tr br.) ; Lk. v. 38 ^Xrjreov earl foil, by ace. rov 
olvov, cf. Matth. § 447, 3 a.; [B. 190 (165)]. (Besides 
only in Basil i. p. 137 c. ed. Benedict.)* 

Bottv«p7«s ([RG, so Suid. (ed. Gaisf. 751 a.) ; but] L T 
Tr WH Boai/r/pyey), Boanerges, Hebr. wr^, 'J3 i. e. sons of 
thunder (as Mark himself explains it), [the name given 
by our Lord to James and John the sons of Zebedee] : 
Mk. iii. 17 ; 3 pronounced Boa as Noabhyim for Nebhy. 
im ; see Lghift. Horae Hebr. ad loc. ; l^J^, in Ps. Iv. 15 
a tumultuous crowd, seems in Syriac to have signified 
thunder; so that the name 'Boavr)pyes seems to denote 
fiery and destructive zeal that may be likened to a thun- 
der-storm, and to make reference to the occurrence nar- 
rated in Lk. ix. 64. [Cf. Dr. Jas. Morison's Com. on Mk. 
Lc; Kautzsch, Gram. d. Bibl.-Aram. p. 9.]* 

Podw, -w; [impf. e^oav Acts xxi. 34 Rec]; 1 aor. 
eporjaa ; (/Sotj) ; fr. Hom. down ; in Sept. mostly for 
^"'P? p>'s Pi!V» '" ^'■.y '^^oud, shout, (Lat. boo) ; 1. to 
raise a cry : oi joy, Gal. iv. 27 (fr. Is. liv. 1) ; of pain, 



Boe<i 



104 



0ov\r) 



Mt. xxvii. 46 Lmrg. TrWH; Actsviii. 7. 2. to cry 
i. e. speak with a high, strong voice : Mt. iii. 3, Mk. i. 3, Lk. 
iii. 4, Jn. i. 23, (aU fr. Is. xl. 3) ; Mk. xv. 34 ; Lk. Lx. 38 
(R G ai/a/3.) ; [xviii. 38] ; Acts xvii. 6 ; xxi. 34 Rec. ; 
XXV. 24 (RGeVtjS.). 3. irpos riva to cry to one for 

help, implore his aid: Lk. xviii. 7 [T Tr WII a^rw ; cf. 
W. 212 (109)], (1 S. vii. 8; 1 Clir. v. 20; IIos. vii. 14, 
etc. for bVi pZO- [COMP. : dva-, eVt-^odo).] * 

[Stn. Podo), KaKfw, KpaC<i, KpavyaCw. It is not un- 
instructive to notice that in classic usage KaKi7y denotes 
' to cry out ' for a purpose, to cull ; fioav to cry out as a mani- 
festation of feeling ; Kpa^eiv to cry out harshly, often of 
an inarticulate and brutish sound; thus KaXelv suggests in- 
telligence; ^ociv sensibilities; KpAC^iv instincts; 
hence, jSoai/ esp. a cry for h e 1 p. KpavydCeiv, intensive of 
KpdCo, denotes to cry coarsely, in contempt, etc. Cf . ISclmiidt 
ch. 3.) 

Boe's, o, Mt. i. 5 T WH, for Rec. Boo'f, q- v. 

PoT|, -ijs, T], a cry : Jas. v. 4 (of those imploring ven- 
geance). From Ilom. down.* 

poT|0€ia, -as, T], (see ^orjdia>), help: Heb. iv, IG, (often 
in Sept., cliiefly for n"ir>' and "ITj;; in Grk. writ. fr. 
Thuc. and Xen. down) ; plur. helps : Acts xxvii. 1 7 
[see Hackett ad loc; B.D. s. v. Ship 4; Smith, Voyage 
and Shipwr. of St. Paul, pp. 106 sq. 204 sq.; cf. vno^cov- 

PoTj-Oe'w, -a> ; 1 aor. e^orjdrjaa ; (f r. ^otj a cry and dfa> 
to run) ; in Sept. chiefly for I?;,' ; in Grk. writ. fr. 
[Aeschyl. and] Hdt. down ; prop, to run to the cry (of 
those in danger) ; hence univ. to help, succor, bring aid : 
Tiut, Mt. XV. 25 ; Mk. ix. 22, 24 (jSorjdei fiov tj] aTnaria, 
" quod fiduciae meae deest bonitate tua supple," Gro- 
tius); Acts xvi. 9; xxi. 28; 2 Co. vi. 2; Heb. ii. 18; 
Rev. xii. 16.* 

PoT]66s, -6v, helping, (vijes, Hdt. 5, 97; a-rrjpiyfia, Tob. 
viii. 6) ; mostly as subst. [so fr. Hdt. down] a helper : 
Heb. xiii. 6 (of God, fr. Ps. cxvii. (cxviii.) 7, as often 
in Sept.).* 

PoOvvos, -ov, 6, a pit, a ditch : Mt. xii. 11 ; xv. 14 ; Lk. 
vi. 39. (Solon in Bekker's Anecd. i. 85; Xen. oec. 19, 
3 ; Theophr. hist. pi. 4, 2, 2 [(var.) ; al.] ; Sept. 2 S. 
xviii. 1 7, etc.) * 

poX-^, -^?, 17, (/SfiXXw), a throw : axrtl \Wov ^6\r]v about 
a stone's throw, as far as a stone can be cast by the hand, 
Lk. xxii. 41, (wcret ro^ov ^oXiji/, Gen. xxi. 16 ; fifXP'- ^i^ov 
K- aKovriov ^oXfjs, Thuc. 5, 65 ; e^ aKovriov /SoX^s, Xen. 
Hell. 4, 5, 15).* 

poXCtw : 1 aor. i^oKura ; (l3o\is a missile, dart ; a line 
and plummet with which mariners sound the depth of 
the sea, a sounding-lead) ; to heave the lead, take sound- 
ings : Acts xxvii. 28. (Besides only in Eustath. ; [Mid. 
intrans. to sink in water, Geopon. 6, 17].)* 

poXCs, -ibos, fj, (/SaXXto), a missile, dart, javelin : Heb. 
xii. 20 Rec. fr. Ex. xix. 13. (Neh. iv. 17; Num. xxiv. 
8; [Sap. V. 22; Ilab. iii. 11]; Plot. Demetr. 3.) * 

Bo<SL o, (i;?jl fleetness [but see B.D. Am. ed.]), Booz, 
[more commonly] Boaz, a kinsman of Ruth, afterwards 
her (second) husband, (Ruth ii. 1 sqq. ; 1 Chr. ii. 11) : 



Mt. i. 5 [Boo? L Tr, Bo/y T WH] ; Lk. iii. 32 [L T Tr 

WH Boos].* 

PopPopos, -ov, 6, dung, mire : 2 Pet. ii. 22. (Sept. ; 
Aeschyl., Arstph., Plat., sqq. ; tV ^op^opa Kv\[fa6ai, of 
the vicious, Epict. diss. 4, 11, 29.)* 

poppds, -5 [W. § 8, 1; B. 20 (18)], 6, (equiv. to 
^opeai, -f'ov), often [in Attic writ.], in Sept. for |"i£3^ ; 
1. Boreas; the north-north-east wind. 2. the north: 

Lk. xiii. 29; Rev. xxi. 13, [cf. W. 121 (115) s. v. ,xe- 
ar]p^pia]* 

Poo-KO) ; as in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down, to feed : Mk. 
V. 14; Lk. XV. 15; dpvia, npo^ara, Jn. xxi. 15, 17, (in a 
fig. disc, portraying the duty of a Christian teacher to 
promote in every way the spiritual welfare of the mem- 
bers of the church) ; 6 ^ooKutv a herdsman : Mt. viii. 33 ; 
Lk. viii. 34. In Pass, and Mid. [pres. ptcp. ^oaKopevos, 
cf. W. § 38, 2 note] of flocks or herds, to feed, graze : 
Mt. viii. 30; Mk. v. 11; Lk. viii. 32. (In Sept. for 

[S YN. p6(rK€iv, TTotpalyeiy. ir.is the wider, $. the nar- 
rower term; the former includes oversight, the latter de- 
notes nourishment ; ir. maybe rendered tend, fi. specifically 
feed. See Trench § xxv. ; Mey. on Jn. u. s. ; Schmidt ch. 200.] 

Boo-op, 6, (^i;;3 a torch, 1 lamp ; Sept. Bewp, Num. 
xxii. 5 ; xxxi. 8 ; Deut. xxiii. 4 ; by change of >' into tr, 
Bocrdp), Bosor, the father of Balaam : 2 Pet. ii. 15 [WH 
txt. Bewp].* 

PoravT], -Tjs, fj, [jSoa-Kco), an herb ft for fodder, green 
herb, growing jjfant: Ileb. vi. 7. (Ilom., Pind., Plat., 
Eur., Diod., Ael., al. Sept. for iiv% TXH, 3t^;?.. [Met- 
aph. of men, Ignat. ad Eph. 10, 3; ad Trail. 6, 1 ; ad 
Pliilad. 3, 1].)* 

PoTpws, -vos, 6, a bunch or cluster of grapes : Rev. xiv. 
18 [cf. B. 14 (13)]. (Gen. xl. 10; Num. xiii. 24 sq. 
Gi-k. writ. fr. Hom. down.) * 

PovX€VTT|s, -ov, 6, a councillor, senator, (buleuta, Plin. 
epp.) : first in Hom. 11. 6, 114; of a member of the 
Sanhedrin, Mk. xv. 43; Lk. xxiii. 50. (Job iii. 14; 
xii. 17.)* 

PovXcvo) : 1. to deliberate, take counsel, resolve, give 
counsel, (Is. xxiii. 8; [fr. Hom. down]). 2. to be a 
councillor or senator, discharge the office of a senator : 
Xen. mem. 1, 1, 18 ; Plat. Gorg. p. 473 e. ; [al.]. In the 
N. T. Mid., [pres. fiovXevopai ; impf. f^ovXfvoprjv ; fut. 
^ovXfvaopai, Lk. xiv. 31 L mrg. T WH ; 1 aor. t^ovXfvcra- 
prjv] ; 1. to deliberate ivith one's self, consider : foil. 
by (I, Lk. xiv. 31, (Xen. mem. 3, 6, 8). 2. to take 
counsel, resolve : foil, by inf.. Acts v. 33 [R G T Tr 
mrg.]; xv. 37 [Rec.]; xxvii. 39; tI, 2 Co. i. 17; folk 
by tua, Jn. xi. 53 L T Tr txt. WH ; xii. 10 [cf. W. § 38, 
3]. [CoMP. : napa- (-pai), (rvp-^ov\fv<o.'] * 

PovXVj, -iji, f], (^oiiXopai), fr. Hom. down; often in 
Sept. for n](;? ; counsel, purpose: Lk. xxiii. 51 (where 
distinguished fr. tj Trpd^is) ; Acts v. 38; xxvii. 12 (see 
ridrjpt., 1 a.), 42 ; plur. 1 Co. iv. 5 ; 17 /SowXtj tov 6fov, Acts 
xiii. 36 ; esp. of the purpose of God respecting the sal- 
vation of men through Christ : Lk. vii. 30 ; Acts ii. 23 ; 
iv. 28 ; [Heb. vi. 17] ; ndirav rrjv ^ov\r]v rov 6(ov all the 



QovXrjfia 



105 



^p€X<0 



contents of the divine plan, Acts xx. 27; ^ ^ovki] rov 
6f\r]fj.aTos avTov the counsel of his will, Eph. i. 11.* 

PovX.T]fjia, -Tos, TO, (/3ovXo/Liat)) will, counsel, purpose : 
Acts xxvii. 43; Ro. ix. 19; 1 Pet. iv. 3 (Rec. 6(\rina). 
(2 Mace. XV. 5 ; in Grk. writ. fr. Plat, down.) [Syn. 
cf. ee\a, fin.] * 

PovXofjiai, 2 pers. sing, ^ovkei Lk. xxii. 42 (Attic for 
povXn, cf. W. § 13, 2 a.; B. 42 (37)) ; impf. i^ov\6firiv 
(Attic [(cf. Veitch), yet commonly] f]l3ovX6fir]v) ; 1 aor. 
f^ov\T]0r}v (Mt. i. 19) and ^^ovX^drjv (2 Jn. 12 R G ; but 
al. e'/SovXr;^. cf. [WH. App. p. 162] ; W. § 12, 1 c. ; B. 33 
(29)) ; Sept. for n35<, ysn ; [fr. Hom. down] ; to tvill, 
wish ; and 1. commonly, to will deliberately, have a 
purpose, he minded : foU. by an inf., Mk. xv. 15 ; Acts v. 
28, 33 (L WH Tr txt. for R G T i^ovXevovro) ; xii. 4 ; xv. 
37 (L T Tr WH for R e/SovXeuo-aro) ; xviii. 27 ; xix. 30 ; 
xxii. 30; xxiii. 28; xxvii. 43; xxviii. 18 ; 2 Co. i. 15; 
Heb. vi. 17; 2 Jn. 12; 3 Jn. 10 (rovs ^ovkofievovs sc. 
enidexecrdai rovs dSeXc^ov?) ; Jude 5 ; Jas. i. 18 {^ovXrjdds 
dirfKvrjcrev fjfias of his own free will he brought us forth, 
with which will it ill accords to say, as some do, that they 
are tempted to sin by God), with an ace. of the obj. 
Toiro, 2 Co. i. 1 7 (L T Tr WH for R ^ovXevofiepos) ; foU. 
by an ace. with inf. 2 Pet. iii. 9. of the will electing or 
choosing between two or more things, answering to 
the hat. placet mihi: Mt. i. 19 (cf. evdvfieladai, 20) ; xi. 
27 [not L mrg.] ; Lk. x. 22 ; xxii. 42 ; Acts xxv. 20 ; [1 
Co. xii. 11]; Jas. iii. 4 ; iv. 4 ; foil, by the subj. /SovXeo-^e, 
ifilv dnoikvcra) ; is it your will I should release unto you "^ 
(cf. W. § 41 a. 4 b.; B. § 139, 2), Jn. xviii. 39. of the 
will prescribing, foil, by an ace. with inf.: PhU. i. 
12 (yivaxTKeiv vfias ^ovXofiai I would have you know, 
know ye) ; 1 Tim. ii. 8 ; v. 14 ; Tit. iii. 8. 2. of will- 
ing as an affection, to desire : foil, by an inf., 1 Tim. vi. 
9 (ol ^ovKo^evoi irXovTelv) ; Acts xvii. 20; xviii. 15; 
e^ovXofiTjv (on this use of the impf. see B. 217 (187) sq. ; 
[cf. W. 283 (266) ; Bp. Lghtft. on Philem. 13]), Acts 
xxv. 22 ; Philem. 13. On the difference between /3ovXo/iat 
and OeXcii, see deXa, fin.* 

Povvos, -ov, 6, a Cyrenaic word ace. to Hdt. 4, 199, 
which Eustath. [831, 33] on II. 11, 710 says was used by 
Philemon [No^. 1], a comic poet (of the 3d cent. B. c). 
It was rejected by the Atticists, but from Polyb. on [who 
(5, 22, 1 sq.) uses it interchangeably with X6(pot^ it was 
occasionally received by the later Grk. writ. (Strabo, 
Pausan., Plut., al.) ; in Sept. very often for n;73J ; (perh. 
fr. BAO to ascend [cf. Hesych. 0ovvoi- jSafMol, and /Sw/nt'Sey 
in Hdt. 2, 125 (Sclimidt ch. 99, 11)]); a hill, eminence, 
mound: Lk. iii. 5 (Is. xl. 4) ; xxiii. 30 (Hos. x. 8). Cf. 
Sturz, De dial. Maced. etc. p. 153 sq. ; Lob. ad Phryn. 
p. 355 sq. ; [^Donaldson, New Crat. § 469].* 

Povs, ^o6s, ace. sing, ^oiiv, [ace. plur. ^6as, B. 14 (13)], 
6, ^, an ox, a cow : Lk. xiii. 15 ; xiv. 5, 19 ; Jn. ii. 14 sq. ; 
1 Co. ix. 9 ; 1 Tim. v. 18. [From Hom. down.] * 

PpaPeiov, -ov, to, (^padfvs the arbiter and director of a 
contest, who awards the prize ; called also ^pa^evTTjs, 
Lat. designator), the award to the victor in the games, a 
prize, (in eccl. Lat. brabeum, brabium), (Vulg. bravium) : 



1 Co. ix. 24 ; metaph. of the heavenly reward for Chris- 
tian character, Phil. iii. 14. (Oppian, cyn. 4, 197; 
Lycophr. 1154; vtto^ov^s 0p. Clem. Rom. 1 Cor. 5, 5 
[where see Lghtft., Gebh. and Harn.] ; a^^apori'a j. Mart. 
Polyc. 1 7.) * 

PpaPcvo) ; in Grk. writ. fr. Isoc. and Dem. down ; 1. 
to be a /3pa/3euy or umpire (see ^pa^elov). 2. to decide, 
determine. 3. to direct, control, rule : Col. iii. 1 5 [where 
see Meyer ; contra, Bp. Lghtft. Comp. : Kara-^pa^evu).^ * 

PpaSvvw; (/3paSvf) ; to delay, be slow; 1. rarely 
trans, to render slow, retard : rfjv aiorrjplav, Sept. Is. xlvi. 
13 ; pass. 6Sd9, Soph. El. 1501 [cf. O. C. 1628]. Mostly 
2. intrans. to be long, to tarry, loiter, (so fr. Aeschyl. 
down) : 1 Tim. iii. 15 ; unusually, with gen. of the thing 
which one delays to effect, 2 Pet. iii. 9 rfjs tVayyeXias 
[A. V. is not slack concerning his promise^ i. e. to fulfil his 
promise ; cf. W. § 30, 6 b. (Sir. xxxii. (xxxv.) 22.)* 

PpaSvirXoeM, -S) ; (^paBvs and nXoi/s) ; to sail sloivly : pres. 
ptcp. in Acts xxvii. 7. (Artem. oneir. 4, 30.) * 

PpaSvs -eia, -i;, slow ; a. prop. : eiV ri, Jas. i. 19. b. 
metaph. dull, inactive, in mind ; stupid, slow to apprehend 
or believe, (so Hom. II. 10, 226 ; opp. to a-vveros, Polyb. 
4, 8, 7 ; TOP vovv, Dion. Hal. de Att. oratt. 7 [de Lys. 
judic] ; 8v(Tp.a6La' jBpaSvrrjs iv p.a6r](Tet, Plat, defin. p. 
415 e.) : with a dat. of respect, t^ Kapdia, Lk. xxiv. 25. 
[Syn. see dpyos, fin.] * 

PpaSvTifjs (on accent cf. Bttin. Ausf. Spr. ii. p. 417 sq. ; 
[Chandler §§ 634, 635 ; W. 52 sq. (52)]), -^ros, 17, (/3pa- 
dvs), slowness, delay : 2 Pet. iii. 9. (From Hom. down.) * 

Ppax'tov, -ovos, 6, [fr. Hom. down], the arm : the /3pa- 
xio)v of God is spoken of Hebraistically for the might, the 
power of God, Lk. i. 51 (cf. Deut. iv. 34 ; v. 15 ; xxvi. 8) ; 
Jn. xii. 38 (Is. liii. 1) ; Acts xiii. 17.* 

Ppaxvs, -eta, -v, short, small, little, (fr. Pind., Hdt., Thuc. 
down); a. of place; neut. /3pa;^v adverbially, a s/ior< 
distance, a little : Acts xxvii. 28 (2 S. xvi. 1 ; Thuc. 1, 63). 

b. of time; ^paxv n a short tiine, for a little while: Heb. 
ii. 7, 9, (where the writer transfers to time what the 
Sept. in Ps. viii. 6 says of rank); Acts v. 34 [here 
L T Tr WH om. rt] ; pera ^paxv shortly after, Lk. xxii. 58. 

c. of quantity and measure; ^paxi ti [Tr txt. WH 
om. L Tr mrg. br. rt] some little part, a little : Jn. vi. 7 
(fipax^ Ti roil fJLeXiTos, 1 S. xiv. 29 ; eXatov ^paxv, Joseph, 
antt. 9, 4, 2 ; jSpaxiraTos Xi^avaros, Philo de vict. off. 
§ 4) ; bia j3paxf(ov in few sc. words, briefly, Heb. xiii. 22 
(so [Plat., Dem., al. (cf. Bleek on Heb. 1. c.)] Joseph, 
b. j. 4, 5, 4 ; ev ^paxwarm 8t]Xoiiv to show very briefly, 
Xen. Cyr. 1, 2, 15).* 

Pp€<|>os, -ouy, TO ; a. an unborn child, embryo, foetus : 
Lk. i. 41, 44; (Hom. II. 23, 266; Plut. rep. Stoic. 41 
TO /3p. iv TTJ yacTTpi). b. a new-born child, an irjfant, a 
babe, (so fr. Pind. down) : Lk. ii. 12, 16 ; xviii. 15 ; Acts 
vii. 19; 1 Pet. ii. 2; utto ^pe4>ovs from infancy, 2 Tim. 
iii. 15 (so iK fipi(f)ovs, Anth. Pal. 9, 567).* 

Pp€X«> ; 1 aor. e^pe^a ; fr. Pind. and Hdt. down ; 1. 
to moisten, wet, water: Lk. vii. 38 (t. TrdSas duKpyai, cf. 
Ps. vi. 7), 44. 2. in later writ. (cf. Lob. ad Phryn. 
p.' 291 [W. 23]) to water with rain (Polyb. 16, 12, 3), to 



fipOPTT) 



106 



^(i)fi6<; 



cause to rain, to pour the rain, spoken of God : eVi riva, 
Mt. V. 45 ; to send down like rain : Kvpioi eySpe^e ^eioi' k. 
■nip. Gen. xix. 24 ; ^a^aCa". Ex. ix. 23 ; \fxavva, Ps. Ixxvii. 
(Ixxviii.) 24] ; impers. /3pt\ei I'i rams (cf. W. § 58, 9 b. 
/3.) : Jas. V. 1 7 ; with added ace, irvp k. 6eiov, Lk. xvii. 
2Q ; with added subject, verot, Rev. xi. 6.* 

^pov■H^, -^.9, 17, thunder: Mk. iii. 17 (on which see 
Boavepyis) ; Jn. xii. 29 ; Rev. iv. 5 ; vi. 1 ; viii. 5 ; x. 3 sq. ; 
xi. 19; xiv. 2; xvi. 18; xix. 6. [From Horn, down.]* 

ppox^, -ris, T), {^pix*^, q- v.), a later Grk. word (cf. Lob. 
ad Phryn. p. 291), a besprinkling, watering, rain: used 
of a heavy shower or violent rainstorm, Mt. vii. 25, 27 ; 
Ps. Lxvii. (Ixviii.) 10 ; civ. (cv.) 32, for Dt^;.* 

Ppoxos, -ov, 6, a noose, slip-knot, by which any person 
or thing is caught, or fastened, or suspended, (fr. Horn, 
down) : ^poxov eVi^dXXftj/ rivi to throw a noose upon one, 
a fig. expression borrowed from war [or the chase] (so 
/3p. nepi^dWeiv rivi, Philo, vit. Moys. iii. § 34 ; Joseph. 
b. j. 7, 7, 4), i. e. by craft or by force to bind one to some 
necessity, to constrain him to obey some command, 1 Co. 
vii. 35.* 

Ppvyfios, -oC, 6, (0pvxo}, q- v.), a gnashing of teeth : with 
tS)v 686vTa>v added, a phrase denoting the extreme an- 
guish and utter despair of men consigned to eternal 
condemnation, Mt. viii. 12; xiii. 42, 50 ; xxii. 13 ; xxiv, 
51 ; XXV. 30 ; Lk. xiii. 28. (In Sir. li. 3 j3pvyp6s is at^ 
tributed to beasts, which gnash the teeth as they attack 
their prey; in Prov. xix. 12 Sept. for DH: snarling, 
growling; in the sense of biting, Nic. th. 716, to be de- 
rived fr. /SpvKw to bite ; cf. Fritzsche on Sir. as above, 
p. 308.) * 

Ppvxw : [impf. e^pvxovl ; to grind, gnash, with the 
teeth : obovras tni riva, Acts vii. 54, (Job xvi. 9 ; Ps. 
xxxiv. (xxxv.) 16; xxxvi. (xxxvii.) 12 for D''.3t??3 pin 
and D'yd p'TI ; intrans. without odovras, [Hermipp. ap.] 
Plut. Pericl. 33 fin. ; [Hipp, (see L. and S.)]). Of the 
same origin as ^pvKUi (cf. Sf'^to and biKu>), to bite, cheio ; 
see Hermann on Soph. Philoct. 735 ; \_Ellendt, Lex. 

Soph. s. V. ^pVKCo].* 

Ppvw ; 1. intrans. to abound, gush forth, teem with 

juices, ([akin to ^Xvco, (pXvco ; see Lob. Techn. p. 22 sq. ; 
Curthis p. 531], cf. Germ. Brust, Bruhe) ; often so fr. 
Hom. down (B. 17, 56 tpvos avBti ^pvti). 2. more 
rarely trans, to send forth abundantly: absol. to teem, rj 
yr) ^pvei, Xen. venat. 5, 12; with an ace. of flowers, 
fruits, XdpiTfs p68a jBpvovai, Anacr. 44, 2 (37, 2) ; to send 

forth water, Jas. iii. 11.* 

Pp(0)xa, -rof, TO, (^poco i. q. 3i/3pa)(r»cca), that which is 
eaten, food ; (fr. Thuc. and Xen. down) : 1 Co. viii. 8, 
13; X. 3; Ro. xiv. 15,20; plur.: Mt. xiv. 15; Mk.vii.l9; 
Lk. iii. 11 ; ix. 13 ; 1 Co. vi. 13; 1 Tim. iv. 3; Heb. xiii. 
9 ; ^papara k. nopara meats and drinks, Heb. ix. 10 (as 
in Plat. legg. 1 1 p. 932 e. ; 6 p. 782 a. ; Critias p. 115 b. ; 
in sing. Xen. Cyr. 5, 2, 17). of the soul's aliment, i. e. 
either instruction, 1 Co. iii. 2 (as soHd food opp. to to 



yd\a), or that which delights and truly satisfies the mind, 
Jn. iv. 34.* 

Ppwo-ifioS) -ov, (/3pco(rty), eatable : Lk. xxiv. 41. (Lev. 
xix. 23 ; Ezek. xlvii. 12. Aeschyl. Prom. 479; [Antiatt. 
in Bekker, Anecd. p. 84, 25].) * 

Ppwo-is, -fws, f], {^p6a>, ^i(3pQ3<TKa}) ; 1. the act of eat- 
ing, (TertuU. esus) : ^paais k. Troo-iy, Ro. xiv. 1 7 (on 
which see ^aaikeia, 3) ; with gen. of the obj. 1 Co. viii. 
4 (Plat, de rep. 10 p. 619 c. naidoiv avTov) ; in a wider 
sense, corrosion: Mt. vi. 19 sq. 2. as almost every- 
where in Grk. writ, that which is eaten, food, aliment : 
Heb. xii. 16; fls ^poio-iv for food, 2 Co. ix. 10 (Sap. iv. 
5) ; ^paxris kuI [so WH txt. Trmrg. ; al. fj'] tto^is, Col. ii. 
16, (Horn. Od. 1, 191; Plat. legg. 6, 783 c.; Xen. mem. 
1, 3, 15; [cf. Fritzsche on Rom. iii. p. 200 note; per 
contra Mey. or EUic. on Col. 1. c.]). used of the soul's 
aliment — either that which refreshes it, Jn. iv. 32, or 
nourishes and supports it unto life eternal, Jn. vi. 27, 55.* 

ppwcTKw, unused pres. whence pf. /3e/3pa)Ka; see ^i- 

^pUXTKCO- 

PvOi^o) ; [pres. pass, ^vdi^npail ; (^v66s, q- v.) ; to 
plunge into the deep, to sink : Sucne ^vBl^eaOai aird, of 
ships (as Polyb. 2, 10, 5; 16, 3, 2; [Aristot., Diod., al.]), 
so that the;/ began to sink, Lk. v. 7; metaph. nvd fU oke- 
6pov [A. V. drown'], 1 Tim. vi. 9.* 

Pv66s, -ov, 6, the bottom (of a ditch or trench, Xen. oec. 
19, 11) ; the bottom or depth of the sea, often in Grk. writ, 
fr. Aeschyl. Prom. 432 down; the sea itself, the deep sea: 
2 Co. xi. 25, as in Ps. cvi. (cvii.) 24; so hat. profundum 
in Lucan, Phars. 2, 680 "profundi ora videns."* 

Pvpo-€vs, -fas, 6, (^vpaa a skin stripped off, a hide), a 
tanner: Acts ix. 43; x. 6, 32. (Artem. oneir. 4, 56.) 
[Cf. B.D. Am. ed. s. v. Tanner.] * 

Pv<r<rivoS) -Tj, -ov, (fj ^vaaos, q. v. ; cf. aKdvdivos, dpa- 
pdvTivos), made of fine linen ; neut. ^vacnvov sc. IpaTiov 
(W. 591 (550) ; [B. 82 (72)]), (a) fine linen (garment) : 
Rev. xviii. 12 (Rec. ^va-a-ov), 16; xix. 8, 14 [WHmrg. 
\(VKO^ii(T(nvov (for ^va-cn^ov XtyKov)]. (Gen. xii. 42; 
1 Chr. XV. 27. Aeschyl., Hdt., Eur., Diod. 1, 85 ; Plut., 
al.)* 

Pvlo-o-os, -ov, f], [ Vanicek, Fremdwbrter, s. v.], byssus, a 
species of Egyptian flax (found also in India and Achaia) 
— or linen made from it — very costly, delicate, soft, 
white, and also of a yellow color, (see respecting it 
Pollux, onomast. 1. 7 c. 17 § 75) : Lk. xvi. 19; Rev. xviii. 
12 Rec. (In Sept. generally for ^^;, also X>2, cf. 1 Chr. 
XV. 27; 2 Chr. v. 12; cf. Win. RWB. s. v. Baumwolle ; 
[BB.DD. s. vv. Byssus and Linen]. Joseph, antt. 3, 6, 
1 sq.; 3, 7, 2; "Philostr. vit. ApoU. 2, 20 [p. 71 ed. 
Olear.] ; on the flax of Achaia growing about Elis, cf. 
Pau?an. 5, 5, 2; 7, 21, 7.)* 

Pw|x6s, -ov, 6, (see ^nvi'os), an elevated place; very 
freq. in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down, a raised place on 
which to offer sacrifice, an altar : Acts xvii. 23. (Often 
in Sept. for n3fp.) * 



107 



rapl3aea 

raPPaOd l-0d Wli], ij, indecl, Gabbatha, Chald. Kn3J, 
(Hebr. 34 the back) ; hence a raised place, an elevation, 
(cf. C. F. A. Fritzsche, Ueber die Verdienste Tholucks 
u.s.w. p. 102 sq. ; Delitzsch in the Zeitschr. f. luth. Theol. 
for 1876, p. 605; [T^wn.sfAe, Neue Beitrage u.s.w. p. 560]; 
but see the somewliat Jiff, opinion of Keim, Jesu von 
Nazara, iii. 365): Jn. xix. 13, where is added the 
rather loose interpretation Xt^dorpajroi', i. e. a stone pave- 
ment, which some interpreters think was a portable 
pavement, or the square blocks such as the Roman gen- 
erals carried with them, to be laid down not only under 
their seats in general, but also under those they occupied 
in administering justice (cf. Suet. Jul. Caes. 46 and 
Casaubon ad loc). This opinion is opposed by the cir- 
cumstance that John is not accustomed to add a Greek 
interpretation except to the Hebr. names of fixed Jewish 
localities, cf . v. 2 ; ix. 7 ; xix. 1 7 ; and that this is so in 
the present case is evident from the fact that he has 
said fls Tonov, i. e. in a definite locality which had that 
name. Besides, it cannot be proved that that custom of 
the military commanders was followed also by the gov- 
ernors of provinces residing in cities. Doubtless the 
Chaldaic name was given to the spot from its shape, 
the Greek name from the nature of its pavement. 
Cf. below under \i66(TTpo>Tov, Win. RWB. s. v. Litho- 
stroton; [BB. DD. s. v. Gabbatha; Tholuck, Beitrage 
zur Spracherkl'arung u.s.w. p. 119 sqq.].* 

Fa^pi^X, 6, (Sx'^DJ, fr. I^J strong man, hero, and Sx 
God), indecl., Gabriel, one of the angel-princes or chiefs 
of the angels (Dan. viii. 16 ; ix. 21) : Lk. i. If), 26 ; see 
apxayyekos [and reff. s. v. ayyikoi, fin. ; BB.DD. s. v.].* 

■yd-y-ypaiva, -rjs, fj, (ypdco or ypalva> to gnaw, eat), a gan- 
grene, a disease by which any part of the body suffering 
from inflammation becomes so corrupted that, unless 
a remedy be seasonably applied, the evil continually 
spreads, attacks other parts, and at last eats away the 
bones: 2 Tim. ii. 17 [where cf. Ellic.]. (Medical writ, 
[cf. Wetst. ad 1. c] ; Plut. discr. am. et adulat. c. 36.) * 

rd8, 6, (IJ fortune, cf. Gen. xxx. 1 1 ; [xlix. 19 ; on the 
meaning of the word see B.D. s. v.]), indecl.. Gad, the 
seventh son of the patriarch Jacob, by Zilpah, Leah's 
maid : Rev. vii. 5.* 

PaSapi^vos, -rj, -6v, (fr. the prop, name Vabapd ; cf . the 
adj. ^AjSiXrivT], May8a\r]vrj), of Gadara, a Gadarene. Gad- 
ara was the capital of Peraea (Joseph, b. j. 4, 7, 3), 
situated opposite the southern extremity of the Lake 
of Gennesaret to the south-east, but at some distance 
from the lake on the banks of the river Hieromax (Plin. 
h. n. 5, 16), 60 stadia from the city Tiberias (Joseph, 
vita 65), inhabited chiefly by Gentiles (Joseph, antt. 17, 



'ya^o(f)v\dKtov 

11,4); cf. Win. RWB. s. v. Gadara; Riletschi in Herzog 
iv. p. 636 sq. ; Kneucker in Schenkel ii. 313 sq. ; Riehm, 
HWB. p. 454 ; [BB.DD. s. v.]. xi>pa twu TaBaprjv^v 
the country of the Gadarenes, Gcduris: Mk. v. 1 Kec. ; 
Lk. viii. 26 Roc, 37 RG[but here fj nepixcopos rau r.], 
and ia Mt. viii. 28 TTrWH; but the Mss. differ in 
these pass. ; see Tepaarjuoi and TfpyeaTjvoi.* 

•yd^a, -jyj, 17, a Persian word, adopted by the Greeks 
and Latins (Cic. off. 2, 22), the roijal treasury, treasure, 
riches, (Curt. 3, 13, 5 pecuniam regiam, quam gazam 
Persae vocant) : Acts viii. 27. ([Theophr.], Polyb., 
Diod. 17, 35 and 64; Plut., al. Sept. 2 Esdr, v. 17; 
vii. 20.) * 

rdta, -rjs [B. 17 (15)], rj, (ht;: i. e. strong, fortified, 
(cf. Vattntia) ; the V being represented by y, cf. r\^ri],'' 
Tofioppa), formerly a celebrated city of the Philistines, 
situated on a hill near the southern border of the land 
of Israel, between Raphia and Ascalon, twenty stadia 
[' at the most,' Arrian.exp. Alex. 2, 26 ; " seven," Strabo 

16, 30] from the sea and eleven geographical miles from 
Jerusalem. It was fortified and surrounded by a mas- 
sive wall. Although held by a Persian garrison, Alex- 
ander the Great captured it after a siege of two months, 
but did not destroy it ([Joseph, antt. 11, 8, 4]; Diod. 

17, 48 ; Plut. Alex. 25 ; Curt. 4, 6 sq.). Afterwards, in 
the year b. c. 96, Alexander Jannseus, king of the Jews, 
took it after a year's siege and destroyed it (Joseph, 
antt. 13, 13, 3). Gabinius rebuilt it b. c. 58 (Joseph. 
1. c. 14, 5, 3). Finally the emperor Augustus gave it 
[b. c. 30] to Herod the Great (Joseph. 1. c. 15, 7, 3), 
after whose death it was annexed to Syria (Joseph. 1. c. 
17, 11, 4). Modern Ghuzzeh [or Ghazzeh'\, an unforti- 
fied town, having an area of two English miles, with 
between fifteen and sixteen thousand inhabitants. Men- 
tioned in the N. T. in Acts viii. 26, where the words 
avTTj tarlv fpijpos refer to 17 686s ; Philip is bidden to take 
the way which is eprjpos, solitary ; cf . Meyer ad loc. ; [W. 
§ 18, 9 N. 3; B. 104 (91)]. A full history of the city 
is given by Stark, Gaza u. d. philisfaische Kuste. Jena, 
1852; a briefer account by Wm. RWB. [see also BB. 
DD.] s. V. Gaza; Arnold in Herzog iv. p. 671 sqq.* 

•Ya5o-4)vXdKtov, -ov, to, (fr. yd^a, q. v., and ^vXaKrj ; hence 
i. q. 6T](ravpo(j>vKdKtov, Hesych.), a repository of treasure, 
esp. of public treasure, a treasury : Esth. iii. 9 ; 1 Esdr. 
viii. 18, 44 ; 1 Mace. iii. 28. In Sept. used for H^J^S 
and T\2\Dl of apartments constructed in the courts of the 
temple, in which not only the sacred offerings and things 
needful for the temple service were kept, but in which 
also the priests, etc., dwelt : Neh. xiii. 7 ; x. 37 sqq. ; of 
the sacred treasury, in wliich not only treasure but also 



Tdio<; 



108 



yafjieco 



the public records (1 Mace. xiv. 49 ; cf. Grimm ad loc.) 
were stored, and the property of widows and orphans was 
deposited (2 Mace. iii. 10; cf. Grimm ad loc.) : 1 Mace, 
xiv. 49 ; 2 ]\Iacc. iii. 6, 28, 40 ; iv. 42 ; v. 18. Josephus 
speaks of both ya^ocpvXaKia (plur.) in the women's court 
of Herod's temple, b. j. 5, 5, 2; 6, 5, 2 ; and to ya^o(p., 
antt. 19, 6, 1. In the N. T., in Mk. xii. 41, 43 ; Lk. xxi. 
1 ; Jn. viii. 20 (sV ra ya(o(fi. at, near, the treasury [yet 
cf. W. § 48, a. 1 c.]), TO ya(. seems to be used of that re- 
ceptacle mentioned by the Rabbins to which were fitted 
thirteen chests or boxes, nnpl^ i. e. trumpets, so called 
from their shape, and into which were put the contribu- 
tions made voluntarily or paid yearly by the Jews for 
the service of the temple and the support of the poor ; 
cf. Light/oof, Horae Hebr. et Talm. p. 536 sq. ; Llicke 
[Tholuck, or Godet] on Jn. viii. 20 ; [B.D. Am. ed. s. v. 
Treasury]. (Strabo 2 p. 319 [i. e. 7, 6, 1].)* 

rdios [WH Taios (cf. I, t)], -ov, 6, Gains or Caius; the 
name of a Christian 1. of Derbe : Acts xx. 4. 2. of 
Macedonia : Acts xix. 29. 3. of Corinth, Paul's host 
during his [second] sojourn there : Ro. xvi. 23 ; 1 Co. i. 
14. 4. of an unknown Christian, to whom the third 
Ep. of John was addressed : 3 Jn. vs. 1. [B.D. Am. ed. 
s. V. Gains ; Farrar, Early Days of Christianity, ii. 506.] * 

■ydXa, -\aKTos [cf. Lat. lac; Curtius § 123], to, [from 
Horn, down], milk : 1 Co. ix. 7. Metaph. of the less 
difficult truths of the Christian religion, 1 Co. iii. 2 ; Heb. 
v. 12 sq. (Quintil. 2, 4, 5 " doctoribus hoc esse curae 
velim, ut teneras adhuc mentes more nutricum mollius 
alant et satiari velut quodam jucundioris disciplinae 
lacte patiantur," [cf. Siegfried, Philo von Alex. p. 329, 
cf. p. 261]) ; of the word of God, by which souls newly 
regenerate are healthfully nourished unto growth in the 
Christian life, 1 Pet. ii. 2.* 

raXdi-rjs, -ov, 6, a Galatian, (see VakaTia) : Gal. iii. 1. 
(1 Mace. viii. 2 ; 2 Mace. viii. 20.) * 

TaXaTia, -as, f], Galatia, Gallograecia, a region of Asia 
Minor, bounded by Paphlagonia, Pontus, Cappadocia, 
Lycaonia, Phrygia, and Bithynia. It took its name from 
those Gallic tribes that crossed into Asia Minor B. c. 278, 
and after roaming about there for a time at length set- 
tled down permanently in the above-mentioned region, 
and intermarried with the Greeks. From B.C. 189 on, 
though subject to the Romans, they were governed by 
their own chiefs ; but B. c. 24 [al. 25] their country was 
formally reduced to a Roman province, (cf. Liv. 37, 8; 
38, 16 and 18; Joseph, antt. 16,6; Strabo 12, 5, 1 p. 567; 
Flor. 2, 11 [i. e. 1, 27]) : Gal. i. 2 ; 1 Co. xvi. 1 ; 2 Tim. 
iv. 10 [T Tr mrg. TaXK'iav'] ; 1 Pet. i. 1. Cf. Grimm, Ueb. 
d. (keltische) Nationalitiit der kleinasiat. Galater, in 
the Stud. u. Krit. for 1876, p. 199 sqq. ; replied to by K. 
Wieseler, Die deutsche Nationalitat d. kleinas. Galater. 
Giitersl. 1877 ; [but see Ilertzberg in the Stud. u. Krit. 
for 1878, pp. 525-541 ; Bp. Lghtft. in his Com. on Gal., 
Dissertation i. also Intr. § 1].* 

raXaTiK6s, -fi, -6v, Galatian, belonging to Galatia : Acts 
xvi. 6 ; xviii. 23.* 

■yoX'^ivii, -Tjs, r], (adj. 6, ij, ydkrivos calm, cheerful), calm- 



ness, stillness of the sea, a calm : Mt. viii. 26 ; Mk. iv. 39 ; 
Lk. viii. 24. (From Horn, down.) * 

roXiXaia,-as, 17, Galilee, (fr. nVSjn, 2 K. xv. 29 ; S'Sjn, 
Josh. XX. 7 ; xxi. 32 ; S'Sj ]nK, 1 K. ix. 11, i. e. the circle 
or circuit, by which name even before the exile a cer- 
tain district of northern Palestine was designated ; Sept. 
TdXikaia) ; the name of a region of northern Palestine, 
bounded on the north by Syria, on the west by Sidon, 
Tyre, Ptolemais and their territories and the promontory 
of Carmel, on the south by Samaria and on the east by 
the Jordan. It was divided into Upper Galilee (extend- 
ing from the borders of Tyre and Sidon to the sources of 
the Jordan), and Loioer Galilee (which, lower and more 
level, embraced the lands of the tribes of Issachar and 
Zebulun and the part of Naphtali bordering on the Sea of 
Galilee) : ^ avo) koi tj kuto) TaKiKaia (Joseph, b. j. 3, 3, 1, 
where its boundaries are given). It was a very fertile 
region, populous, having 204 towns and villages (Joseph. 
vit. 45), and inasmuch as it had, esp. in the upper part, 
many Gentiles among its inhabitants (Judg. i. 30-33 ; 
Strabo 16, 34 p. 760), it was called, Mt. iv. 15, TakiKaia 
T(ov edvmv (Is. viii. 23 (ix. 1)), and, 1 Mace. v. 15, TaXiXaia 
dX\ocl)vX(ov. Often mentioned in the Gospels, and three 
times in the Acts, viz. ix. 31 ; x. 37 ; xiii. 31. [Cf. Aler- 
rill, Galilee in the Time of Christ, Boston 1881.] 

FoXiXaios, -aia, -aiov, Galilcean, a native of Galilee : Mt. 
xxvi. 69 ; Mk. xiv. 70 ; Lk. xiii. 1 sq. ; xxii. 59 ; xxiii. 6 ; 
Jn. iv. 45 ; Acts i. 11 ; ii. 7 ; v. 37.* 

TaXKia, -as, 17, Gallia: 2 Tim. iv. 10 T Tr mrg., by 
which is to be understood Galatia in Asia Minor or TaX- 
Xia Tj icaa, App. b. civ. 2, 49. [See esp. Bp. Lghtft. Com. 
on Gal pp. 3, 31 (Am. ed. pp. 11, 37).]* 

roXXiwv, -wi/oj, 6, Gallio, proconsul of Achaia, elder 
brother of L. Annaeus Seneca the philosopher. His 
original name was Marcus Annaeus Novatus, but after 
his adoption into the family of Junius Gallio the rheto- 
rician, he was called Gallio : Acts xviii. 12, 14, 1 7. [Cf. 
B.D. Am. ed. ; Farrar, St. Paul, i. 566 sq.]* 

FaixoXi^X, 6, ('7X''Spj recompense of God [God the 
avenger, Fiirst] ; Num. i. 10 ; ii. 20), indecl., Gamaliel 
(distinguished by the Jews from his grandson of the 
same name by the title tPTH, the elder), a Pharisee and 
doctor of the law, son of R. Simeon, grandson of Ilillel, 
and teacher of the apostle Paul. lie is said to have had 
very great influence in the Sanhedrin, and to have died 
eighteen years before the destruction of Jerusalem. A 
man of permanent renown among the Jews : Acts v. 34 ; 
xxii. 3. Cf. Grdtz, Gesch. d. Juden, iii. p. 289 sqq.; 
Schenkel, BL. ii. p. 328 sqq. ; [esp. Alex.'s Kitto s. v. 
Gamaliel I. (cf. Farrar, St. Paul, i. 44 and exc. v.)].* 

■yafXEO), -Sd; impf. iyafiovv (Lk. xvii. 27) ; 1 aor. eyjy/ia 
(the classic form, [Mt. xxii. 25 L T Tr WH] ; Lk. xiv. 
20 ; 1 Co. vii. 28' R G, 28'') and iyafxriaa (the later form, 
Mt. v. 32 ; [xxii. 25 R G] ; Mk. vi. 17 ; x. 11 ; 1 Co. vii. 
9, [28» L T Tr WH], 33) ; pf. yeyifijjKa ; 1 aor. pass. 
(ya^^erjv; (cf. W. 84 (80) ; B. 55 (48) ; Bltrn. Ausf. Spr. 
ii. 134 ; Lob. ad Phryn. p. 742; [Veitch s. v.]); 1. 
used of the man, as in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down, to lead 



I 



yafjil^co 



109 



yap 



in marriage, take to wife ; a. with the addition of yvvalKa 
or other ace. : Mt. v. 32 [here WH br. the cL] ; xix. 9 ; 
Mk. vi. 17 ; X. 11 ; Lk. xiv. 20 ; xvi. 18. b. without a 
case, absol. to get married, to marry, [of. B. 145 (127)]: 
Mt. xix. 10 ; xxii. 25, 30 ; xxiv. 38 ; Mk. xii. 25 ; Lk. xvii. 
27 ; XX. 34 sq. ; 1 Co. vii. 28, 33 ; (Ael. v. h. 4, 1 ; ot yeya- 
firjKores, Xen. Cyr. 1, 2, 4; opp. to ayafioi, Xen. symp. 
9, 7). Pass, and Mid. yafieofiai Ttft, of women [Lat. nu- 
bere alicui, cf. B. § 133, 8], to give one's self in marriage 
[W. § 38, 3] : 1 aor. pass., Mk. x, 12 (where L T Tr WH 
yafif)(Tr) aXXov for R G yafir]6f) aWa) ; 1 Co. vii. 39. 2. 

contrary to Grk. usage, the Act. yafie'iv is used of women, 
to give one's self in marriage ; and a. with the ace. : 
Mk. X. 12 L T Tr WH (see above) ; b. absoh : 1 Co. 
vii. 28, 34 {fj ya^rjo-aa-a, opp. to rj aya^os) ; 1 Tim. v. 11, 
14. 3. absol. of both sexes : 1 Tim. iv. 3 ; 1 Co. vii. 
9 sq. 36 (yafifiraarav, sc. the virgin and he who seeks her 
to wife). In the O. T. ya^ielv occurs only in 2 Mace, 
xiv. 25.* 

'ya^JLC^u ; [Pass., pres. yafil^onai ; impf . e'ya/xt^d/xj/i/] ; 
(ya/io?) ; to give a daughter in marriage : 1 Co. vii. 38* 
[L T Tr WH, 38''] G L T Tr WH ; Pass. : Mt. xxii. 30 
L T Tr WH ; [xxiv. 38 T AVH] ; Mk. xii. 25 ; Lk. xvii. 
27 ; XX. 35 [WH mrg. yafilaKovrai]. (The word is men- 
tioned in ApoU. de constr. 3, 31 p. 280, 10 ed. Bekk.) 
[COMP. : iK-yani(a>.'] * 

■yaixCo-Kw, i. q. yaixi^io, q. v. [Mt. xxiv. 38 Lchm.] ; Pass. 
[pres. ya/Liio-Ko/xat] ; Mk. xii. 25 R G ; Lk. xx. 34 L T Tr 
WH, [35 WH mrg. ; cf. W. 92 (88) ; and Tdf.'s note 
on Mt. xxii. 30]. (Aristot. pol. 7, 14, 4 etc.) [Comp. : 
€K-yafxiaK(o.~\ * 

■yd|i,os, -ov, 6, [prob. fr. r. gam to bind, unite ; Curtius 
p. 546 sq.], as in Grk. writ. fr. Horn, down ; 1. a wed- 
ding or marriage-festival : Jn. ii. 1 sq. ; Rev. xix. 7 (un- 
der the figure of a marriage here is represented the inti- 
mate and everlasting union of Christ, at his return from 
heaven, with his church) ; to bemvov roO ya^iov, ibid. 9 (a 
symbol of the future blessings of the Messiah's kingdom) ; 
esp. a wedding-banquet, a marriage-feast : Mt. xxii. 8, 10 
[here T WH Tr mrg. vvficjxav], 11, 12; plur. (referring 
apparently to the several acts of feasting), Mt. xxii. 2 
sqq. 9 ; xxv. 10 ; Lk. xii. 36 ; xiv. 8, (cf. W. § 27, 3 ; B. 
23 (21)). 2. marriage, matrimony: Heb. xiii. 4.* 

■yctp, a conjunction, which ace. to its composition, ye 
and cipa (i. q. ap), is properly a particle of affirma- 
tion and conclusion, denoting truly therefore, verily 
as the case stands, " the thing is first affirmed by the par- 
ticle ye, and then is referred to what precedes by the 
force of the particle apa" (Klotz ad Devar. ii. 1, p. 
232; cf. Kuhner ii. p. 724 ; [Jelf § 786 ; W. 445 (415) 
sq.]). Now since by a new affirmation not infrequently 
the reason and nature of something previously men- 
tioned are set forth, it comes to pass that, by the use 
of this particle, either the reason and cause of a forego- 
ing statement is added, whence arises the causal or 
argumentative force of the particle, /b?- (Lat. nam, 
enim ; Germ, denn) ; or some previous declaration is ex- 
plained, whence yap takes on an explicative force: 



for, the fact is, namely (Lat. videlicet, Germ. ndmlicK). 
Thus the force of the particle is either conclusive, 
or demonstrative, or explicative and declara- 
tory ; cf. Host in Passow's Lex. i. p. 535 sq(j. ; Kiihner 
ii. pp. 724 S(jq. 852 scjcj. ; [cf. L. and S. s. v.]. The use 
of the particle in the N. T. does not differ from that in 
the classics. 

I. Its primary and original Conclusive force is 
seen in questions (in Grk. writ, also in exclamations) and 
answers expressed with emotion ; where, ace. to the con- 
nexion, it may be freely represented by assuredly, verily, 
forsooth, wliy, then, etc. : iv yap rovra etc. ye profess not 
to know whence he is ; herein then is assuredly a mar- 
vellous thing, why, herein etc. Jn. ix. 30; ov yap, dXX^ 
etc. by no means in this state of things, nay verily, but 
etc. Acts xvi. 37 ; certainly, if that is the case, 1 Co. viii. 
11 L T Tr WH. It is joined to interrogative particles 
and pronouns: /li^ yap etc. Jn. vii. 41 (do ye then sup- 
pose that the Christ comes out of Galilee ? What, doth 
the Christ, etc.?) ; ^^ yap . . . ovk, 1 Co. xi. 22 {what! 
since ye are so eager to eat and drink, have ye not, etc. ?) ; 
ris yap, Ti yap : Mt. xxvii. 23 (ri yap kukov enoiT](Tev, ye 
demand that he be crucified like a malefactor. Why, what 
evil hath he done ?) ; Mt. ix. 5 (your thoughts are evil ; 
which then do ye suppose to be the easier, etc. ?) ; I\It. xvi. 
26 ; xxiii. 17, 19 ; Lk. ix. 25 ; Acts xix. 35 ; tL yap ; for ri 
yap i<TTi, tvhat then ? i. e. what, under these circumstances, 
ought to be the conclusion ? Phil. i. 18 [cf. Ellic. ad loc] ; 
77W? yap, Acts viii. 31 ; cf. Klotz 1. c. p. 245 sqq. ; Kiihner 
ii. p. 726 ; [Jelf ii. p. 608] ; W. 447 (416). Here belongs 
also the vexed passage Lk. xviii. 14 ^ yap e'/ceii/oy (so G T 
Tr mrg., but L WH Tr txt. rrap eKfivov) or do ye sup- 
pose then that that man went down approved of God ? 
cf. W. 241 (226). 

II. It adduces the Cause or gives the Reason of 
a preceding statement or opinion ; 1. univ. : Mt. ii. 

5 ; vi. 24 ; Mk. i. 22 ; ix. 6 ; Lk. i. 15, 18 ; xxi. 4 ; Jn. ii. 
25 ; Acts ii. 25 ; Ro. i. 9, 1 1 ; 1 Co. xi. 5 ; Heb. ii. 8 ; 1 Jn. 
ii. 19; Rev. i. 3, and very often. In Jn. iv. 44 yap 
assigns the reason why now at length Jesus betook him- 
seK into Galilee ; for the authority denied to a prophet 
in his own country (Galilee), he had previously to seek 
and obtain among strangers ; cf. 45 ; Meyer [yet see ed. 

6 (Weiss)] ad loc. ; Strauss, Leben Jesu, i. 725 ed. 3 ; 
Neander, Leben Jesu, p. 385 sq. ed. 1 [Am. trans, pp. 
100, 168] ; Eioald, Jahrbb. d. bibl. Wissensch. x. p. 108 
sqq. 2. Often the sentences are connected in such a 
way that either some particular statement is established 
by a general proposition (' the particular by the uni- 
versal'), as in Mt. vii. 8 ; xiii. 12; xxii. 14 ; Mk. iv. 22, 
25 ; Jn. iii. 20 ; 1 Co. xii. 12 ; Heb. v. 13, etc. ; or what 
has been stated generally, is proved to be correctly 
stated by a particular instance (* the universal by the 
particular ') : Mk. vii. 10 ; Lk. xii. 52, 58 ; Ro. vii. 2 ; 1 
Co. i. 26 ; xii. 8. 3. To sentences in which some- 
thing is commanded or forbidden, yap annexes the rear 
son why the thing must either be done or avoided : Mt. 
i. 20 sq. ; ii. 20 ; iii. 9 ; vii. 2 ; Ro. xiii. 1 1 ; Col. iii. 3 ; 



yap 



110 



76 



1 Th. iv. 3 ; Heb. ii. 2, and very often. In Phil. ii. 13 
yap connects the verse with vs. 12 thus : work out your 
salvation with most intense earnestness, for nothing 
short of this accords with God's saving efficiency within 
your souls, to whom you owe both the good desire and 
the power to execute that desire. 4. To questions, 
yap annexes the reason why the question is asked : Mt. 
ii. 2 (we ask this with good reason, for we have seen 
the star which announces his birth) ; Mt. xxii. 28 ; Ro. 
xiv. 10; 1 Co. xiv. 9; Gal. i. 10. 5. Frequently the 
statement which contains the cause is interrogative ; ris, 
Tt yap : Lk. xxii. 27 ; Ro. iv. 3 ; xi. 34 ; 1 Co. ii. 16 ; vii. 
16 ; lleb. i. 5 ; xii. 7 ; ri yap for ri yap eWi, Ro. iii. 3 (cf. 
Fritzsche ad loc. ; [ElUc. on Pliil. i. IS]) ; ha ri yap, 1 
Co. x. 29 ; noia yap, Jas. iv. 14 [WH txt. om. Tr br. yap}. 
6. Sometimes in answers it is so used to make good the 
substance of a preceding question that it can be ren- 
dered yea, assuredly: 1 Co. ix. 10; 1 Th. ii. 20; cf. 
Kiihner ii. p. 724. 7. Sometimes it confirms, not a sin- 
gle statement, but the point of an entire discussion : Ro. 
ii. 25 (it is no advantage to a wicked Jew, for etc.). On 
the other hand, it may so confirm but a single thought 
as to involve the force of asseveration and be rendered 
assuredly, yea : Ro. xv. 27 (^evdoKrja-av yap); so also Ka\ 
yap, Phil. ii. 27. 8. It is of ten said that the sentence 
of which yap introduces the cause, or renders the reason, 
is note X pressed, but must be gathered from the con- 
text and supplied in thought. But that this ellipsis 
is wholly imaginary is clearly shown by Klotz ad Devar. 
ii. 1 p. 236 sq., cf. W. 446 (415) sq. The particle is 
everywhere used in reference to something expressly 
stated. Suffice it to append a very few examples ; the 
true nature of many others is shown under the remain- 
ing heads of this article : In Mt. v. 1 2 before yap some 
supply ' nor does tliis happen to you alone ' ; but the rea- 
son is added why a great reward in heaven is reserved 
for those who suffer persecution, which reason consists 
in this, that the prophets also suffered persecution, and 
that their reward is great no one can doubt. In Ro. viii. 
18 some have supplied 'do not shrink from this suffer- 
ing with Christ ' ; but on the use of yap here, see III. a. 
below. On Mk. vii. 28 [T Tr WH om. L br. yap}, 
where before Ka\ yap some supply ' but help me,' or ' yet 
we do not suffer even the dogs to perish with hunger,' 
see 10 b. below. In Acts ix. 11 before yap many supply 
' he will listen to thee ' ; but it introduces the reason for 
the preceding command. 9. When in successive state- 
ments yap is repeated twice or thrice, or even four or five 
times, either a. one and the same thought is confirmed 
by as many arguments, each having its own force, as there 
are repetitions of the particle [Mey. denies the coordi- 
nate use of yap in the N. T., asserting that the first is 
argumentative, the second explicative, see his Comm. 
on the pass, to follow, also on Ro. viii. 6] : Mt. vi. 32 ; Ro. 
xvi. 18 sq. ; or b. every succeeding statement contains 
the reason for its immediate predecessor, so that the state- 
ments are subordinate one to another : Mk. vi. 52 ; Mt. 
xvi. 25-27 ; Jn. iii. 19 sq. ; v. 21 sq. ; Acts ii. 15 ; Ro. iv. 



13-15 ; viii. 2 sq. 5 sq. ; 1 Co. iii. 3 sq. ; ix. 15-17 (where 
five times in GL T Tr WH) ; 1 Co. xvi. 7 ; Jas. ii. 10, 
etc. ; or c. it is repeated in a different sense : Mk. ix. 
39-41 ; Ro. V. 6 sq. (where cf. W. 453 (422)); x. 2-5 
(four times) ; Jas. iv. 14 [WH txt. om. Tr br. the first yap, 
L WH mrg. om. the second]. 10. Ka\ yap (on which cf. 
Kuhner ii. p. 854 sq. ; W. 448 (417) ; [Ellic. on 2 Thess. 
iii. 10]) is a. for, and truly, {etenim, namque, [the sim- 
ple rendering for is regarded as inexact by many ; cf. 
Mey. on 2 Co. xiii. 4 and see Hartung, Partikeln, i.l37 sq. ; 
Kruger § 69, 32, 21]) : Mk. xiv. 70; Lk. xxii. 37 [L Tr 
br. yap] ; 1 Co. v. 7 ; xi. 9 ; xii. 13. b. for also, for even, 
{nam etiam) : Mt. viii. 9 ; Mk. x. 45 ; Lk. vi. 32 ; Jn. iv. 
45 ; 1 Co. xii. 14, etc. In Mk. vii. 28 /cat yap [R G L br.] 
TO. Kvvapia etc. the woman, by adducing an example, con- 
firms what Christ had said, but the example is of such a 
sort as also to prove that her request ought to be granted. 
re yap for indeed (Germ, denn Ja) : Ro. vii. 7 ; cf. Fritz- 
sche ad loc; W. 448 (417). l8ov yap, see under l8ov. 

III. It serves to explain, make clear, illus- 
trate, a preceding thought or word: for i. q. that is, 
namely ; a. so that it begins an exposition of the 
thing just announced [cf. W. 454 (423) sq.] : Mt. i. 18 
[R G] ; xix. 12 ; Lk. xi. 30 ; xviii. 32. In Ro. viii. 18 yap 
introduces a statement setting forth the nature of the 
a-vvbo^aadrjvai just mentioned. b. so that the explana- 
tion is intercalated into the discourse, or even added by 
way of appendix : Mt. iv. 18 ; Mk. i. 16 ; ii. 15 ; v. 42 ; 
Ro. vii. 1 ; 1 Co. xvi. 5. In Mk. xvi. 4 the information 
^v yap peyas ac})68pa is added to throw light on all that 
has been previously said (in vs. 3 sq.) about the stone. 

IV. As respects Position: yap never occupies the 
first place in a sentence, but the second, or third, or even 
the fourth (6 tov 6fov yap vios, 2 Co. i. 19 — ace. to true 
text). Moreover, "not the number but the nature 
of the word after which it stands is the point to be no- 
ticed," Hermann on Soph. Phil. 1437. 

■yoo-Titip, -p6s (poet, -tpoi), t], in Grk. auth. fr. Hom. 
down; in Sept. for |t03; 1. the belly; by meton. of 
the whole for a part, 2. Lat. uterus, the womb : iv ya- 
oT-pi f'xdv to be ivith child [see ex<o, I. 1 b.] : Mt. i. 18, 23 ; 
xxiv. 19 ; Mk. xiii. 17 ; Lk. xxi. 23 ; 1 Th. v. 3 ; Rev. xii. 
2 ; (in Sept. for HTH, Gen. xvi. 4 sq. ; xxxviii. 25; Is. 
vii. 14, etc. ; Hdt. 3, 32 and vit. Hom. 2; Artem. oneir. 
2, 18 p. 105; 3, 32 p. 177; Pausan., Hdian., al.) ; arvX- 
Xap^aveadai iv yaarpi to conceive, become pregnant, Lk. 
i. 31. 3. the stomach ; by synecdoche a glutton, gor- 
mandizer, a man who is as it were all stomach, Hes. theog. 
26 (so also yao-rpif, Arstph. av. 1604 ; Ael. v. h. 1, 28 ; and 
Lat. venter in Lucil. sat. 2, 24 ed. Gerl. ' vivite ventres ') : 
yaa-Ttpfs dpyal, Tit. i. 1 2 ; see apydj, b.* 

■yt, an enclitic particle, answering exactly to no one 
word in Lat. or Eng.; used by the bibl. writ, much more 
rarely than by Grk. writ. How the Greeks use it, is 
shown by (among others) Hermann ad Vig. p. 822 sqq. : 
Klotz ad Devar. ii. 1 p. 272 sqq.; Rost in Passow's Lex. 
i. p. 538 sqq. ; [L. and S. s. v. ; T. S. Evans in Journ. 
of class, and sacr. Philol. for 1857, p. 187 sqq.J. It indi- 



7^ 



111 



Tedaiifiavrj 



cates that the meaning of the word to which it belongs 
has especial prominence, and therefore that that word 
is to be distinguished from the rest of the sentence and 
uttered with greater emphasis. This distinction " can 
be made in two ways, by mentioning either the least 
important or the most; thus it hapjjens that ye seems 
to have contrary significations : at least and even " (Her- 
mann 1. c. p. 822). 1. where what is least is indi- 
cated ; indeed, h'uli/, at least : 8ia ye ttju dvaideiav, Lk. xi. 
8 (where, since the force of the statement lies in the 
substantive not in the preposition, the Greek should have 
read 8ia ttjv ye dvaid., cf. Klotz 1. c. p. 327 ; Rost 1. c. p. 
542 ; [L. and S. s. v. IV.]); 6ta ye to ivape)(eLv fioi kottov, at 
least for this reason, that she troubleth me [A. V. yet 
because etc.], Lk. xviii. 5 (better Greek 8ia to ye etc.). 
2. where what is most or greatest is indicated; even : 
Off ye the very one who etc., precisely he ivJio etc. (Germ. 
der es ja ist, welcher etc.), Ro. viii. 32 ; cf. Klotz 1. c. p. 
305; Matthiae, Lex. Euripid. i. p. 613 sq. 3. joined 
to other particles it strengthens their force ; a. aX\d ye 
[so most edd.] or dWdye [Grsb.] (cf. W. § 5, 2) : Lk. 
xxiv. 21 ; 1 Co. ix. 2 ; see dWd, I. 10. b. apa ye or apaye, 
see Spa, i. apdye, seedpa,!. c. eiyt [so G T, but L Tr 
WH el yex cf. W. u. s. ; Lips. Gram. Unters. p. 123], 
foil, by the indie, if indeed, seeing that, " of a thing be- 
lieved to be correctly assumed" {Herm. ad Vig. p. 831 ; 
cf. Fritzsche, Praeliminarien u.s.w. p. 67 sqq. ; Anger, 
Laodicenerbrief, p. 46 ; [W. 448 (41 7 sq.). Others hold 
that Hermann's statement does not apply to the N. T. 
instances. Ace. to Meyer (see notes on 2 Co. v. 3 ; Eph. 
iii. 2 ; Gal. iii. 4) the certainty of the assumption resides 
not in the particle but in the context ; so EUicott (on Gal. 

1. c, Eph. 1. c.) ; cf . Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. 1. c. ; Col. i. 23. Her- 
mann's canon, though assented to by Bornemann (Cyrop. 

2, 2, 3 p. 132), Stallbaum (Meno p. 36), al., is qualified 
by Bdumlein (Partikeln, p. 64 sq.), who holds that ye 
often has no other effect than to emphasize the condition 
expressed by ei ; cf. also Winer ed. Moulton p. 561]), if, 
that is to say ; on the assumption that, (see e'lirep s. v. el, HI. 
13) : Eph. iii. 2 ; iv. 21 ; Col. i. 23 ; with Kal added, if 
that also, if it be indeed, (Germ, tcenn denn auch) : e'lye 
[L Tr WH mrg. e'l Trfp] Kal evdva-dpevot, ov yvp.vol evpeO- 
if indeed we shall be found actually clothed (with a new 
body), not naked, 2 Co. v. 3 (cf. Meyer ad loc.) ; e'Lye Ka\ 
eiKTi sc. To<TavTa errddeTe, if indeed, as I believe, ye have 
experienced such benefits m vain, and have not already 
received harm from your inclination to Judaism, Gal. iii. 
4 [yet cf. Mey., Ellic, Bp. Lghtft., al. ad loc.]. d. el 8e 
fifiye [or « 8e fifj ye Lehm. Treg.] (also in Plat., Arstph., 
Plut., al. ; cf. Bornemann, Scholia ad Luc. p. 95 ; Klotz ad 
Devar. ii. 2 p. 527), stronger than el 8e firj [B. 393 (336 
sq.) ; cf. W. 583 (543) ; 605 (563) ; Mey. on 2 Cor. xi. 16], 
a. after affirmative sentences, but unless perchance, but 
if not : Mt. vi. 1 ; Lk. x. 6 ; xiii. 9. p. after negative sen- 
tences, otherwise, else, in the contrary event : Mt. ix. 1 7 ; 
Lk. v. 36 sq. ; xiv. 32 ; 2 Co. xi. 16. e. Kalye [so GT, 
but L Tr WH Kal ye ; cf. reff. under eXye above], (cf. 
Klotz ad Devar. ii. 1 p. 319 ; [W. 438 (408)]), a. and at 



least : Lk. xix. 42 [Tr txt. WH om. L Tr mrg. br.]. p. 
and truly, yea indeed, yea and : Acts ii. 18; xvii. 27 L T 
Tr WH. f. KaiToiye [so G T WH, but L xaiVoi ye, Tr 
Kai Toi ye ; cf. reff. under e. above. Cf . Klotz ad Devar. 
ii. 2 p. 654 ; W. 444 (413)], although indeed, and yet 
indeed: Jn. iv. 2; also in Acts xiv. 17 [R G] ; xvii. 27 
Rec. g. p.evovvye see in its place, h. fiTjTiye, see /zijrt, 
[and in its place].* 

TeS^wv, 6, indecl. [in the Bible (cf. B. p. 15 (14)), and 
in Suidas (e. g. 1 737 a.) ; but] in Joseph, antt. 5, 6, [3 and] 
4 Tedeav, -mvos, (pi^lJ Cutting off, [al. tree-feller i. e. 
mighty warrior], fr. p-[:), Gideon, a leader of the Israel- 
ites, who delivered them from the power of the Midianites 
(Judg. vi.-viii.) : Heb. xi. 32 [where A. V. unfortunately 
follows the Grk. spelling Gedeon'].* 

■ye'evva [al. would accent yeevva, deriving it through the 
Chaldee. In Mk. ix. 45 Rec.^' yeeva'], -t]s [B. 17 (15)], 
f), (fr. Din •'J, Neh. xi. 30 ; more fully D-in-j3 K'J, Josh. 
XV. 8 ; xviii. 16 ; 2 Chr. xxviii. 3 ; Jer. vii. 32 ; DJn-\J3 'J 
2 K. xxiii. 10 K'thibh; Chald. DJ m, the valley oif the 
son of lamentation, or of the sons of lamentation, the 
valley of lamentation, DJH being used for DPI J lamenta- 
tion ; see Hiller, Onomasticum ; cf. Hitzig [and Graf] on 
Jer. vii. 31 ; [Bottcher, De Inferis, i. p. 82 sqq.] ; ace. to 
the com. opinion Din is the name of a man), Gehenna, 
the name of a valley on the S. and E. of Jerusalem [yet 
apparently beginning on the W., cf. Josh. xv. 8 ; Pressel 
in Herzog s. v.], which was so called from the cries of 
the little children who were thrown into the fiery arms 
of Moloch [q. v.], i. e. of an idol having the form of a 
bull. The Jews so abhorred the place after these horri- 
ble sacrifices had been abolished by king Josiah (2 K. 
xxiii. 10), that they cast into it not only all manner of 
refuse, but even the dead bodies of animals and of un- 
buried criminals who had been executed. And since 
fires were always needed to consume the dead bodies, 
that the air might not become tainted by their putrefac- 
tion, it came to pass that the place was called yeewa tov 
nvpos [this common explanation of the descriptive gen. 
tov TTvpos is found in Rabbi David Kimchi (fl. c. A. d. 
1200) on Ps. xxvii. 13. Some suppose the gen. to refer 
not to purifying fires but to the fires of Molech ; others 
regard it as the natural symbol of penalty (cf. Lev. x. 2 ; 
Niun. xvi. 35 ; 2' K. i. ; Ps. xi. 6 ; also Mt. iii. 11 ; xiii. 42 ; 
2 Th. i. 8, etc.). See Bottcher, u. s. p. 84 ; Mey., (Thol.,) 
Wetst. on Mt. v. 22] ; and then this name was transferred 
to that place in Hades where the wicked after death wiU 
suffer punishment : Mt. v. 22, 29 sq. ; x. 28; Lk. xii. 5 ; 
Mk. ix. 43, 45 ; Jas. iii. 6 ; yeevva tov irvpos, Mt. v. 22; 
xviii. 9 ; Mk. ix. 47 [R G Tr mrg. br.] ; Kpiais ttjs yeevvrfs, 
Mt. xxiii. 33 ; vlbs ttjs yeevmjs, worthy of punishment ia 
Gehenna, Mt. xxiii. 15. Further, cf. Dillmann, Buch 
Henoch, 27, 1 sq. p. 131 sq. ; [B. D. Am. ed. ; Bottcher, 
u. s. p. 80 sqq. ; Hamburger, Real-Encycl., Abth. i. s. v. 
Hdlle ; Bartlett, Life and Death eternal, App. H.].* 

rt0<rTi|ioVT), or Te6(rqp.avei (T WH), or TeOarifmvti (L 
Tr) ; [on the accent in codd. see Tdf. Proleg. p. 103 ; W. 
§6, 1 m. ; indecl. B. 15 (14)], (fr. nj press, and NJDB' dl), 



yeiTcap 



112 



7ei/eTij 



Gethsemane, the name of a ' place ' (xapiov ^an enclosure 
or landed property^) at the foot of the Mount of Olives, 
beyond the torrent Kidron : Mt. xxvi. 36 ; Mk. xiv. 32. 
[B. D. Am. ed. s. v.] * 

7€tT«v, -owf, 6, f], [f r. yr], hence originally ' of the same 
land,' cf. Curtius § 132], fr. Horn, down, a neighbor: Lk. 
xiv. 12; XV. 6, 9; Jn. ix. 8.* 

"ycXaa), -S> ; fut. ■yeXacro) (in Grk. writ, more com. yf\a<To- 
fiai [B. 53 (46) ; W. 84 (80)]) ; [fr. Horn, down] ; to laugh : 
Lk. vi. 21 (opp. to xXaio)), 25. [Comp. : Kara-^eXao).] * 

■ytXws, -<oTos, 6, laughter : Jas. iv. 9. [From Hom. down.]* 

^cjiCt'' '■ 1 aor. iyefuaa \ Pass., [pres. yfyii^o}i.ai] ; 1 aor. 
fyffiiadrjv, (ye/io), q. v.) ; to Jill, fill full; a. absol. in 
pass. : Mk. iv. 37 ; Lk. xiv. 23. b. tL tij/o?, to fill a thing 
full of something : Mk. xv. 36 ; Jn. ii. 7 ; vi. 13 ; Rev. xv. 
8, (Aeschyl. Ag. 443 ; al.) ; r\ airo twos, of that which 
is used for filling, Lk. xv. 16 [not WH Tr mrg.] ; also in 
the same sense rt e< rivos, Rev. viii. 5 ; [cf. Lk. xv. 16 in 
WH mrg.], (p ^^r;, Ex. xvi. 32 ; Jer. li. 34, etc. [cf. 
W. §30, 8 b.; B. 163 (143)]).* 

7€y<i>, defect, verb, used only in pres. and impf., [in 
N. T. only in pres. indie, and ptcp.} ; to be full, filled full ; 

a. TWOS (as generally in Grk. writ.) : Mt. xxiii. 25 Lchm., 
27 ; Lk. xi. 39 ; Ro. iii. 14 (fr. Ps. ix. 28 (x.7)) ; Rev. iv. 
6, 8 ; V. 8 ; xv. 7 ; xvii. 3 R G (see below), 4 ; xxi. 9. b. 
« Tivos : Mt. xxiii. 25 (yefiovaiv i^ apnayris [L om. Tr br. 
f'l] their contents are derived from plunder ; see yefii^o), 

b. [and reff. there]), c. Hebraistically (see n'Krjpooo, 1 
[cf. B. 164 (143) ; W. § 30, 8 b.]), with ace. of the mate- 
rial, yefiovra [Treg. yefiov ra] ovofiara ^\a(T(})r)p.ias, Rev, 
xvii. 3 [L T Tr WH (see above and cf. B. 80 (70))].* 

■Y€V€d, -as, fj, (rENQ, ylvoy-ai [cf. Curtius p. 610]) ; Sept. 
often for iTn ; in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down ; 1. a be- 
getting, birth, nativity : Hdt. 3, 33 ; Xen. Cyr. 1, 2, 8, etc. ; 
[others make the collective sense the primary signif., 
see Curtius u. s.]. 2. passively, that which has been 
begotten, men of the same stock, a family ; a. prop, as 
early as Hom.; equiv. to nnsi^'p. Gen. xxxi. 3, etc.; 
cra^fiv Paxd^Tjv k- ttjv yeveau avTrjs, Joseph, antt. 5, 1, 5. 
the several ranks in a natural descent, the successive mem- 
bers of a genealogy: Mt. i. 17, (e^bofir) yevea ovtos iariv 
a-no Tov npQiTov, Philo, vit. Moys. i. § 2). b. metaph. a 
race of men very like each other in endowments, pursuits, 
character ; and esp. in a bad sense a perverse race : Mt. 
xvii. 17 ; Mk. ix. 19 ; Lk. ix. 41 ; xvi. 8 ; [Acts ii. 40]. 
3. the whole multitude of men living at the same time : Mt. 
xxiv. 34 ; Mk. xiii. 30 ; Lk. i. 48 {iracrai al ytveai) ; xxi. 
32; Phil. ii. 15; used esp. of the Jewish race living at 
one and the same period : Mt. xi. 16 ; xii. 39, 41 sq. 45 ; 
xvi. 4 ; xxiii. 36; Mk. viii. 12, 38 ; Lk. xi. 29 sq. 32, 50 
sq. ; xvii. 25; Acts xiii. 36; Heb. iii. 10; av6pu>noi tt^s 
yevfas TavTrjs, Lk. vii. 31 ; avbpfs ttjs yev. Tav. Lk. xi. 31 ; 
TTjv be yfVfav avTov t'is SiTjyrja-fTat, who can describe the 
wickedness of the present generation, Acts viii. 33 (fr. 
Is. hii. 8 Sept.) [but cf. Mey. ad loc.]. 4. an age (i. e. 
the time ordinarily occupied by each successive genera- 
tion), the space of from 30 to 33 years (Hdt. 2, 142 et al. ; 
Heracht. in Plut. def. orac. c. 11), or 6 XP°^°^' *" ^ y^^ 



vatvra napfx^i tov i^ avTov yryfvvqfievov 6 yfvvT]<Tas (Plut. 

1. c.) ; in the N. T. com. in plur. : Eph. iii. 5 [W. § 31, 
9 a.; B. 186 (161)] ; napuxrjpevais yeveais in ages gone 
by. Acts xiv. 16 ; dno tcov yeveav for ages, since the gener- 
ations began, Col. i. 26 ; e'lc yevemv dpxalov from the gen- 
erations of old, from ancient times down, Acts xv. 21 ; els 
yeveas yeveav unto generations of generations, through 
all ages, for ever, (a phrase which assumes that the longer 
ages are made up of shorter ; see alutv, 1 a.) : Lk. i. 50 
R L (D'"]n 1117, Is. li. 8) ; els yeveas k. yeveas unto genera- 
tions and generations, ibid. T Tr WH equiv. to "1111 ll'lS, 
Ps. Ixxxix. 2 sq. ; Is. xxxiv. 1 7 ; very often in Sept. ; [add, 
els ndiras Tas yeveas tov alchvos Tav aloovcov, Eph. iii. 21, cf. 
EUic. ad loc] {yeved is used of a century in Gen. xv. 16, 
cf. Knobel ad loc, and on the senses of the word see the 
full remarks of Keim iii. 206 [v. 245 Eng. trans.]).* 

•y€V€aXo7€'«, -w : [pres. pass. yeveaXoyovfiai] ; to act the 
genealogist (yeved and Xe-yw), to recount a family's origin 
and lineage, trace ancestry, (often in Hdt. ; Xen., Plat., 
Theophr., Lcian., Ael., al. ; [Sept. 1 Chr. v. 2]) ; pass, to 
draw one's origin, derive one's pedigree : eK twos, Heb. 
vii. 6.* 

7€V€aXo7£a, -as, f), a genealogy, a record of descent or 
lineage, (Plat. Crat. p. 396 c. ; Polyb. 9, 2, 1 ; Dion. Hal. 
antt. 1, 11 ; [al.]. Sept. [edd. Aid., Compl.] 1 Chr. vii. 
5, 7 ; ix. 22 ; [iv. 33 Compl. ; Ezra viii. 1 ib.]) ; in plur, 
of the orders of ceons, according to the doctrine of the 
Gnostics : 1 Tim. i. 4 ; Tit. iii. 9 ; cf. De Wette on Tit. i. 
14 [substantially reproduced by Alf. on 1 Tim. 1. c. ; see 
also Holtzmann, Pastoralbriefe, pp. 126 sq. 134 sq. 143].* 

7€veVia, -mv, to [cf. W. 176 (166)], (fr. the adj. yeve- 
aios fr. yeveats), a birth-day celebration, a birth-day feast : 
Mk. vi. 21 ; Mt. xiv. 6 ; (Alciphr. epp. 3, 18 and 55 ; Dio 
Cass. 47, 18, etc. ; 17 yeveaios fipepa, Joseph, antt. 12, 4, 7). 
The earlier Greeks used yevea-ia of funeral commemora- 
tions, a festival commemorative of a deceased friend 
(Lat. feriae denicales), see Lob. ad Phryn. p. 103 sq. ; 
[Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 184; W. 24 (23)]. Cf. 
Keim ii. p. 516 [iv. 223 Eng. trans.].* 

■y€V€o-is, -ea)s,ri, (FENQ [Curtius § 128]), in Grk. writ, 
for the first time in Hom. II. 14, 201 [cf. 246]; 1. 
source, origin : /3i'/3Xo9 yevetrecos twos a book of one's lin- 
eage, i. e. in which his ancestry or his progeny are enu- 
merated (i. q. nilbl'D "ISD, Gen. v. 1, etc.), [Mt. i. 1]. 

2. used of birth, nativity, in Mt. i. 18 and Lk. i. 14, for 
Rec yivvfjcns (fjfiepai ttjs yeveaea>s p-ov equiv. to a<^' ov 
eyevvfj6t]v, Judith xii. 18 cf. 20) ; Trpocranov ttjs yevecrecus 
his native (natural) face, Jas. i. 23. 3. of that which 
follows origin, viz. existence, life : 6 Tpoxos Trjs yevea-e<os 
the wheel [cf. Eng. " machinery "] of life, Jas. iii. 6 (cf. 
Grimm on Sap. vii. 5) ; but others explain it the ivheel 
of human origin which as soon as men are born begins 
to run, i. e. the course [cf. Eng. " round "] of life.* 

■Yevenfj, -tjs, fj, (rENQ, yivopai), (cf. Germ, die Geworden- 
heit), birth ; hence very often eK yeveTrjs from birth on 
(Hom. H. 24, 535; Aristot. eth. Nic 6, 13, 1 p. UW, 6 
etc. ; Polyb. 3, 20, 4 ; Diod. 5, 32, al. ; Sept. Lev. xxv. 47) : 
Jn. ix. 1.* 



r^cVTj/jLa 



113 



761/09 



yivT\\i.a, -aros, to, (fr. yivofiai), a form supported by the 
best Mss. in Mt. xxvi. 29 ; Mk. xiv. 25 ; Lk. xii. 18 ; xxii. 
18; 2 Co. ix. 10, and therefore adopted by T [see his 
Proleg. p. 79] Tr [L WH (see WH. App. p. 148 and be- 
low)], printed by Grsb. only in Lk. xii. 18 ; 2 Co. ix. 10, 
but given by no grammarian, and therefore attributed by 
Fritzsche (on Mk. p. 61 9 sq.) to the carelessness of tran- 
scribers, — for Rec. [but in Lk. 1. c. R" reads yfinjfi.^ y«V 
vrjixa, q. v. In Mk. xiv. 25 Lchm. has retained the com- 
mon reading; [and in Lk. xii. 18 Tr txt. WH have 
alTov. In Ezek. xxxvi. 30 codd. A B read yei/^/xara].* 

^£wdco, -0) ; fut. yfvvTiaco ; 1 aor. iytvinjaa ; pf. yeytvvrjKa; 
[Pass., pres. yewaofiai, -wfiai] ; pf. yeyfvvrj^ai ; 1 aor. 
fyfvvTjdrjv ; (fr. yevva, poetic for yevos} ; in Grk. writ. fr. 
Find, down ; in Sept. for iV ; to beget ; 1. properly : 
of men begetting children, Mt. i. 1-16 ; Acts vii. 8, 29; 
foil, by fK with gen. of the mother, Mt. i. 3, 5, 6 ; more 
rarely of women giving birth to children, Lk. i. 13, 57 ; 
xxiii. 29 ; Jn. xvi. 21 ; els bovXeiav to bear a child unto 
bondage, that will be a slave. Gal. iv. 24, ([Xen. de rep. 
Lac. 1, 3] ; Lcian. de sacrif. 6 ; Plut. de liber, educ. 5; 
al. ; Sept. Is. Ixvi. 9 ; 4 Mace. x. 2, etc.). Pass, to be 
begotten : to tv avTf) yfvvijdev that which is begotten in 
her womb, Mt. i. 20 ; to be born: Mt. ii. 1, 4 [W. 266 
(250) ; B. 203 (1 76)] ; xix. 1 2 ; xxvi. 24 ; Mk. xiv. 21 ; Lk. 
i. 35 ; Jn. iii. 4 ; [Acts vii. 20] ; Ro. ix. 1 1 ; Heb. xi. 23 ; 
with the addition tls tov Koafiov, Jn. xvi. 21 ; foil, by iv 
with dat. of place. Acts xxii. 3 ; dno tivos, to spring from 
one as father, Heb. xi. 12 [L WH mrg. eyevrjO. see Tdf. 
ad loc] ; ?< tivos to be born of a mother, Mt. i. 16 ; e'/c 
iTopvtias, Jn. viii. 41 ; e^ aluaTwv, sk ^eXij/xaroy dv8p6s, Jn. 
i. 13; fK TTjs aapKos, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.**'^ ■ye-yfj'Ty/x.] ; iv ajiap- 
Tiais o\os, Jn. ix. 34 (see dfiapTia, 2 a.) ; elVrt, to be born 
for something, Jn. xviii. 37; 2 Pet. ii. 12 [Tdf. yeyevrjfi. 
so Rec.*"'*^] ; with an adj. : Tv(f)\6s yeyewrjpai, Jn. ix. 2, 
19 sq. 32; 'Pwpalos to be supplied. Acts xxii. 28; tjj 
8ia\eKT(a, iv ff iytvvrjdrjpev, Acts ii. 8 ; yevvrjOeis Kara (rdpKa 
begotten or born according to (by) the working of nat- 
ural passion ; Kara Tvvevp.a according to (by) the working 
of the divine promise. Gal. iv. 29, cf. 23. 2. metaph. 
a. univ. to engender, cause to arise, excite : pd^as, 2 Tim. 
ii. 23 (^\d(3j]v, \vTTr]v, etc. in Grk. writ.), b. in a Jew- 
ish sense, of one who brings others over to his way of 
life : vpds iyivvrjaa I am the author of your Christian 
life, 1 Co. iv. 15; Philem. 10, (Sanhedr. fol. 19, 2 "If 
one teaches the son of his neighbor the law, the Scrip- 
ture reckons this the same as though he had begotten 
him " ; [cf. Philo, leg. ad Gaium § 8]). c. after Ps. ii. 7, 
it is used of God making Christ his son ; a. formally to 
show him to be the Messiah (vlov tov 6eov), viz. by the 
resurrection : Acts xiii. 33. p. to be the author of the 
divine nature which he possesses [but cf . the Comm. on 
the pass, that follow] : Heb. i. 5 ; v. 5. d. peculiarly, in 
the Gospel and 1 Ej^. of fJohn, of God conferring upon 
men the nature and disposition of his sons, imparting to 
them spiritual life, i. e. by his own holy power prompting 
and persuading souls to put faith in Christ and live a 
new life consecrated to himself ; absol. : 1 Jn. v. 1 ; 
8 



mostly in pass., €< deov or e»c tov 0(ov iytwrj^rjaav, ytykv- 
vr]Tai, ytyfvvrjpfvos, etc. : Jn. i. 13 ; 1 .Jn. ii. 29 [Rec.'' yt- 
yivrjTai^ ; iii. 9 ; iv. 7 ; v. 1, 4, 18; also « tov nvtvp-aTos 
yfvvdadai, Jn. iii. 6 [Rec.^'^.yfyewj/i.], 8 ; i^ vduTos Koi 
TTv(vp.aTos (because that moral generation is effected in 
receiving baptism [(?) cf. Schaff's Langc, Godet, West- 
cott, on the words, and reff. s. v. ^dnTiapa, 3]), Jn. iii. 5 ; 
av<o6fv yfvvdadai, Jn. iii. 3, 7 (see avwdev, c.) equiv. to 
TfKvov dfov yivtaOai, i. 12. [CoMP. : dva-y(vvda).'\* 

•Y€'vvii|ia, -ros, to, (fr. yevvdo)), that luhii-h has been be- 
gotten or born ; a. as in the earlier Grk. writ. fr. Soph, 
down, the offspring, progeny, of men or of animals : i^i- 
Svaiv, Mt. iii. 7 ; xii. 34 ; xxiii. 83 ; Lk. iii. 7 ; (yvvaiK(ii)y, 
Sir. x. 18). b. fr. Polyb. [1, 71, 1 etc.] on [cf. W. 23], 
the fruits of the earth, products of agriculture, (in Sept. 
often yevvTjpara Trjs yrjs) '■ Lk. xii. 18 (where Tr [txt. 
WH] TOV a'lTov} ; TTJs dpTrfkov, Mt. xxvi. 29 ; Mk. xiv. 25 ; 
Lk. xxii. 18; cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 286. Metaph. fruit, 
reward, profit : Trjs biKaioavvqs, 2 Co. ix. 10, (Hos. x. 12 ; 
T^s (Tocpias, Sir. i. 17 ; vi. 19). Further, see yivrjpa.* 

r«vvTi<rap€T [so G T Tr WH], -pi0 [Lchm. in Mt. xiv. 
34], IrtvTjaapiT Rec. in Mk. vi. 53 ; cf. Tdf. ed. 2 Proleg. 
p. xxxv., ed. 7 Proleg. p. liv. note^], (Targums "ID^JJ or 
T01JJ [ace. to Delitzsch (Romerbr. in d. Hebr. libers, p. 
27) "ID'a;!, ID^JJ] ; Tevvr](jdp, 1 Mace. xi. 67; Joseph, b.j. 
2, 20, 6 etc.; Genesara, Plin. 5, 15), Gennesaret, a very 
lovely and fertile region on the Sea of Galilee (Joseph, 
b. j. 3, 10, 7) : fj yPi Tfvvr)<T. Mt. xiv. 34 ; Mk. vi. 53 ; f/ 
\ipuri Tfvv7](T. Lk. V. 1, anciently Pi'^i2 D', Num. xxxiv. 
ll,orjnnil.3 D', Josh. xii. 3, fr. thecity m;;3,Deut. iii. 17, 
which was near by ; called in the Gospels f) 6dXaa(Ta t^s 
FaXtXatas, Mk. i. 16 ; Mt. iv. 18 ; tj BaXacraa t^s Ti^epi- 
d8os, Jn. vi. 1 ; xxi. 1. The lake, ace. to Joseph, b. j. 3, 
10, 7, is 140 stadia long and 40 wide ; [its extreme di- 
mensions now are said to average 12im. by 6| m., and 
its level to be nearly 700 ft. below that of the Mediter- 
ranean]. Cf. Ruetschi in Herzog v. p. 6 sq. ; Fwrer in 
Schenkel ii. p. 322 sqq. ; [^Wilson in "The Recovery of 
Jerusalem," Pt. ii. ; Robinson, Phys. Geog. of the Holy 
Land, p. 199 sqq. ; BB.DD. For conjectures respecting 
the derivation of the word cf. Alex.'s Kitto sub fin. ; Mer- 
rill, Galilee in the Time of Christ, § vii.].* 

■yevvTio-is, -fwy, 17, (ytwdoi), a begetting, engendering, 
(often so in Plat.) ; natirity, birth : Rec. in Mt. i. 18 and 
Lk. i. 14 ; see yiveais, 2.* 

■yevvT)T<5s, -17, -6v, (yevvdco), begotten, born, (often in Plat. ; 
Diod. 1, 6 sqq.) ; after the Hebr. (hd'X n6', Job xiv. 1, 
etc.), yfvVT]Tol yvvaiKcov [B. 169 (147), born of women} 
is a periphrasis for men, with the impUed idea of weak- 
ness and frailty : Mt. xi. 11; Lk. vii. 28.* 

7€vos, -0U9, TO, (TENQ, ylvopai), race; a. offspring: 
TLvos, Acts xvii. 28 sq. (fr. the poet Aratus) ; Rev. xxii. 
16. b. family : Acts [iv. 6, see dpxiepevs, 2 fin.] ; vii. 13 
[al. refer this to c] ; xiii. 26. c. stock, race: Acts vii. 
19 ; 2 Co. xi. 26 ; Phil. iii. 5 ; Gal. i. 14 ; 1 Pet. ii. 9 ; (Gen. 
xi. 6 ; xvii. 14, etc. for U),\) ', nation (i. e. nationality or 
descent from a particular people) : Mk. vii. 26 ; Acts iv. 
36; xviii. 2, 24. d. concr. the aggregate of many tndi- 



Tepa(n}v6<i 



114 



y., 



victuals of the same nature, kind, sort, species : Mt. xiii. 47 ; 
xvii. 21 [T WH om. Tr br. the vs.] ; Mk. ix. 29 ; 1 Co. 
xii. 10, 28; xiv. 10. (With the same significations in 
Grk. writ. fr. Horn, down.) * 

rtpotnivos, -ov, 6, Gerasene, i. e. belonging to the city 
Gerasa {to. Tepacra, Joseph, b. j. 3, 3, 3) : Mt. viii. 28 
[Lchm.] ; Mk. v. 1 [L T WH Tr txt.] ; Lk. viii. 26 and 37 
[L Tr WH] ace. to very many codd. seen by Origen. But 
since Gerasa was a city situated in the southern part of 
Peraea (Joseph. 1. c, cf. 4, 9, 1), or in Arabia (Orig. 
opp. iv. 140 ed. De la Rue), that cannot be referred to 
here ; see Tabaprjvos, and the next word.* 

rep7eo-iiv6s, -t], -6v, Gercjesene, belonging to the city 
Gergesa, which is assumed to have been situated on the 
eastern shore of Lake Gennesaret: Mt. viii. 28 Rec. But 
this reading depends on the authority and opinion of 
Origen, who thought the variants found in his Mss. 
TaBaprjvtov and Tepaa-rjvQji/ (see these words) must be made 
to conform to the testimony of those who said that there 
was formerly a certain city Gergesa near the lake. But 
Josephus knows nothing of it, and states expressly (antt. 
1, 6, 2), that no trace of the ancient Gergesites [A. V. 
Girgashites, cf. B. D. s. v.] (mentioned Gen. xv. 20; 
Josh. xxiv. 11) had survived, except the names preserved 
in the O. T. Hence in Mt. viii. 28 we must read Ta8a- 
prjvSiv [so T Tr WH] and suppose that the jurisdiction 
of the city Gadara extended quite to the Lake of Gennes- 
aret ; but that Matthew (viii. 34) erroneously thought 
that this city was situated on the lake itself. For in Mk. 
V. 14 sq. ; Lk. viii. 34, there is no objection to the sup- 
position that the men came to Jesus from the rural dis- 
tricts alone. [But for the light thrown on this matter 
by modern research, see B. D. Am. ed. s. v. Gadara ; 
Thomson, The Land and the Book, ii. 34 sqq. ; Wilson 
in " The Recovery of Jerusalem " p. 286 sq.]* 

yipova-ia,, -as, t], (adj. yepovcnos, belonging to old 
men, yepcov), a senate, council of elders; used in prof, 
auth. of the chief council of nations and cities (ev rals 
TToXecTi al yepovcriai, Xen. mem. 4, 4, 16 ; in the O. T. of 
the cliift' coimcil not only of the whole people of Israel, 
Ex. iii. 16, etc. ; 1 Mace. xii. 6, etc. ; but also of cities, 
Deut. xix. 12, etc.) ; of the Great Council, the Sanhedrin 
of the Jews : Acts v. 21, where to to awedpiov is added 
Koi Ttaaav ttjv yepovaiav Tmi> viav 'icrpaijX and indeed (kqI 
explicative) all the senate, to signify the full Sanhedrin. 
[Cf. Schilrer, Die Gemeindeverfassung d. Juden in Rom 
in d. Kaiserzeit nach d. Inschriften dargestellt. Leips. 
1879, p. 18 sq.; Hatch, Bamp. Lects. for 1880, p. 64 sq.]* 

■ye'pwv, -ovTos, 6, [fr. Horn, down], an old man : Jn. iii. 4. 
[Syx. cf. Augustine in Trench § cvii. 2.] * 

yiva: [cf. Lat. ^u.s^o. Germ, ^os/en ; Curtius § 131] ; to 
cause to taste, to give one a taste of, nva (Gen. xxv. 30). 
In the N. T. only Mid. ytvopai : fut. y^vcropai ; 1 aor. 
fyfvaaprjv ; 1. to taste, tr>/ the flavor of: Mt. xxvii. 34 ; 

contrary to better Grk. usage (cf. W. § 30, 7 c. [and p. 36 ; 
Antnol. Pal. 6, 1 20]) with ace. of the obj. : Jn. ii. 9. 2. 
to taste, i. e. perceive the flavor of, partake of, enjoy : 
Tivos. Lk. xiv. 24 (yfCa-trai pov tov ddnvov, i. e. shall par- 



take of my banquet) ; hence, as in Grk. writ. fr. Horn. 
; down, i. q. to feel, make trial of, experience : rivos, Heb. 
vi. 4 ; pfjpa 6eov, ib. 5, (r^s yvaafms, Clem. Rom. 1 Cor. 
36, 2). as in Chald., Syr. and Rabbin, writers, yeveadai 
Toi davdrov [W. 33 (32)] : Mt. xvi. 28 ; IVlk. ix. 1 ; Lk. 
ix. 2 7 ; Jn. viii. 52 ; Heb. ii. 9 ; [cf. Wetstein on Mt. 1. c. ; 
Meyer on Jn. I. c. ; Bleek, Liinem., Alf. on Heb. 1. c.]. 
foil, by ort : 1 Pet. ii. 3 (Ps. xxxiii. (xxxiv.) 9). 3. to 
take food, eat: absol.. Acts x. 10; xx. 11; cf. Kypke, 
Observv. ii. p. 47 ; to take riourishment, eat — [but sub- 
stantially as above], with gen. pijdfuos. Acts xxiii. 14 ; with 
the eUipsis of a gen. denoting unlawful food, Col. ii. 21.* 

•yewp-yc'w, -to : [pres. pass, yfcopyovpail ; (yeupyos, q. v.) ; 
to practise agriculture, to till the ground : rrju yiju (Plat. 
Theag. p. 121 b.; Eryx. p. 392 d. ; [al.] ; 1 Esdr. iv. 6 ; 
1 Mace. xiv. 8) ; Pass. : Heb. vi. 7.* 

■ytwp-yiov, -ov, to, a (cultivated) field : 1 Co. iii. 9 [A. V. 
husbandry (with marg. tillage)}. (Prov. xxiv. 45 (30) ; 
xxxi. 16 (xxix. 34) ; Theag. in schol. Pind. Nem. 3, 21 ; 
Strabo 14, 5, 6 p. 671 ; [al.].)* 

7€wp76s, -ov, 6, (fr. yrj and EPFQ), fr. [Hdt.], Xen. and 
Plat, down ; a husbandman, tiller of the soil : 2 Tim. ii. 
6 ; Jas. V. 7 ; several times in Sept. ; used of a vine-dresser 
(Ael. nat. an. 7, 28; [Plat. Theaet. p. 178 d. ; al.]) in 
Mt. xxi. 33 sqq. ; JVIk. xii. 1 sq. 7, 9 ; Lk. xx. 9 sq. 14, 
16; Jn. XV. 1.* 

y% g^"- y^y? ^5 (contr. fr. yea, poet, yala), Sept. very 
often for ]-iK and noni^, earth; 1. arable land: Mt. 
xiii. 5, 8, 23 ; J\Ik. iv. 8, 20, 26, 28, 31 ; Lk. xiii. 7 ; xiv. 
35 (34) ; Jn. xii. 24 ; Heb. vi. 7 ; Jas. v. 7 ; Rev. ix. 4 ; 
of the earthy material out of which a thing is formed, 
with the implied idea of frailty and weakness : ck y^s 
Xo'iKos, 1 Co. XV. 47. 2. the ground, the earth as a 
standing-place, (Germ. Baden) : Mt. x. 29 ; xv. 35; xxiii. 
35 ; xxvii. 51 ; Mk. viii. 6 ; ix. 20 ; xiv. 35 ; Lk. xxii. 44 
[L br. WH reject the pass.] ; xxiv. 5 ; Jn. viii. 6, 8, [i. e. 
Rec] ; Acts ix. 4, 8. 3. the main land, opp. to sea or 
water: Mk. iv. 1 ; vi. 47 ; Lk. v. 3 ; viii. 27 ; Jn. vi. 21 ; 
xxi. 8 sq. 11 ; Rev. xii. 12. 4. the earth as a whole, 
the world (Lat. terrarum orbis) ; a. the earth as opp. 
to the heavens : Mt. v. 18, 35 ; vi. 10 ; xvi. 19 ; xviii. 18 ; 
xxiv. 35 ; Mk. xiii. 31 ; Lk. ii. 14 ; Jn. xii. 32 ; Acts ii. 19 ; 
iv. 24 ; 2 Pet. iii. 5, 7, 10, 13 ; Rev. xxi. 1 ; to. eVt t^s yf)s 
the things and beings that are on the earth, Eph. i. 10; 
Col. i. 16 [T WH om. L Tr br. to] ; involving a suggestion 
of mutability, frailty, infirmity, alike in thought and in 
action, Mt. vi. 19; tcl eTrt tjjs yr)s (equiv. to tcl fVt'yeta, 
Phil. iii. 19) terrestrial goods, pleasures, honors. Col. iii. 
2 (opp. to TO. avoi) ; TO peXr] vpwv tci en\ Tijs yf]s the mem- 
bers of your earthly body, as it were the abode and 
instruments of corrupt desires. Col. iii. 5 ; 6a>v ix ttjs yrjs 
. . . XaXfZ (in contrast with Christ as having come from 
heaven) he who is of earthly (human) origin, has an 
earthly nature, and speaks as his earthly origifi and 
nature prompt, Jn. iii. 31. b. the inhabited e^rth, the 
abode of men and animals : Lk. xxi. 35 ; Acts i. 8 ; x. 1 2 ; 
xi. 6 ; xvii. 26 ; Heb. xi. 13; Rev. iii. 10 ; aiptiv ^mrjv 
Tivos or Tiva dno ttjs yrjs, Acts viii. 33 ; xxii. ^2 ; Kkr/po- 



'yr)pa<i 



115 



jivofiat 



vofXflv TTjv yrfv (see KKrjpovofxim, 2), Mt. v. 5 (4) ; irxip /3aX- 
\fiv enl [Rec «if] Tf]v yr]v, i. e. among men, Lk. xii. 49, cf. 
51 and Mt. x. 34 ; tn\ tJJs y^s among men, Lk. xviii. 8 ; 
Jn. xvii. 4. 5. a country, land enclosed within fixed 
boundaries, a tract of land, territory, region ; simply, when 
it is plain from the coDtext what land is meant, as that 
of the Jews : Lk. iv. 25 ; xxi. 23 ; Ro. ix. 28 ; Jas. v. 
1 7 ; with a gentile noun added [then, as a rule, anar- 
throus, W. 121 (114 sq.)]: y^ 'l(rpal]\, Mt. ii. 20 sq. ; 
'lov8a, Mt. ii. 6 ; Tevvrja-aper, Mt. xiv. 34 ; IVIk. vi. 53 ; 2o- 
toficav K. Tofioppoiv, ^It. X. 15 ; xi. 24 ; XaXdaicov, Acts vii. 
4 ; AtyvTTTOs, (see AtyvTrroj) ; rj 'lovSata y^, Jn. iii. 22 ; 
with the addition of an adj. : aXXorpia, Acts vii. 6 ; fKfivrj, 
Mt. ix. 26, 31 ; with gen. of pers. one's country, native 
land. Acts vii. 3. 

■yf^pas, -aos (-cos), Ion. yj7peoy, dat. yfjpe'i, yqpei, to, [fr. 
Hom. down], old age : Lk. i. 36 iv yrjpei G L T Tr 
WH for Rec. ev yrjpa, a form found without var. in Sir. 
XXV. 3; [also Ps. xci. (xcii.) 15; cf. Gen. xv. 15 Alex.; 
xxi. 7 ib. ; xxv. 8 ib. ; 1 Chr. xxix. 28 ib. ; Clem. Rom. 
1 Cor. 10, 7 var.; cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 117]; Fritzsche 
on Sir. iii. 12; Sturz, De dial. Maced. etc. p. 155; W. 
[36 and] 64 (62); [B. 15 (14)].* 

Y'qpdo-Kd) or yrjpdco : 1 aor. iyrjpaaa ; f r. Hom. down ; [cf . 
W. 92 (88) ; Donaldson, New Crat. § 387] ; to grow old : 
Jn. xxi. 18 ; of things, institutions, etc., to fail from age, 
be obsolescent: Heb. viii. 13 (to be deprived of force and 
authority ; [here associated with TraXaLovnevos — the lat- 
ter (used only of things) marking the lapse of time, while 
yrjpdcTKcov carries with it a suggestion of the waning 
strength, the decay, incident to old age (cf. Schmidt ch. 
46, 7 ; Theophr. caus. pi. 6, 7, 5) : "that which is becom- 
ing old and faileth for age " etc.]).* 

■yCvo|j.ai (in Ionic prose writ, and in com. Grk. fr. Aristot. 
on for Attic yiyvofxai) ; [impf . eyii/o/i?;i/] ; f ut. yevrjaofiai ; 2 
aor. eyev6p.r]v (often in 3 pers. sing, optat. yevoLTo ; [ptcp. 
yfvdfifvos, Lk. xxiv. 22 Tdf. ed. 7]), and, with no diff. in 
signif., 1 aor. pass, eyfvfjdrjv, rejected by the Atticists (cf. 
Lob. ad Phryn. p. 108 sq. ; [Thom. Mag. ed. Ritschl p. 
75, 6 sq.]), not rare in later Grk., common in Sept. (Acts 
iv. 4 ; 1 Th. ii. 14 ; 1 Co. xv. 10, etc.), impv. yfvrjdrjra (Mt. 
vi. 10 ; XV. 28, etc.) ; pf. yeyevrjuai and yeyova, 3 pers. plur. 
yeyovav L T Tr WH in Ro. xvi. 7 and Rev. xxi. 6 (cf. 
[Tdf Proleg. p. 124 ; WH. App. p. 166 ; Soph. Lex. p. 
37 sq.; Curtius, Das Verbum, ii. 187] ; W. 36 and 76 (73) 
sq. ; Mullach p. 16; B. 43 (37 sq.)), [ptcp. yeyoi/cos] ; 
plpf. 3 pers. sing, eyeyovfi (Jn. vi. 17 [not Tdf.]; Acts 
iv. 22 [where L T Tr WHyeyoVei, cf. W. § 12, 9 ; B. 33 
(29) ; Tdf.'s note on the pass.]) ; to become, and 

1. to become, i. e. to come into existence, begin to he, re- 
ceive being : absol., Jn. i. 15, 30 (efjiTrpoa-dev piov yeyovev) ; 
Jn. viii. 58 (nplv 'A/Spaa/j. yeveadai) ; 1 Co. xv. 37 {^t6 cra>p.a 
TO yfirqaop-tvov) ; eV Tivos, to he horn, Ro. i. 3 (e/c (nrepfiaTos 
Aavtd); Gal. iv. 4 (e« yvvaiKos) ; Mt. xxi. 19 (ht^ks'ti eV 
croO KapTTosyfVTjTai, come from) ; of the origin of all things, 
Heb. xi. 3 ; Sia tivo<:, Jn. i. 3, 10. to rise, arise, come on, 
appear, of occurrences in nature or in life : as yivtrai 
^povTT], Jn. xii. 29 ; da-Tpmifi, Rev. viii. 5 ; o-etcr/xdy. Rev. 



[vi. 12; xi. 13]; xvi. 18; ya\jjvr}, Mt. viii. 26; Mk. iv. 
39; Lk. viii. 24; Xa'iXa\j/, Mk. iv. 37; yoyyvapLos, Acts 
vi. 1 ; ^rjTrja-ii, Jn. iii. 2.j [foil, by ck of origin ; a-rda-is koI 
^TjTrjcris^, Acts XV. 2 [(irsb. questions (tjt., Rec. reads 
o'v^^'T.^ ; noXefios, Rev. xii. 7 ; fj ^aaiXtia [or ai /iJ.] ktX. 
Rev. xi. 15 ; xii. 10 ; xapri. Acts viii. 8, and in many other 
exx. Here belong also the phrases yiverai rip.epa it be- 
comes day, day comes on, Lk. iv. 42; vi. 13; xxii. 66 ; 
Acts xii. 18 ; xvi. 35 ; xxiii. 12 ; xxvii. 29, 33, 39 ; y. o^p^e 
evening comes, Mk. xi. 19, i. q. y. oyj^ia, Mt. viii. 16, xiv. 
15, 23 ; xvi. 2 [T br. AVH reject the pass.] ; xxvi. 20; 
Mk. xiv. 17 ; Jn. vi. 16, etc.; Trpoota, Mt. xxvii. 1 ; Jn. 
xxi. 4 ; i>v^. Acts xxvii. 27 [cf. s. v. iniyiv. 2] ; o-kotIo, Jn. 
vi. 17 [not Tdf.]. Hence 

2. to become i. q. to come to pass, happen, of events; 
a. univ. : Mt. v. 18; xxiv. 6, 20, 34; Lk. i. 20; xii. 54; 
xxi. 28; Jn. i. 28; xiii. 19, etc.; tovto yeyovfv, ta etc. 
this hath come to pass that etc., Mt. i. 22 ; xxi. 4 ; xxvi. 
56; TO yevofieva or yivofieva, Mt. xviii. 31; xxvii. 54; 
xxviii. 1 1 ; Lk. xxiii. 48 ; [cf . to yevofxeva dyaOd, Heb. 
ix. 11 LWHtxt. Trmrg.] ; to yefofievov, Lk. xxiii. 47; 
TO yeyovos, ^Mk. v. 14 ; Lk. xxiv. 12 [T om. L Trbr. WH 
reject the vs.] ; Acts iv. 21 ; to prjp.a to yeyovos, Lk. ii. 
15 ; TO. p.€\XovTa ylvea-Qai, Lk. xxi. 36 ; Acts xxvi. 22 ; Tr]v 
dvdcTTaaiv fj8r] yeyovevai, 2 Tim. ii. 18 ; Bavdrov yevop.evuv 
a death having taken j)lace (Germ, nach erfolglem. Tode), 
Heb. ix. 15. p.rj yhoiTo, a formula esp. freq. in Paul (and 
in Epictetus, cf. Schweigh. Index Graec. in Epict. p. 392), 
far be it I God forbid ! [cf. Morison, Exposition of Rom. 
iii., p. 31 sq.] : Lk. xx. 16 ; Ro. iii. 4, 6, 31 ; vi. 2, 15 ; vii. 
7, 13 ; ix. 14 ; xi. 1, 11 ; 1 Co. vi. 15 ;' Gal. ii. 17 ; iii. 21 
(equiv. to nVSn, Josh. xxii. 29, etc.) ; cf. Stwz, De dial. 
Maced. etc. p. 204 sq. ; ti yeynvev, oti etc. what has com'e 
to pass, that etc. i. q. for what reason, why ? Jn. xiv. 22 (ri 
tyeveTo, on . . . Eccles. vii. 11 (10) ; ti ea-Tiv, cos etc., Eur. 
Troad. 889). b. Very common in the first three Gos- 
pels, esp. that of Luke, and in the Acts, is the phrase Kai 
eyeveTo ('H'l foil, by ]) ; cf. W. § 65, 4 e. [also § 44, 3 c], 
and esp. B. § 141,6. a. kcI iyeveTo Kcii with a finite verb : 
Mk. ii. 15 ([Trtxt. koi yiverai], TWH koi yiv. [foil, by 
acc. and inf.]) ; Lk. ii. 15 [R G Lbr. Trbr.] ; viii. 1 ; xiv. 
1; xvii. 11; xix. 15; xxiv. 15 [WHbr. /cat]; foil, by /cai 
l8oi, Mt. ix. 10 [T om. Kai before 18.] ; Lk. xxiv. 4. p. 
much oftener Kai is not repeated : Mt. vii. 28 ; Mk. iv. 4; 
Lk. i. 23; ii. [15 T WH], 46 ; vi. 12; vii. 11; ix. 18, 33; xi. ■ 
1 ; xix. 29 ; xxiv. 30. -y. Ka\ iyev. foil, by acc. with inf. : 
Mk. ii. 23 [W. 578 (537) note] ; Lk. vi. 1,6 [R G eyeu. 8e 
kol]. c. In like manner eyeVfTo Se o. foil, by xat with 
a finite verb : Lk. v. 1 ; ix. 28 [WH txt. om. L br. Kai, 
51 ; X. 38 R G T, L Tr mrg. br. Kai] ; Acts v. 7. p. tyevfTo 
Se foil, by a fin. verb without Kai : Lk. i. 8 ; ii. 1, 6 ; [vi. 
12 R G L] ; viii. 40 [WH Tr txt. om. tye'v.] ; ix. 37 ; xi. 
14, 27. -y. eyfVfTo 8e foil, by acc. with inf. : Lk. iii. 21 ; 
[vi. 1, 6 LTTrWH, ]2TTrWH]; xvi. 22; Acts iv. 
5; ix. 3 [without 8f], 32, 37; xi. 26 RG; xiv. 1 ; [xvi. 
16 ; xix. 1] ; xxviii. 8, [1 7]. 8. f'yeV. Se [ws Se eyeV] foil, 
by Toii with inf. : Acts x. 25 (Rec. om. tov), cf. Mey. ad 
loc. andW.328(307); [B. 270 (232)]. d. with dat. of 



lyLvofMUi 



116 



ycvofiai 



pers. to occur or happen to one, befall one : foil, by inf., 
Acts XX. 16 ; eav ytvijrcu (sc. avr^) tvpdv avro, if it happen 
to him, Mt. xviii. 1 3 ; e'/ioi Se nfj yevoiro Kovxaadai far he it 
from me to glory, Gal. vi. 14, (Gen. xliv. 7, 17; 1 K. xx. 
(xxi.) 3 ; Alciphr. epp. 1, 26) ; foil, by ace. with inf. it 
happened to me, that etc. : Acts xi. 26 L T Tr WH [but 
ace. implied]; xxii. 6, 17, [cf. W. 323 (303); B. 305 
(262)] ; with adverbs, go, fare, (Germ, ergehen) : ev, Eph. 
vi. 3, (/xij yevoiTo (Toi ouro) Ka/«Sy, Ael. V. h. 9, 36). with 
specification of tlie thing befalling one : ri ytyovev [L T 
Trtxt. WH e'yeV.] avra. Acts vii. 40 (fr. Ex. xxxii. 1); 
(yivtTO [L T Tr WH e'yiVfTo] izacrrj y^rvxfi <^o/3os fear came 
upon. Acts ii. 43. — Mk. iv. 1 1 ; ix. 21 ; Lk. xix. 9 ; Jn. v. 
14 ; XV. 7 ; Ro. xi. 25 ; 1 Co. iv. 5 ; 2 Co. i. 8 [G L T Tr 
WHom. dat.]; 2 Tim. iii. 11; 1 Pet. iv. 12; with the 
ellipsis of rjjuv, Jn. i. 1 7. iytvero (auraJ) yva>jxri a purpose 
occurred to him, he determined. Acts xx. 3 [B. 268 (230), 
but T Tr AVH read iyiv. yvafirjs; see below, 5 e. a.]. 
foil, by prepositions : eV avrfj upon (Germ, bei or an) 
her, Mk. v. 33 [RGLbr.] ; ttsriva. Acts xxviii. 6. 

3. to arise, appear in history, come upon the stage : 
of men appearing in public, Mk. i. 4 ; Jn. i. 6, [on which 
two pass. cf. W. 350 (328) ; B. 308 (264) sq.] ; 2 Pet. ii. 
1 ; ytyovaai, have arisen and now exist, 1 Jn. ii. 18. 

4. to be made, done, finished : ra epya, Heb. iv. 3; 8ia 
Xfipiov, of things fabricated, Acts xix. 26 ; of miracles to 
be performed, ivrought : 8ia tS>v ;^«tpwi' tivos, Mk. vi. 2 ; 
8id Tivos, Acts ii. 43 ; iv. 16, 30 ; xii. 9 ; viro tivos, Lk. ix. 
7 (R L [but the latter br. in avTov'\); xiii. 17; xxiii. 8; 
ytvofieva els Ka(papv. done unto (on) Capernaum i. e. for 
its benefit (W. 416 (388) ; [cf. B. 333 (286)]), Lk.iv. 23 
[Rec. ev Tjj K.]. of commands, decisions, purposes, re- 
quests, etc. to be done, executed : Mt. vi. 10 ; xxi. 21 ; xxvi. 
42 ; Mk. xi. 23 ; Lk. xiv. 22 ; xxiii. 24 ; Acts xxi. 14 ; yt- 
vrjiTfTai 6 Xoyoj will be accomplished the saying, 1 Co. xv. 
54. joined to nouns implying a certain action : t] dna- 
\(ia yfyove, Mk. xiv. 4 ; dTroypa(f>r), Lk. ii. 2 ; eirayyfXia 
ytvopivT] vTTo Seov given by God, Acts xxvi. 6 ; dvuKpia-is, 
Acts XXV. 26 ; vofiov p-erddeais, Heb. vii. 12 ; aip^cns, Heb. 
ix. 22. of institutions, laws, etc. to be established, en- 
acted : TO adiifiaTov eyeVero, the institution of the Sabbath, 
Mk. ii. 27 ; 6 vofnos. Gal. iii. 1 7 ; ou yeyovev owtcos hath not 
been so ordained, Mt. xix. 8. of feasts, marriages, en- 
tertainments, to be kept, celebrated : to ndaxa, Mt. xxvi. 
2 (i. ([. nty;*;, 2 K. xxiii. 22) ; to o-d/3^aToj/, Mk. vi. 2; ra 
eyKaivia, Jn. x. 22 ; [yei/etriotr yevojiivois (cf. W. § 31,9b.; 
R (i y(P€<Ti<ov dyopfvodv), I\It. xiv. 6], {to. ^OXvpnia, Xen. 
Hell. 7, 4, 28 ; "ladpia, 4, 5, 1) ; ydjios, Jn. ii. 1. ovTa>s 
yein]Tai iv epoi so done with me, in my case, 1 Co. ix. 15. 

5. to become, be made, " in passages where it is speci- 
fied who or what a person or thing is or has been ren- 
dered, as respects ([uality, condition, place, rank, charac- 
ter " (Wahl, Clavis Apocr. V. T. p. 101). a. with a 
predicate added, expressed by a subst. or an adj. : ol \i6oi 
ovToi ("ipToi yevoivrai, Mt. iv. 3 ; Lk. iv. 3 ; CScop oivov yfyf- 
vtjfiivov, -In. ii. 9 ; dpxifptvs yfvofifuos, Heb. vi. 20 ; 8iukovos, 
Col. i. 25 ; 6 Xoyor aap^ fyeveTo, Jn. i. 14 ; dwjp, 1 Co. xiii. 
11, and many other exx. ; x"P*f ouK«rt yiWrat X"P^^ grace 



ceases to have the nature of grace, can no longer be called 
grace, Ro. xi. 6 ; aKapnos yiVerai, Mt. xiii. 22 ; Mk. iv. 1 9 ; 

— in Mt. xvii. 2 ; Lk. viii. 17 ; Jn. v. 6, and many other 
places, contextually, to show one's self, prove one's self: 
Lk. X. 36 ; xix. 1 7 ; xxiv. 19 ; Ro. xi. 34 ; xvi. 2 ; 2 Co. i. 
18 Rec. ; 1 Th. i. 6 ; ii. 7 ; Heb. xi. 6, etc. ; esp. in exhor- 
tations : yiveade, Mt. x. 16 ; xxiv. 44 ; Lk. vi. 36 ; Eph. 
iv. 32; Col. iii. 15 ; fifj yivov, Jn. xx. 27 ; fir] ylveaOf, Mt. 
vi. 16 ; Eph. v. 7, 1 7 ; 1 Co. x. 7 ; p^ yivapfda, Gal. v. 26 ; 
hence used declaratively, i. q. to be found, shoion : Lk. 
xiii. 2 (that it was shown by their fate that they were 
sinners); Ro. iii. 4; 2 Co. vii. 14; — yivopai Tivi tis to 
show one's self (to be) some one to one: 1 Co. ix. 20, 
22. b. with an interrog. pron. as predicate : ti 6 IlfTpos 
eyevfTo what had become of Peter, Acts xii. 1 8 [cf . use of 
TL eyev. in Act. Phil, in Hell. § 23, Tdf Acta apost. apocr. 
p. 104]. c. yivta-Bai ms or coaei Ttva to become as or like 
to one : Mt. x. 25 ; xviii. 3 ; xxviii. 4 ; Mk. ix. 26 ; Lk. xxii. 
44 [L br. WH reject the pass.] ; Ro. ix. 29 (fr. Is. i. 9) ; 
1 Co. iv. 13 ; Gal. iv. 12. d. yivtadai t'ls ti to become i. e. 
be changed into something, come to be, issue in, sometliing 
(Germ, zu etioas werden) : lyevr]6-q els K((f)a\T]v yojplas, ]Mt. 
xxi. 42; Mk. xii. 10; Lk.xx. 17; Acts iv. 11 ; 1 Pet.ii. 7, 

— all after Ps. cxvii. (ex viii.) 22. Lk. xiii. 1 9 (els 8fv8pov 
pfya) ; Jn. xvi. 20 ; Acts v. 36 ; Ro. xi. 9 (fr. Ps. Ixviii. 
(Ixix.) 23) ; 1 Th. iii. 5 ; Rev. viii. 1 1 ; xvi. 1 9, etc. (equiv. to 
S rrn ; but the expression is also classic ; cf. W. § 29, 3 a. ; 
B. 150 (131)). e. yiveaSai with Cases ; a. with the gen. 
to become the property of any one, to come into the power 
of a person or thing, [cf. W. § 30, 5; esp. B. 162 (142)] : 
Lk. XX. 14 [L mrg. evTai], 33 ; Rev. xi. 15 ; [yv(opr]s, Acts 
XX. 3 T Tr WH (cf. e\ni8os peydXijs yiv. Plut. Phoc. 23, 
4)] ; iTpo<prjTf'ia I8ias (niXvcreais ov ytVerat no one can ex- 
plain prophecy by his own mental power (it is not a mat- 
ter of subjective interpretation), but to explain it one 
needs the same illumination of the Holy Spirit in which 
it originated, for etc. 2 Pet. i. 20. yeveaOai with a gen. 
indicating one's age, (to be) so many years old : Lk. ii. 
42 ; 1 Tim. v. 9. p. with the dat. [cf. AV. 210 sq. (198)] : 
yiveadat dv8pi to become a man's wife, Ro. vii. 3 sq. (rrn 
i:/"x'7, Lev. xxii. 12 ; Ruth i. 12, etc.). f. joined to prep- 
ositions with their substantives ; ev tivi, to come or pass 
into a, certain state [cf. B. 330 (284)] : ev dywvia, Lk. xxii. 
44 [Lbr. WH reject the pass.]; ev eKo-rdarei, Acts xxii. 
1 7 ; ev irvevpaTL, Rev. i. 10 ; iv. 2 ; iv 86^rj [R. V. came n-ilh 
(in) glory'], 2 Co. iii. 7 ; iv irapa^da-ei, 1 Tim. ii. 14 ; iv 
eaurw, to come to himself, recover reason, Acts xii. 11 
(also in Grk. writ. ; cf. Hermann ad Vig. p. 749) ; iv 
Xpia-TO), to be brought to the fellowship of Christ, to be- 
come a Christian, Ro. xvi. 7 ; iv opoiwpaTi dvdpconcov, to 
become like men, Phil. ii. 7 ; iv Xoyw KoXaKelas [R- V. 
were we found using] flattering speech, 1 Th. ii. 5. iirdvu) 
TIVOS to be placed over a thing, Lk. xix. 19. fierd tivos or 
<rvv Tivi to become one's companion, associate with him : 
Mk. xvi. 10 ; Acts vii. 38 ; xx. 18 ; vno riva to be made 
subject to one, Gal. iv. 4. [Cf. h. below.] g. with speci- 
fication of the terminus of motion or the place of rest : els 
with ace. of place, to come to some place, arrive at some 



yiv(O(rK(0 



117 



yivaxTKO} 



thing, Acts xx. 16 ; xxi. 17 ; xxv. 15 ; ws iyhfro . . . ds 
TO S)Td p-ov when the voice came into my ears, Lk. i. 44 ; 
«»f with ace. of pers., of evils coming upon one, Rev. xvi. 2 
R G ; of blessings, Gal. iii. 1 4 ; 1 Th. i. 5 [Lchm. npos ; Acts 
xxvi. 6 L T Tr WH] ; yevfcrdai eVi tov tottov, Lk. xxii. 
40; fTTt TTJs y^f, Jn. vi. 21 [Tdf. iirl rfiv y.] ; S)8e, ib. 25 
((Kf'i, Xen. an. 6, 3 [5], 20 ; [cf. B. 71]) ; eni with ace. of 
place, Lk. xxiv. 22 ; Acts xxi. 35 ; [Jn. vi. 21 Tdf.] ; 
fyfviTO 8iooyfi6s eni ttjv fKKkTjo'iai', Acts viii. 1 ; eyevero 
(po^os or 6dfi^os eVi iravras, Lk. i. 65 ; iv. 36 ; Acts v. 5, 
11 ; [eKCTTaa-is, Acts x. 10 (Rec. e7re7reo-ei/)] ; eX*coj kqkov 
K- novTjpov fTTi T. dvSpainovs, Rev. xvi. 2 L T Tr WH ; 
iyevfTO prjua eirl riva, Aoyor or (ficovrj irpos nva (came to) : 
Lk. iii. 2; Jn. x. 35 ; Acts vii. 31 [Rec] ; x. 13, (Gen. xv. 
1,4; Jer. i. 2, 11 ; xiii. 8 ; Ezek. vi. 1 ; Hos. i. 1) ; [eVay- 
yekia, Acts xiii. 32 ; xxvi. 6 Rec] ; Kara with ace of place, 
Lk. X. 32 [Tr WH om.] ; Acts xxvii. 7, (Xen. Cyr. 7, 1, 
15) ; Kara, with gen. : to yevofievov prj/ia Ka6' oKtjs ttjs 'lox>- 
iaias the matter the report of which spread throughout 
all Judsea, Acts x. 37 ; npos riva, 2 Jn. 12 (Rec. eX^eti/) ; 

1 Co. ii. 3 ; avv rivi, to be joined to one as an associate, 
Lk. ii. 13, (Xen. Cyr. 5, 3, 8) ; eyyvs yivfcrdai, Eph. ii. 13 ; 
Tivos, Jn. vi. 19; h. [with (k of the source (see 1 
above): Mk. i. 11 (Tdf. om. eyeV) ; ix. 7 (TTrmrg. 
WH) ; Lk. iii. 22 ; ix. 35 ; Acts xix. 34] ; ylvtadai (k 
fitaov, to be taken out of the way, 2 Th. ii. 7 ; yevtadai 
6p.o6vfjLa86v, of many come together in one place. Acts xv. 
25 cf . ii. 1 [but only in R G ; yeuop.evois 6p,odvp.a86v in xv. 
25 may mean either having become of one mind, or possi- 
bly having come together with one accord. On the alleged 
use of y'lvojxai in the N. T. as interchangeable with elp,L 
«ee Fritzschior. Opuscc. p. 284 note. Comp. : diro-, dia-, 
fTTi-, Trapa-, (Tvp.- irapa-, npo-yivofxai.^ 

yiVMo-Ko) (Attic yiyvmcTKa, see ytvofiai init. ; fr. FNOQ, 
as /3i/3pa)(r*c<» fr. BPOQ) ; [impf. eyivaia-KovJ ; tut. yvaxropai, ; 

2 aor. tyvuiv (fr. TNGMI), impv. yvaiBi, yvuro), subj. yva 
(3 pers. sing, yi/oi, Mk. v. 43 ; ix. 30 ; Lk. xix. 15 L T Tr 
WH, for R G yv^ [B. p. 46 (40) ; cf. 8i8(ofii init.]), inf. 
yvcivai, ptcp. yvovs; pf. eyvaxa (Jn. xvii. 7 ; 3 pers. plur. 
tyvuxav for eyvcoKacri, see reff. in ylvop,ai init.) ; plpf. 
€yvci)K€iv ; Pass., [pres. 3 pers. sing. ytvcoo-Kerat (]\lk. xiii. 
28 Tr mrg.)] ; pf. i'yvcoa-pai ; 1 aor. eyvoio-dijv ; fut. yucoa-drj- 
trofiai ; in Grk. writ. fr. Horn, down ; Sept. for yy ; Lat. 
nosco, novi (i. e. gnosco, gnovi) ; 

I. univ. 1. to learn to know, come to know, get a 
knowledge of', pass, to become known : with ace, Mt. xxii. 
18 ; ]\Ik. V. 43 ; Acts xxi. 34 ; 1 Co. iv. 1 9 ; 2 Co. ii. 4 ; Col. 
iv. 8 ; 1 Th. iii. 5, etc. Pass., Mt. x. 26 ; Acts ix. 24 ; Phil, 
iv. 5, etc.; [impers. yii/coo-xerat, Mk. xiii. 28 Trmrg.T2, 7]; 
Ti e/c TWOS, Mt. xii. 33 ; Lk. vi. 44 ; 1 Jn. iv. 6 ; tivo. or t\ 
tv Tivi, to find a sign in a thing by which to know, to recog- 
nize in or by something, Lk. xxiv. 35 ; Jn. xiii. 35 ; 1 
Jn. iv. 2 ; Kara Tiyvma-ofiai tovto, the truth of this promise, 
Lk. i. 18 (Gen. xv. 8) ; nepl Trjs SiSaxrjs, Jn. vii. 1 7. often 
the object is not added, but is readily understood from 
what precedes : ]\It. ix. 30 ; xii. 15 (the consultation held 
by the Pharisees) ; Mk. vii. 24 (he would have no one 
know that he was present) ; Mk. Lx. 30 ; Ro. x. 1 9, etc. ; 



foil, by on, Mt. xxi. 45 ; Jn. iv. 1 ; v. 6 ; xii. 9, etc. ; foil. 
by the interrog. rl, Mt. vi. 3 ; Lk. xvi. 4 ; dno rivos, to 
learn from one, IVIk. xv. 45. with ace. of pers. to recog- 
nize as worthy of intimacy and love, to own ; so those 
whom God has judged worthy of the blessings of the gos- 
pel are said vno roii 6(ov yivcuaKfadai, 1 Co. viii. 3 ; Gal. 
iv. 9, [on both cf. W. § 39, 3 Note 2 ; B. 55 (48)] ; neg- 
atively, in the sentence of Christ oiiSeVore eyi/coi' vp.ds, I 
never knew you, never had any acquaintance with you, 
Mt. vii. 23. to perceive, feel : eyi/co rw a-oipan, on etc. Mk. 
v. 29 ; <Eyva>v bvvap.iv f^tXdoiiaav dn' epov, Lk. viii. 46. 
2. to know, understand, perceive, have knowledge of; a. 
to understand : with ace, ra 'Ktyopfva, Lk. xviii. 34 ; a 
dvayivacTKfii, Acts viii. 30; foil, by on, Mt. xxi. 45; Jn. 
viii. 27 sq. ; 2 Co. xiii. 6 ; Gal. iii, 7 ; Jas. ii. 20 ; foil, by 
interrog, ti, Jn. x. 6; xiii. 12, 28; o »carfpydfo/iat ov yi- 
voxTKO} I do not understand what I am doing, my conduct 
is inexplicable tome, Ro. vii. 15. b. to know. roBiXr^pa, 
Lk. xii. 4 7 ; ras Kapdias, Lk. xvi. 1 5 ; tov pf) yvovra dpaprlav 
ignorant of sin, i. e. not conscious of having committed it, 
2 Co. V. 21 ; eTTtcTToXij yivcoaKopevt] Ka\ dvaywaxTKopfvr], 2 Co. 
iii. 2 ; Ttvd, to know one, his person, character, mind, 
plans : Jn. i. 48 (49) ; ii. 24 ; Acts xix. 15 ; 2 Tim. ii. 19 
(fr. Num. xvi. 5) ; foil, by oti, Jn. xxi. 1 7 ; Phil. i. 1 2 ; 
Jas. i. 3 ; 2 Pet. i. 20 ; foil, by ace. with inf. Heb. x. 34 ; 
foil, by an indirect question. Rev. iii. 3 ; eXXz/i/ia-Ti yivanjK. 
to know Greek (graece scire, Cic. de fin. 2, 5) : Acts xxi. 
37, (enia-Taardai (Tvpia-Ti, Xen. Cyr. 7, 5, 31 ; graece nescire, 
Cic. pro Flac. 4, 10); ta-Te (Rec. e<TT() yivaaKovTfs ye 
know, understanding etc. [R. V. ye know of a surely, 
etc.], Eph. v. 5 ; see W. 355 (333) ; [cf. B. 51 (44) ; 314 
(269)]. impv. yivaxTKfre know ye : Mt. xxiv. 32 sq. 43 ; 
]\Ik. xiii. 29 ; Lk. x. 11 ; Jn. xv. 18 ; Acts ii. 36 ; Heb. xiii. 
23 ; 1 Jn. ii. 29. 3. by a Hebraistic euphemism [cf. 
W. 18], found also in Grk. writ. fr. the Alexandrian age 
down, yivw(TK<i> is used of the carnal connection of male 
and female, re7n cum aliquo or aliqua habere (cf. our 
have a [criminal] intimacy with) : of a husband, INlt. i. 
25 ; of the woman, Lk. i. 34 ; (Gen. iv. 1, 17 ; xix. 8 ; 1 
S. i. 19, etc. ; Judith xvi. 22; Callim. epigr. 58,3; often 
in Plut. ; cf. Vogelin, Plut. Brut. p. 10 sqq. ; so also Lat. 
co(7nosco, Ovid. met. 4, 596; novi, Justin, hist. 27, 3, 11). 
II. In particular yivuxTKa, to become acquainted with, 
to know, is employed in the N. T. of the knowledge of 
God and Christ, ai\d of the things relating to them or pro- 
ceeding from them ; a. tov 6e6v, the one, true God, in 
contrast with the polytheism of the Gentiles: Ro. i. 21 ; 
Gal. iv. 9 ; also tov povov dKrjdtvbv 6e6v, Jn. xvii. 3 cf. 1 Jn. 
V. 20 ; TOV deov, the nature and will of God, in contrast 
with the false wisdom of both Jews and Gentiles, 1 Co. 
i. 21 ; TOV narepa, the nature of God the Father, esp. 
the holy will and affection by which he aims to sanctify 
and redeem men through Christ, Jn. viii. 55 ; xvi. 3 ; 
1 Jn. ii. 3 sq. 14 (13); iii. 1, 6; iv. 8; a peculiar knowl- 
edge of God the Father is claimed by Christ for him- 
self, Jn. X. 15; xvii. 25; yvmOt tov Kvpiov, the precepts 
of the Lord, Heb. viii. 11; to df'Kripa (of God), Ro. ii. 
18 ; voiv Kvpiov, Ro. xi. 34 ; 1 Co. ii. 16 ; ttjv crocpiav tov 



^LV0i<XK03 



118 



•yXoicrcTa 



Bfov, 1 Co. ii. 8 ; ras 68ovs rov 6eov, Heb. iii. 10 (fr. 
Ps. xciv. (xcv.) 10). b. Xpio-rdi/, his blessings, Phil, 
iii. 10; in Xpicrroi' eyvcoKevai Kara crapKa, 2 Co. v. 16, 
Paul speaks of that knowledge of Christ which he had 
before his conA-ersion, and by which he knew him merely 
in the form of a servant, and therefore had not yet seen 
in him the Son of God. Ace. to J oh n 's usage, yiv(o(TKeiv, 
eyvcoKevai Xpiarov denotes (o come to know, to know, his 
Messianic dignity (Jn. xvii. 3; vi. 69) ; his divinity (jov 
an apxris, 1 Jn. ii. 13 sq. cf. Jn. i. 10), his consummate 
kindness towards us, and the benefits redounding to us 
from fellowship with him (in Christ's words yivwa-KOfj-ai, 
vno Tutvijxav, Jn. x. 14 [ace. to the crit. texts yivuxTKova'iv 
fie TO. ep.d']) ; his love of God (Jn. xiv. 31) ; his sinless 
holiness (1 Jn. iii. 6). John unites TrioTfi'eti/ and yivcoa-Kftv, 
at one time putting Tna-reveiu first: vi. 69 [cf. Schaff's 
Lange or Mey. ad loc] ; but at another time ■yti'too-xetj/ : 
X. 38 (ace. to R G, for which L T Tr AVH read iVa yucbre 
Koi yiva>aKT)Te [R. V. know and uriderstandj) ; xvii. 8 [L 
br. K- eyv.^ ; 1 Jn. iv. 16 (the love of God). c. y. ra tov 
TTvevfiaros the things which proceed from the Spirit, 1 Co. 
ii. 14 ; TO TTvevfj-a r. dXrjdeias koI to itv. r^s TrKdvrjs, 1 Jn. iv. 
6 ; Ta fiv(TTT]pia Trjs ^aaiXfias t5>v ovpavwv, Mt. xiii. 1 1 ; ttjv 
akT]6eiav, Jn. viii. 32; 2 Jn. 1 ; absol., of the knowledge 
of divine things, 1 Co. xiii. 12; of the knowledge of 
things lawful for a Christian, 1 Co. viii. 2. 

[Syn. y IV w<t K€ iv, eiS 4 vai, € ir i ctt aff at, crvvievai: 
In classic usage (cf. Schmidt ch. 13), ytvci(TKeiv, distinguished 
from the rest b}^ its original inchoative force, denotes a dis- 
criminating apprehension of external impressions, a knowl- 
edge grounded in personal experience. elSevai, lit. ' to have 
seen with the mind's eye,' signifies a clear and purely mental 
perception, in contrast both to conjecture and to knowledge 
derived from others. iiricnaaQai primarily expresses the 
knowledge obtained by proximity to the thing known (cf. 
our understand, Germ, verstehen) ; then knowledge viewed as 
the result of prolonged practice, in oppof^ition to the process 
of learning on the one hand, and to the uncertain knowledge 
of a dilettante on the other. <rvvUvai implies native insight, 
the soul's capacity of itself not only to lay hold of the phe- 
nomena of the outer world through the senses, but by combi- 
nation {avv and Uvai) to arrive at their underlying laws. 
Hence awUvai may mark an antithesis to sense-perception ; 
whereas yivdxxKeiv marks an advance upon it. As apphed 
e. g. to a work of literature, yivdi>(TK€iv expresses an acquaint- 
ance with it ; iiricTTacrOai the knowledge of its contents ; 
avvUvai the understanding of it, a comprehension of its mean- 
ing. yivwffKiiv and eiSeVat most readily come into contrast 
with each other ; if tlSevai and i-TriaTacrdctt are contrasted, the 
former refers more to natural, the latter to acquired knowl- 
edge. In the N. T., as might be expected, these distinctions 
are somewhat less sharply marked. Such passages as John 
i. 26, 31, 48 (49) ; vii. 27 sq. ; xxi. 17 ; 2 Co. v. 16 ; 1 Jn. v. 20 
may seem to indicate that, sometimes at least, yivdxrKcc and 
oI5o are nearly interchangeable; yet see Jn. iii. 10, 11 ; viii. 
55 (yet cf. xvii. 25) ; 1 Jn. ii. 29 {knoiv . . . perceive), and the 
characteristic use of elStvai by John to describe our Lord's 
direct insight into divine things: iii. 11 ; v. 32 (contrast 42) ; 
vii. 29 ; viii. 55 ; xii. 50, etc ; cf. Bp. Lghtft.'s note on Gal. 
iv. 9 ; Green, 'Critical Notes' etc. p. 75 (on Jn. viii. 55); 
Westcott on John ii. 24. yivda-Ku and tVi'o-Ta/uat are associ- 
ated in Acts xix. 15 (cf. Green, as above, p. 97) ; oUa and 



yivaxTKo) in 1 Co. ii. 11 ; Eph v. 5 ; olSa and iiricrTafiat in Jude 
1 0. CoMP. : dva-, Sia-, ini-, Kara-, irpo-yiviiaKcc.] 

■yXcvKos, -ovs, TO, tnust, the sweet juice pressed from the 
grape; Nicand. alex. 184, 299 ; Pint., al. ; Job xxxii. 19; 
sweet loine : Acts ii. 13. [Cf. BB. DD. s. v. Wine.] * 

■yXvKvs, -eia, -V, sweet: Jas. iii. 11 (opp. to niKpov); 12 
(opp. to dXvKoi/) ; Rev. x. 9, [10]. [From Horn, down.]* 

■yXwo-o-a, -r]s, tj, [fr. Hom. down], the tongue ; 1. the 
tongue, a member of the body, the organ of speech : Mk. 
vii. 33, 35 ; Lk. i. 64 ; xvi. 24 ; 1 Co. xiv. 9 ; Jas. i. 26 ; 
iii. 5, 6, 8; 1 Pet. iii. 10; 1 Jn. iii. 18; [Rev. xvi. 10]. 
By a poetical and rhetorical usage, esp. Hebraistic, that 
member of the body which is chiefly engaged in some act 
has ascribed to it what belongs to the man ; the tongue 
is so used in Acts ii. 26 {TjyaWiddaTo fj yXaaa-d fxov) ; Ro. 
iii. 1 3 ; xiv. 1 1 ; Plul. ii. 1 1 (the tongue of every man) ; of 
the little tongue-like flames svmbolizing the ffift of foreio-n 
tongues, in Acts ii. 3. 2. a tongue, i. e. the language 
used by a particular people in distinction from that of 
other nations : Acts ii. 1 1 ; hence in later Jewish usage (Is. 
Ixvi. 18 ; Dan. iii. 4 ; v. 19 Theod. ; vi. 25 ; vii. 14 Theod. ; 
Jud. iii. 8) joined with (})v\rj, \a6s, edvos, it serves to desig- 
nate people of various languages [cf. W. 32], Rev. v. 9 ; 
vii. 9 ; X. 11 ; xi. 9 ; xiii. 7 ; xiv. 6 ; xvii. 15. XaXfli/ ere- 
pais yXaa-a-ais to speak with other than their native i. e. in 
foreign tongues. Acts ii. 4 cf. 6-11 ; yXuxraais \akeiv km- 
vals to speak with new tongues which the speaker has not 
learned previously, Mk. xvi. 1 7 [but Tr txt. WH txt. om. 
Tr mrg. br. Kaivais^ ; cf. De Wette on Acts p. 27 sqq. [cor- 
rect and supplement liis reff. by Mey. on 1 Co. xii. 1 ; 
cf. also B. D. s. V. Tongues, Gift of]. From both these 
expressions must be carefully distinguished the simple 
phrases XaXetj/ yXcoo-traiy, yXcucrcratj XaXeii/, \dkilv -yXcocrcrj;, 
yXaxTCTT] XaXeiv (and 7rpo(r€V)(((T6ai yXuxTcrrf, 1 Co. xiv. 14), 
to speak ivith (in) a tongue (the organ of speech), to speak 
with tongues ; this, as appears from 1 Co. xiv. 7 sqq., is the 
gift of men who, rapt in an ecstasy and no longer quite 
masters of their own reason and consciousness, pour forth 
their glowing spiritual emotions in strange utterances, 
rugged, dark, disconnected, quite unfitted to instruct or to 
influence the minds of others: Acts x. 46; xix. 6; 1 Co. 
xii. 30; .xiii. 1 ; xiv. 2,4-6,13,18,23,27,39. The origin of 
the expression is apparently to be found in the fact, that 
in Hebrew the tongue is spoken of as the leading instru- 
ment by which the praises of God are proclaimed (ij twv 
deicov vfMvcov p.fXa86s, 4 Macc. x. 21, cf. Ps. xxxiv. (xxxv.) 
28 ; Ixv. (Ixvi.) 1 7 ; Ixx. (Ixxi.) 24 ; cxxv. (cx.xvi.) 2 ; Acts 
ii. 26 ; Phil. ii. 11 ; XaXfiv ev yXaa-a-rj, Ps. xxxviii. (.xxxix.) 
4), and that according to the more rigorous conception 
of inspiration nothing human in an inspired man was 
thought to be active except the tongue, put in motion by 
the Holy Spirit (KaTaxpTjrai erepos- avToii tois (f)ci)vr)TT}pioii 
opydvois, (TTOfiaTi Kai yXwTTrj npos fxr]vv(riv U)v av deXrj, 
Philo, rer. div. haer. § 53, [i. 510 ed. Mang.]) ; hence the 
contrast diciTov vooi [crit. edd. tu voi~\ XaXt'iv, 1 Co. xiv. 
19 cf. 9. The plur. in the phrase yXoicrcrais XaXelv, used 
even of a single person (1 Co. xiv. 5 sq.), refers to the 
various motions of the tongue. By meton. of the cause for 



lyXcoaaoKOfjiov 



119 



jUMaroi; 



the effect, yXwo-o-ai tongues are equiv. to Xoyoi iv yKaxraji 
(1 Co. xiv. 19) ivords spoken in a tongue i^Z ungencortrd- 
ge) : xiii. 8 ; xiv. 22 ; yevrj yXaaa-du, 1 Co. xii. 10, 28, of 
which two kinds are mentioned viz. npoaevxr) and ^ahfios, 
1 Co. xiv. 15 ; yXaxrcrav e;(a), something to utter with a 
tongue, 1 Co. xiv. 26. [On ' Speaking witli Tongues ' 
see, in addition to the discussions above referred to, 
AVendt in the 5th ed. of Meyer on Acts (ii. 4) ; Heinrici, 
Korinthierbriefe, i. 372 sqq. ; Schaff, Hist, of the Chr. 
Church, i. 234-245 (1882) ; Farrar, St. Paul, i. 95 sqq.]* 

•yX(o<ro-6KO(iov, -ov, to, (for the earlier yXcaaaoKoixtiou or 
yXcoaaoKoiJLiov [W. 24 (23), 94 (90) ; yet see Boeckh, 
Corp. inscrr. 2448, viii. 25, 31], fr. yXmacra and Kofieco to 
tend) ; a. a case in which to keep the mouth-pieces of 
wind instruments, b. a small box for other uses also ; esp. 
a casket, purse to keep money in : Jn. xii. 6 ; xiii. 29 ; cf. 
Lob. ad Phryn. p. 98 sq. (For p'lK a chest, 2 Chr. xxiv. 
8, 10 sq. ; Joseph, antt. 6, 1, 2; Plut., Longin., al.)* 

■Yva<j)evs, -ecoy, 6, (also [earlier] Kva(f)evs, fr. yvairTco or 
KvuTTTco to card), a fuller: Mk. ix. 3. (Hdt., Xen., and 
S([([. ; Sept. Is. vii. 3 ; xxxvi. 2 ; 2 K. xviii. 1 7.) * 

■yVTio-ios, -a, -Of, (by syncope for yfvrjcrtoi fr. yivofiai, 
yev-, [cf. Curtius § 128]), legitimately born, not spurious ; 
genuine, true, sincere : Phil. iv. 3 ; 1 Tim. i. 2 ; Tit. i. 4 ; 
TO TT]<: dya.Trr]s yurjaiov i. q. ttjv yvrjaiorrfTa [A. V. the sin- 
cerity'], 2 Co. viii. 8. (From Horn, down.) * 

■yvTio-io)s, adv., genuinely, faithfully, sincerely: Phil. ii. 
20. [From Eur. down.] * 

•yv6<j)os, -ov, -6, (for the earlier [and poetic] 8v6(^os, 
akin to ve(^os [so Bttm. Lexil. ii. 266 ; but see Curtius 
pp. 704 sq. 706, cf. 535; Vanicek p. 1070]), darkness, 
gloom : Heb. xii. 18. (Aristot. de mund. c. 2 fin. p. 392*, 
1 2 ; Lcian. de mort. Peregr. 43 ; Dio Chrys. ; Sept. also 
for jj;^ a cloud, Deut. iv. 11, etc. and for '73"i;,'. 'thick 
cloud,' Ex. XX. 21, etc. ; [Trench § c.].) * 

•yvwuT], -rjs, i], (fr. yifwcr/cm) ; 1. the faculty of know- 
ing, mind, reason. 2. that which is thought or known, 
one's mmrf ; a. vieir, judgment, opinion : 1 Co. i. 10 ; Rev. 
xvii. 13. b. mind concerning what ought to be done, 
aa. by one's self, resolve, purpose, intention : eyevero 
yvm/jir} [T Tr WH yvafirjs, see yivofiai 5 e. a.] tov inroarpe- 
(p(Lv, Acts XX. 3 [B. 268 (230)]. bb. by others, judg- 
ment, advice : SiSocat yvMfirjv, 1 Co. vii. 25, [40] ; 2 Co. viii. 
10. cc. decree: Rev. xvii. 17; ;^(«)piy t^s a-TJs yvmfxr]s, 
without thy consent, Philem. 14. (In the same senses in 
Grk. writ. ; [cf. Schmidt, ch. 13, 9 ; Mey. on 1 Co. i. 10].) * 

■yvupCtw; fut. yvQipi(TQ) (Jn. xvii. 26 ; Eph. vi. 21 ; Col. 
iv. 7), Attic -iw (Col. iv. 9 [L WH -laoi; B. 37 (32); 
WH. App. p. 163]) ; 1 aor. eyvatpiaa; Pass., [pres. yvutpi- 
^opai] ; 1 aor. eyvapiadrjv ; in Grk. writ. fr. Aeschyl. 
down [see ad fin.] ; Sept. for y\'"\'iT] and Chald. p'\'i'n ; 
1. trans, to make knotvn : tI, Ro. ix. 22 sq. ; ri nvi, Lk. 
ii. 15; Jn. xv. 15 ; xvii. 26; Acts ii. 28; 2 Co. viii. 1 ; 
Eph. iii. 5, 10, [pass, in these two exx.] ; Eph. vi, 21 ; 
Col. iv. 7, 9 ; 2 Pet. i. 16; nvl to fiva-TTjpiov, Eph. i. 9; 
iii. 3 [GLTTr WH read the pass.]; vi. 19; ni/t on, 
1 Co. xii. 3 ; nvi ti, on i. q. nvl on n. Gal. i. 1 1 ; foil, by 
ri interrog. Col. i. 27 ; nepi tivos, Lk. ii. 1 7 L T Tr WH ; 



yvupi^eado) Trpos tov deov bc brought to the knowledo"e of 
God, Phil. iv. 6 ; yvapi^tcrdai tls ndvTa to. edvrj to be made 
known unto all the nations, Ro. xvi. 26 ; contextually 
and emphatically i. q. to recall to one's mind, as though 
what is made known had escaped him, 1 Co. xv. 1 ; with 
ace. of pers. [(Plut. Fab. Max. 21, 6)], in pass., to 
become known, be recognized : Acts vii. 13 Tr txt. WH 
txt. 2. intrans. to knoiv : tI alpf](Top.ai, ov yvupi^o), Phil. 
i. 22 [WH mrg. punctuate ti alp. ; ov yv. ; some refer 
this to 1 (R. V. mrg. / do not make knoa-n), cf. Mey. ad 
loc. In earlier Grk. yvuipi^a) signifies either ' to gain a 
knowledge of,' or ' to have thorough knowledge of.' Its 
later (and N. T.) causative force seems to be found 
only in Aeschyl. Prom. 487 ; cf. Schmidt vol. i. p. 287; 
Bp. Lghtft. on Phil. 1. c. Comp. : ava-, fita-yvrnpifw].* 

■yvwo-is, -eojj, 17, (ytvcoo-Ko)), [fr. Thuc. down], knowl- 
edge: with gen. of the obj., arcoTrjplas, Lk. i. 77; tov 
6eov, the knowledge of God, such as is offered in the 
gospel, 2 Co. ii. 14, esp. in Paul's exposition of it, 2 Co. 
X. 5 ; TJys do^rjs tov Beov iv Trpoaanco Xpiarov, 2 Co. iv. 6 ; 
'itjaov XpLcrrov, of Christ as a saviour, Phil. iii. 8 ; 2 Pet. 
iii. 18 ; with subj. gen. roii deov, the knowledge of things 
which belongs to God, Ro. xi. 33. yvaais, by itself, sig- 
nifies in general intelligence, understanding : Eph. iii. 19 ; 
the general knowledge of the Christian religion, Ro. xv. 
14; 1 Co. i. 5; the deeper, more perfect and enlarged 
knowledge of this religion, such as belongs to the more 
advanced, 1 Co. xii. 8 ; xiii. 2, 8 ; xiv. G ; 2 Co. vi. 6 ; viii. 7 ; 
xi. 6 ; esp. of things lawful and unlawful for Christians, 1 
Co. viii. 1, 7, 10 sq. ; the higher knowledge of Christian 
and divine things which false teachers boast of, -^(v^cow- 
p.os yvwais, 1 Tim. vi. 20 [cf. Holtzmann, Pastoralbriefe, 
p. 132 sq.] ; moral wisdom, such as is seen in right living, 
2 Pet. i. 5 ; and in intercourse with others : Kara yvaaiv, 
wisely, 1 Pet. iii. 7. objective knowledge : what is known 
concerning divine things and human duties, Ro. ii. 20 ; 
Col. ii. 3 ; concerning salvation through Christ, Lk. xi. 
52. Where yvaais and aocjiia are used together the for- 
mer seems to be knowledge regarded by itself, the 
latter wisdom as exhibited in action: Ro. xi. 33; 1 
Co. xii. 8; Col. ii. 3. ["yi/. is simply intuitive, (ro(^. is 
ratiocinative also; yv. applies chiefly to the appre- 
hension of truths, a-o(f). superadds the power of reason- 
ing about them and tracing their relations." Bp. Lghtft. 
on Col. 1. c. To much the same effect Fritzsche (on Ro. 
1. c), "yi/. perspicientia veri, a-ocp. sapientia aut mentis 
sollertia, quae cognita intellectaque veritate utatur, ut res 
efficiendas efficiat." Meyer (on 1 Co. 1. c.) nearly re- 
verses Lghtft.'s distinction ; elsewhere, however (e. g. on 
Col. 1. c, cf. i. 9), he and others regard aocf). merely as 
the more general, yv. as the more restricted and special 
term. Cf. Lghtft. u. s. ; Trench § Ixxv.] * 

•Yvuo-TTjs, -ov, 6, (a knower), an expert; a connoisseur: 
Acts xxvi. 3. (Plut. Flam. c. 4 ; 6eo^ 6 tUv KpvnTmv 
yvaxTTTjs, Hist. Sus. vs. 42 ; of those who divine the future, 
1 S. xxviii. 3, 9, etc.) * 

yvwo-Tos, -77, -ov, knoum: Acts ix. 42 ; tivi, Jn. xviii. 15 
sq. ; Acts i. 19 ; .xv. 18 R L; xix. 17 ; xxviii. 22 ; yvaxTTov 



lyoyyv^Oi 



120 



'ypaixjia 



ftrrto ifxivbe it knoion to you : Acts ii. 14 ; iv, 10 ; xiii. 38 ; 
xxviii. "28; contextually, notable, Acts iv. 16; yi/cooroi' 
TToitiv to make known, disclose : Acts xv. 1 7 sq. G T Tr 
WH [al. construe yvuxrr. as pred. of ravra : R. V. mrg. 
who doetk these things which were known ; cf. Mey. ad 
loc.]. TO yvaxTTov tov 6(ov, either that which may be 
known of God, or i. q. yvuxris tov 6fov, for both come to 
the same thing: Ro. i. 19; cf. Fritzsche ad loc. and W. 
235 (220), [and Meyer (ed. Weiss) ad loc.]. plur. ot 
yvoiuroi acquaintance, intimates, (Ps. xxx. (xxxi.) 1 2 ; 
[Ixxxvii. (Ixxxviii.) 9, 19] ; Neh. v. 10) : Lk. ii. 44 ; xxiii. 
49. (In Grk. writ. fr. Aeschyl. down.) * 

Yoyyv^w; impf. tyoyyv^ov] 1 aor. iyoyyvcra; to murmur, 
mutter, grumble, say anything in a low tone, (ace. to PoUux 
and Phavorinus used of the cooing of doves, like the 
TovdpvCo) and Tovdopv(a) of the more elegant Grk. writ. ; 
cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 358 ; [W. 22 ; Bp. Lghtft. on Phil, 
ii. 14]) ; hence of those who confer together secretly, tI 
nepi Tivos, Jn. vii. 32; of those who discontentedly com- 
plain: 1 Co. X. 10; TTpos Tiva, Lk. v. 30; fifr aXXjjXwi/, 
Jn. vi. 43; Kara tivos, Mt. xx. 11 ; Tvepi tivos, Jn. vi. 41, 
61. (Sept. ; Antonin. 2, 3 ; Epict. diss. 1, 29, 55; 4, 1, 
79; [al.].) [Comp. : Sta-yoyyufco.]* 

^oYYworjjios, -ov, 6, (yoyyii((i), q. v.), a murmur, murmur- 
ing, muttering ; applied to a. secret debate : Ttepi tivos, 
Jn. vii. 1 2. b. secret displeasure, not openly avowed : 
Trpoy Tiva, Acts vi. 1 ; in plur. x^P*-^ ^^ (ivfv yoyyvcr/xwi/ 
without querulous discontent, without murmurings, i. e. 
with a cheerful and willing mind, Phil. ii. 14 ; 1 Pet. iv. 
9 (where L T Tr WH read the sing.). (Ex. xvi. 7 sqq. ; 
Sap. i. 10 sq. ; Antonin. 9, 37.)* 

"yo-yYvoT^s, -ov, 6, a mnrinurer, (Vulg., Augustine, mur- 
muralor), one who discontentedly complains (against 
God; for /if/x\//i/xotpot is added) : Jude 16. [Prov. xxvi. 
21 Theod., 22 Symm. ; xxvi. 20, 22 Graec. Ven.] * 

•VOTjs, -r]Tos, 6, (yoao) to bewail, howl) ; 1. a ivailer, 
howler : Aeschyl. choeph. 823 [Hermann et al. yor^Tr^s]. 
2. a juggler, enchanter, (because incantations used to be 
uttered in a kind of howl). 3. a deceiver, impostor: 
2 Tim. iii. 13 ; (Hdt., Eur., Plat., and subseq. writ.).* 

roX^oed [Tr WH, or -^5 R G L T (see Tdf. Proleg. 
j>. 102 ; Kautzsch p. 10) ; also -66 L WH mrg. in Jn. xix. 
17 ; ace. -av Tdf. in Mk. xv. 22 (WH -av, see their App. 
p. 160), elsewhere indecl., W. 61 (60)], Golgotha, Chald. 
^rh:hl, Heb. rh'i-'l (fr. SSj to roll), i. e. Kpaviov, a skull 
[Lat. calvaria~\, the name of a place outside of Jerusa- 
lem where Jesus was crucified ; so called, apparently, 
because its form resembled a skull : Mt. xxvii. 33 ; Mk. 
XV. 22 ; Jn. xix. 1 7. Cf. Tobler, Golgatha. St. Gall. 1 851 ; 
Furrer in Schenkel ii. 506 sqq. ; Keim, Jesus von Naz. 
iii. 404 sq. ; \_Porter in Alex.'s Kitto s. v. ; F. Howe, The 
true Site of Calvary, N. Y., 1871].* 

Fofjioppa [or Tofioppa, cf . Chandler § 1 6 7], -as, fj, and -av, 
Td, [cf. B. 18 (16) ; Tdf. Proleg. p. 116; WH. App. p. 
156], Gomorrah, (r\']^y, cf. nT>l Gaza), the name of a city 
in the eastern part of Judaja, destroyed by the same earth- 
quake [cf. B. D. s. V. Sea, The Salt] with Sodom and its 
neighbor cities : Gen. xix. 24. Their site is now occu- 



pied by the Asphaltic Lake or Dead Sea [cf. BB. DD. 
s. vv. Gomorrah and Sodom] : Mt. x. 15 ; Mk. vi. 11 R L 
in br. ; Ro. ix. 29 ; 2 Pet. ii. 6 ; Jude 7.* 

^6(1,0$, -ov, 6, (ye'/iiw) ; a. the lading or freight of a ship, 
cargo, merchandise conveyed in a ship : Acts xxi. 3, (Hdt. 
1, 194; [Aeschyl.], Dem., al. ; [in Sept. the load of a 
beast of burden, Ex. xxiii. 5 ; 2 K. v. 17]). b. any mer- 
chandise : Rev. xviii. 1 1 sq.* 

•yovevs, -itos, 6, (FENQ, yeyova), [Hom. h. Cer., Hes., 
al.] ; a begetter, parent ; plur. ot yoviis the parents : Lk. ii, 
41,43 Ltxt.TTrWH; [viii. 56] ; xxi. 16; Jn. ix. 2, 3, 
20, 22, 23 ; 2 Co. xii. 14 ; Ro. i. 30 ; Eph. vi. 1 ; Col. iii. 
20; 2Tim. iii. 2; ace. plur. yomy : Mt. x. 21 ; [xix. 29 
Lchm.mrg.] ; Lk. ii. 27 ; [xviii. 29] ; Mk. xiii. 12 ; [Jn. 
ix. 18] ; on this form cf. W. § 9, 2 ; [B. 14 (13)].* 

y6w, yuvaTos, to, [fr. Hom. down], the knee : Heb. xii. 
1 2 ; Ti6fvai TO. yovaTa to bend the knees, kneel down, of 
persons supplicating : Lk. xxii. 41 ; Acts vii. 60 ; ix. 40 ; 
xx. 36; xxi. 5; of [mock] worshippers, Mk. xv. 19, so 
also npoaTTiTTTeiv to'is yovaa-i tivos, Lk. v. 8 (of a suppliant 
in Eur. Or. 1332) ; KcifinTtiv ra yovaTa to bow the knee, of 
those worshipping God or Christ : tivI, Ro. xi. 4 ; tt/xjs 
Tiva, Eph. iii. 14 ; reflexively, yow KannTei Tivi, to i. e. in 
honor of one, Ro. xiv. 11 (1 K. xix. 18) ; ev ovofiaTi 'itjcrov, 
Phil. ii. 10 (Is. xlv. 23).* 

yovvtnrio), -&> ; 1 aor. ptcp. yownfTrjO-as; {yownfTTjs, 
and this fr. yow and IIETQ i. q. ttltttu)) ; to fall on the 
knees, the act of one imploring aid, and of one express- 
ing reverence and honor: tivi, Mt. xvii. 14 Rec. ; Tivd, 
ibid. G L T Tr WH ; Mk. i. 40 R G Tr txt. br. WH br. ; x. 
17; cf. W. 210 (197); [B. 147 sq. (129)]; '^p-TtpoaOiv 
Tivos, Mt. xxvii. 29. (Polyb., Heliod. ; eccl. writ.) * 

■ypd^(ia, -TO?, TO, (ypafpco), that which has beeii written ; 
1. a letter i. e. the character : Lk. xxiii. 38 [R G L br. Tr 
mrg. br.] ; Gal. vi. 11. 2. any writing, a document or 
record; a. a note of hand, bill, bond, account, loritten ac- 
knowledgment of debt, (as scriptio in Varr. sat. Men. 8, 1 
[cf. Edersheim ii. 268 sqq.]) : Lk. xvi. 6 scj. ([Joseph, 
antt. 18, 6, 3], in L txt. T Tr WH plur. to. ypa.p,p.aTa ; so 
of one document also in Antiph. p. 114, (30); Dom. p. 
1034, IG; Vulg. cautio). b. a letter, an epistle: Acts 
xxviii. 21 ; (Hdt. 5, 14; Thuc. 8, 50; Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 
26, etc.). c. TO. Upaypap-fxaTa the sacred ivritings (of the 
O. T. ; [so Joseph, antt. jjrooem. § 3 ; 10, 10, 4 fin. ; c. Ap. 
1,10; Philo, de vit. Moys. 3, 39 ; de ])raem. et poen. § 14 ; 
leg. ad Gai. § 29, etc. — but always rn t. y J ) : 2 Tim. iii. 15 
[here T WH om. LTrbr. ra]; ypdpp.a i. (i- the written 
law of Moses, Ro. ii. 27 ; Mcovcrewy ypup.p.aTa, Jn. v. 47. 
Since the Jews so clave to the letter of the law that 
it not only became to them a mere letter but also a hin- 
drance to true religion, Paul calls it ypnppa in a disparag- 
ing sense, and contrasts it with to nvevpa i. e. the divine 
Spirit, whether operative in the Alosaic law, Ro. ii. 29, 
or in the gospel, by which Christians are governed, Ro. 
vii. 6 ; 2 Co. iii. 6 sq. [but in vs. 7 R(; T WH read the 
plur. written in letters, so L mrg. Tr mrg.]. 3. to 
ypdppuTa, like the Lat. litlerae, Eng. letters, i. q. learning : 
Acts xxvi. 24 ; elBevai, ptpa6r]Kevai yp. (cf. Germ, studirt 



ypafM/AaT€v<; 



121 



<ypd(f)Oii 



haben), of sacred learning, Jn. vii. 15. (^avddvfiv, iiridTa- 
<rdai, etc., ypd^fiara are used by the Greeks of the rudi- 
ments of learning; of. Passow i. p. 571 ; [L. and S. s. v. 
II. a.].) * 

■ypafj.fiaT€VS, -ewy, (acc. plur. -els, W. § 9, 2 ; [B. 14 
(13)]), 6, (ypdnfia), Sept. for 130 and "^OW ; 1. in 
prof. auth. and here and there in the O. T. [e. g. 2 S. 
viii. 17; XX. 25; 2 K. xix. 2; xxv. 19; Ps. xliv, (xlv.) 2], 
a clerk, scribe, esp. a public scribe, secretary, recorder, 
whose ofBce and influence differed in different states : 
Acts xix. 35, (Sir. x. 5) ; [cf. Lghtft. in The Contemp. 
Rev. for 1878, p. 294; Wood, Discoveries at Ephesus, 
App. Inscrr. fr. the Great Theatre, p. 49 n.]. 2. in 
the Bible, a man learned in the Mosaic law and in the 
sacred writings, an interpreter, teacher : Mt. xxiii. 34 ; 1 
Co. i. 20, (called also voynKos in Lk. x. 25, and w/io8t8a- 
a-Kokoi in Lk. v. 1 7 ; [Meyer (on Mt. xxii. 35), while deny- 
ing any essential diff . betw. ypafiixanvs and pouikos 
(cf. Lk. xi. 52, 53 — yet see crit. txts.), regards the latter 
name as the more specific (a jurisconsult) and Classic, 
yp. as the more general (a learned man) and Hebraistic ; 
it is also the more common m the Apocr., where vop.. 
occurs only 4 Mace. v. 3. As teachers they were called 
vop.obiha<TKa\ot.. Cf . B. D. s. v. Lawyer, also s. v. Scribes 
I. 1 note] ) ; Jer. viii. 8 (cf. ii. 8) ; Neh. viii. 1 sq. ; xii. 
26, 36; 2 Esdr. vii. 6, 11, and esp. Sir. xxxviii. 24, 31 
sqq. ; xxxix. 1-11. The ypa/x^iarelf explained the mean- 
ing of the sacred oracles, Mt. ii. 4 [yp. tov \aov, Josh. i. 10 ; 
1 Mace. V. 42 ; cf. Sir. xliv. 4] ; xvii. 10; Mk. ix. 11 ; xii. 
35 ; examined into the more difficult and subtile ques- 
tions of the law, Mt. ix. 3 ; Mk. ii. 6 sq. ; xii. 28 ; added 
to the Mosaic law decisions of various kinds thought to 
elucidate its meaning and scope, and did this to the detri- 
ment of religion, Mt. v. 20 ; xv. 1 sqq. ; xxiii. 2 sqq. ; Mk. 
vii. 1 sqq. ; cf. Lk. xi. 46. Since the advice of men skilled 
in the law was needed in the examination of causes and 
the solution of difficult questions, they were enrolled in 
the Sanhedrin ; and accordingly in the N. T. they are 
often mentioned in connection with the priests and elders 
of the people : Mt. xxi. 15 ; xxvi. 3 R G; Mk. xi. 18, 27 ; 
xiv. 1 ; XV. 1 ; Lk. xix. 47 ; xx. 1 ; xxii. 2. Cf. Schiirer, 
Neutest. Zeitgesch. § 25 ii. ; Klopper in Schenkel v. 247 
sqq. ; [and thorough articles in BB.DD. s. v. Scribes ; cf. 
W. B.obertson Smith, The O. T. in the Jewish Ch., Lect. 
iii.]. 3. univ. a religious teacher: ypafiparevs p,adr)rev- 

6e\s fli ifiv j3aa-iX. ra>v ovp. a teacher so instructed that 
from his learning and ability to teach advantage may 
redound to the kingdom of heaven, Mt. xiii. 52 [but G T 
Tr WH read p.ad. rfi ^aaiKda (L ev r. j3.) ; and many in- 
terpret made a disciple unto the k. ofh. (which is person- 
ified) ; see naOr^Tfixo, fin.]. 

■ypaiTTOs, -r„ -6v, written : Ro. ii. 15. [Gorg. apol. Palam. 
p. 190 sub fin. ; Sept.; al.] * 

-Ypa()>if|, -rjs, Tj, (ypd(f)co, cf. y\v(f)r) and yXvCpco) ; a. a 
writing, thing tcritten, [fr. Soph, down] : naaaypacfifi every 
scripture sc. of the O. T., 2 Tim. iii. 16; plur. ypa^aX 
cryiai, holy scriptures, the sacred books (of the O. T.), 
Ro. i. 2 ; irpo(f)r]TiKai, Ro. xvi. 26 ; al ypatpai Tatv 7rpo(f>r}roiv, 



Mt. xxvi. 50. b. Tj ypacf)f], the Scripture kot i^oxr}v, the 
holy scripture (of the O. T.), — and used to denote either 
the book itself, or its contents [some would restrict the 
sing. ypa(})T) always to a particular passage ; see Bp. 
Lghtft. on Gal. iii. 22] : Jn. vii. 38 ; x. 35 ; Acts viii. 32 ; 
Ro. iv. 3 ; Gal. iii. 22 ; iv. 30 ; Jas. ii. 8 ; 1 Pet. ii. 6 ; 2 
Pet. i. 20; also in plur. al ypacfini: Mt. xxi. 42; xxvi. 54; 
Mk. xiv. 49 ; Lk. xxiv. 27 ; Jn. v. 39 ; Acts xvii. 2, 11 ; 
xviii. 24, 28 ; 1 Co. xv. 3 sq. ; once ai ypa(j)aL comprehends 
also the books of the N. T. already begun to be collected 
into a canon, 2 Pet. iii. 16; by meton. 17 ypacpfj is used 
for God speaking in it : Ro. ix. 17 ; Gal. iv. 30 ; i] ypacfir) 
is introduced as a person and distinguished from God in 
Gal. iii. 8. elSevai ras ypacfids, Mt. xxii. 29 ; Mk. xii. 24; 
(Tvvuvai, Lk. xxiv. 45. c. a certain portion or section of 
holy Scripture: Mk. xii. 10 ; Lk. iv. 21 ; Jn. xix. 37 ; Acts 
i. 16. [Cf. B. D. s. v. Scripture.] 

-ypdijxo ; [impf . eypa(pov^ ; f ut. ypd-slrco ; 1 aor. eypayj/a ; 
pf . yeypa<pa ; Pass., [pres. ypdcpofxai^ ; pf. ykypap,pat, ; 
[plpf. 3 pers. sing, iyeypairro, Rev. xvii. 8 Lchm.] ; 2 
aor. eypd(f)T]v ; (prop, to grave, scrape, scratch, engrave ; 
cf. Germ, graben, eingraben ; ypd^ev Se ol oa-rkov tixpis 
alxP'Ti, Horn. H. 17, 599 ; a-qnara ypd\l/as iv TzivaKi, ib. 6, 
169 ; hence to draw letters), to ivrite ; 1. with reference 
to the form of the letters ; to delineate (or form) letters 
on a tablet, parchment, paper, or other material : tw 8a- 
KTiiKa eypa(j)ev els ttjv yfjv made figures on the ground, Jn. 
viii. 6 Rec. ; ovrco ypd(^a> so am I accustomed to form my 
letters, 2 Thess. iii. 1 7 ; irrjKiKoi.s ypdp.p.a(n eypaxj/a with 
how large (and so, ill-formed [?]) letters I have written. 
Gal. vi. 11; cf . Winer, Riickert, Hilgenfeld ad loc. [for 
the views of those who regard eyp. as covering the close 
of the Ep. only, see Bp. Lghtft. and Mey. ; cf. W. 278 
(261); B. 198 (171 sq.)]. 2. with reference to the 
contents of the writing ; a. to express in written char- 
acters, foil, by the words expressed : fypayjre Xeyav 'icodv- 
VTfs eVrl TO ovofia avTov, Lk. i. 63 ; prj ypd(p€' 6 ^atriXevs 
Twu ^lovSaicov ktX. Jn. xix. 21 ; ypd'^ov fiaKapioi ktX. 
Rev. xiv. 13. ypd(f)a) Ti, Jn. xix. 22 ; pass. Rev. i. 3 ; ti 
f'ni Ti, Rev. ii. 17 ; xix. 16 ; rt eVt nva, iii. 12 ; eVi tlvos, 
xiv. 1. h. to commit to writing (things not to be for- 
gotten), tvrite down, record : Rev. i. 19 (ypd\f/ov a fides) ; 
X. 4 ; ypd(f)eiv els /St^Xi'oi/, Rev. i. 1 1 ; eVt to ^i^Xiov Tijs 
Cocifjs, Rev. xvii. 8 ; yeypap,u. iv t. ^i^Xico [or ttj j3//3Xa)], iu 
Tois /Si/SXtW, Rev. xiii. 8 ; xx. 12, 15 ; xxi. 27 ; xxii. 18, 
1 9 ; TO ovopaTU vpwv iypd(f)r] [iv-(iy- Tr see N, v)yeyp.T Tr 
WH] iv Tois ovpavols, i. e. that ye have been enrolled 
with those for whom eternal blessedness has been pre- 
pared, Lk. X. 20 ; ypd(pet,v ti tivi, to record something for 
some one's use, Lk. i. 3. c. iypd<pT] und yeypanrai (in the 
Synoptists and Paul), and yeypappevov ia-Ti (in John), 
are used of those things which stand written in the sacred 
books (of the O. T.) ; absol. yeypanrai, foil, by the quo- 
tation fr. the sacred vol.: Mt. iv. 4, 6 sq. 10; xxi. 13; 
Mk. vii. 6; xi. 17; xiv. 27; Lk. iv. 8; xix. 46 ; Kaeias 
yeypauTai, Acts xv. 1 5, very often in Paul, as Ro. i. 1 7 ; 
ii. 24 ; iii. 4 [see below] ; 1 Co. i. 31 ; ii. 9 ; 2 Co. viii. 15 ; 
Lx. 9 ; Kaedrrep yiyp. Ro. xi. 8 T Tr WH ; [iii. 4 T Tr 



rypcuoSij'; 



122 



JVflVOTT]^ 



WH] ; yeypaTTTai yap, Mt. xxvi. 31; Lk. iv. 10; Acts 
xxiii. 5 ; Ro. xii. 19 ; xiv. 11 ; 1 Co. iii. 19 ; Gal. iii. 10, 13 
Rec. ; iv. 22, 27 ; 6 \6yos 6 y€ypap.p.evos, 1 Co. xv. 54 ; Kara 
TO yeypap.p.evoi'., 2 Co. iv. 1 3 ; yeypappevov fcrri, Jn. ii. 17; 
vi. 31 ; xii. 14 ; eypdcpr] fie npos vovOeaiav rjpLOiv, 1 Co. x. 
11 ; eypa(j)r) fit' fjp,as for our sake, Ro. iv. 24 ; 1 Co. ix, 10 ; 
with the name of the author of the written words or of 
the books in which they are found : yey panrai ev ^i0Xm 
ylraXfiav, Acts i. 20 ; eV /3i/3Aa) twp npo(f)T]Twv, Acts vii. 42 ; 
ev rm irpiiTa [R WH bevrkpcf] -^aXpa, Acts xiii. 33 ; iv 
'Haaia, Mk. i. 2 [not Rec], etc. rivd or ti to write ofi. e. 
in icriting to mention or refer to a person or a thing : 6v 
iypa-^e Mcoua^s whom Moses had in mind in writing of 
the Messiah, or whose likeness Moses delineated, Jn. i. 
45 (46) ; Mcov(r^j ypdcf)ei Tr]v biKaiocrvvqv ttjv etc vopov, 
Moses, writing tlie words Bri. 6 Troirjaas avrd ktX., points 
out the righteousness wliicli is of the law, Ro. x. 5. ye- 
ypaiTTai, ypdcfxiu, etc. Trtpi rivos, concerning one : Mt. 
xxvi. 24 ; Mk. xiv. 21 ; Jn. v. 46 ; Acts xiii. 29 ; eVt tov 
vlov TOV dvdpanov, that it should find fulfilment in him, 
Mk. ix. 12 sq. [cf. iva, II. 2 b.] ; eV avrat, on him i. e. of 
him (cf. W. 393 (368) [and eW, B. 2 f. ^.]), Jn. xii. 16 ; 
TO. ytypappiva tu> via rod dv6p. written for him, allotted 
to him in Scripture, i. e. to be accomplished in his ca- 
reer, Lk. xviii. 31 ; cf. W. §31, 4 ; [yet cf. B. 178 (154)] ; 
Mojvo-^f eypa^ev vp.lv iva etc. Moses in the Scripture com- 
manded us that etc. [cf. B. 237 (204)], Mk. xii. 19; Lk. 
XX. 28. d. ypd(j)fiv Tivi to tvrite to one i. e. hy writing (in 
a written epistle) to give information, directions, etc. to 
one: Ro. xv. 15; 2 Co. ii. 4, 9 [dat. implied]; vii. 12; 
Pliilem. 21 ; 2 Pet. iii. 15 ; 1 Jn. ii. 12 sqq. ; St' oXiywi/, 1 
Pet. v. 12 ; Sta p.eXnvos Koi KaXdpov, 3 Jn. 13 ; foil, by the 
wonls written or to be written in the letter: Acts xv. 
23 ; Rev. ii. 1, 8, 12, 18 ; iii. 1, 7, 14 ; ypd(j}eiv nvl ti, 1 Co. 
xiv. 37 ; 2 Co. i. 13 ; ii. 3 [L T Tr WH om. the dat.] ; Gal. 
i. 20; 1 Tim. iii. 14 ; 1 Jn. i. 4 [R G L] ; ii. 1 ; irepi nvos, 
1 Jn. ii. 26 ; Acts xxv. 2G ; 2 Co. ix. 1 ; 1 Th. iv. 9 ; v. 1 ; 
Jude 3 ; fita xeipos tivos, to send a letter by one. Acts xv. 
23 [see x^'V] ! ypdcpeiv rivi, foil, by an inf., by letter to 
bid one do a thing. Acts xviii. 27 ; foil, by prj with inf. 
(to forbid, write one not to etc.), 1 Co. v. 9, 11. 3. 
to Jill with writing, (Germ, heschreiben) : ^ifSXlov yeypap- 
fiivov eaadev Ka\ ajnardev a volume zvriUen within and be- 
liind, on the back, hence on both sides. Rev. v. 1 (Ezek. 
ii. 10) ; cf. Diisterdieck, [Alford, al.] ad loc. 4. to 
draw up in writing, compose : ^ijBXiov, ISfk. x. 4 ; Jn. xxi. 
25 [Tdf. om. the vs. ; see WH. App. ad loc] ; tItXov, Jn. 
xix. 19; (iTi.(TToXr]v, Acts xxiii. 25; 2 Pet. iii. 1 ; e'vroXrjv 
Tivt to write a commandment to one, Mk. x. 5 ; 1 Jn. ii. 7 
8q. ; 2 Jn. 5. [Comp. : aTro-, ey-, erri-, kuto-, irpo^pd(f)a).'\ 

-ypcudSris, -ts, (fr. ypavs an old woman, and etSor), old- 
womanish, anile, [A. V. old ivives''] : 1 Tim. iv. 7. (Strabo 
1 p. 32 [p. 44 ed. Sieben.] ; Galen ; al.) * 

yfri\yopio, -Q, ; 1 aor. iyprjyop-qcra ; (fr. typrjyopa, to have 
been roused from sleep, to be awake, pf. of iyelpa> ; cf. 
Lob. ad Phryn. p. 118 sq. ; Bttm. Ausf. Spr. ii. p. 158; 
[W. 26 (25); 92 (88)1); to watch; 1. prop.: Mt. 
xxiv. 43 ; xxvi. 38, 40 ; Mk. xiii. 34 ; xiv. 34, 37 ; Lk. xii. 



37, 39 R G L Tr txt. WH txt. As to sleep is often i. q. 
to die, so once, 1 Th. v. 10, yprjy. means to live, be alive 
on earth. 2. Metaph. to watch i. e. give strict attention 
to, be cautious, active : — to take heed lest through remiss- 
ness and indolence some destructive calamity suddenly 
overtake one, Mt. xxiv. 42 ; xxv. 13 ; Mk. xiii. 35, [3 7] ; 
Rev. xvi. 15 ; or lest one be led to forsake Christ, Mt. 
xxvi. 41 ; Mk. xiv. 38 ; or lest one fall into sin, 1 Th. v. 
6 ; 1 Co. xvi. 13 ; 1 Pet. v. 8 ; Rev. iii. 2 sq. ; or be cor- 
rupted by errors. Acts xx. 31 ; ?v tivi, to be watchful in, 
employ the most punctilious care in a thing : Col. iv. 2. 
(Sept. ; [Bar. ii. 9 ; 1 Mace xii. 27 ; Aristot. plant. 1, 2 
p. 816\29.37]; Joseph, antt. 11, 3, 4 ; Achill. Tat. ; al.) 
[Syn. see dypvnveu). Comp. : Sia- ypr/yopeoj.] * 

Yvjivd^o); [pf. pass. ptcp. yeyvpvaa-pevos']; (yvpvos) ; 
com. in Grk. writ. fr. Aeschyl. down ; 1. prop, to ex- 
ercise naked (in the palaestra). 2. to exercise vigor- 
ously, in any way, either the body or the mind : iavrov 
Trpos fv(Tfl3eiav, of one who strives earnestly to become 
godly, 1 Tim. iv. 7 : yeyvpimapevo^ exercised, Heb. v. 14 ; 
xii. 11 ; Kapdiav ytyv/xf. nXfove^ias (Rec. nXeove^iais), a 
soul that covetousness or the love of gain has trained in 
its crafty ways, 2 Pet. ii. 14 ; cf. W. § 30, 4.* 

■yvfivao-Ca, -as, f), (yvpvd^a}) ; a. prop, the exercise of 
the body in the palsestra. b. any exercise whatever : 
(TcopaTiKfj yvpvaala, the exercise of conscientiousness rel- 
ative to the body, such as is characteristic of ascetics 
and consists in abstinence from matrimony and certain 
kinds of food, 1 Tim. iv. 8. (4 Mace. xi. 19. In Grk. 
writ. fr. Plat. legg. i. p. 648 c. down.) * 

yu(ivnT€vw (yu/xi/trf vco L T Tr WH ; [cf. Tdf Proleg. 
p. 81 ; W. 92 (88)]) ; (yvpv^rrjs) ; [A. V. literally to be 
naked i. e.] to be lightly or poorly clad : 1 Co. iv. 11. (So 
in Dio Chrys. 25, 3 and other later writ. ; to be a light- 
armed soldier, Plut. Aem. 16 ; Dio Cass. 47, 34, 2.) * 

•yvjxvos, -ij, -6v, in Sept. for D'T'^'. and Dll^', naked, not 
covered; 1. prop. a. unclad, without clothing : Mk. 
xiv. 52; Rev. iii. 17; xvi. 15; xvii. 16; ro yvp.v6v, sub- 
stantively, the naked body : l-nX yvpvov, Mk. xiv. 51 ; cf. 
Fritzsche ad loc; {to. yvpvd, Lcian. nav. 33). b. ill- 
clad : Mt. xxv. 36, 38, 43 sq. ; Acts xix. 16 (with torn 
garments) ; Jas. ii. 15 ; (Job xxii. 6 ; xxiv. 10 ; xxvi. 6). 
c. clad in the undergarment only (the outer garment or 
cloak being laid aside) : Jn. xxi. 7 ; (1 S. xix. 24 ; Is. xx. 
2 ; Hes. opp. 389 ; often in Attic ; so n udus, Verg. Georg. 

I, 299). d. of the soul, whose garment is the body, 
strijJt of the body, wifl/out a body : 2 Co. v. 3, (Plat. Crat. 
c 20 p. 403 b. T] -^vxT] yvpvfj tov a(i}paTos). 2. metaph. 
a. naked, i. e. open, laid bare : Heb. iv. 13, (yvpvos 6 aSrjs 
fvuTTiov avTov, Job xxvi. 6 ; exx. fr. Grk. auth. see in 
Block on Heb. vol. ii. 1 p. 585). b. only, mere, bare, i. q. 
\j/iX6s (like Lat. nudus) : yvpvbs kokkos, mere grain, not 
the plant itself, 1 Co. xv. 37, (Clem. Rom. 1 Cor. 24, 5 
cnreppaTa nfaovra els ttjv yfjv ^rjpd Koi yvpva SiaXvfrai).* 

■yvjivonis, -T]Tos, t], (yvpvos), nakedness : of the body. 
Rev. iii. 18 (see ala-xvvrj, 3); used of want of clothing, 
Ro. viii. 35 ; 2 Co. xi. 27. (Deut. xxviii. 48 ; Antonin. 

II, 27.)* 



yvvacKapiov 



123 



6ai/x6viov 



-yvvaiKcLpiov, -ov. TO, (dimin. fr. yvvrj), a little woman; 
used contemptuously in 2 Tim. iii. (i [A. V. fsilly women ; 
cf. Lat. jnuliercula}. (Diodes, com. in Bekk. Anecd. p. 
87, 4; Antonin. 5, 11; occasionally in Epictet.) On 
dimin. ending in dpLov see Lob. ad Thryn. p. 180 ; Fritz- 
sche on Mk. p. 638; [cf. W. 24, 9G (91)].* 

yuvaiKEios, -f I'a, -elov, of or belonging to a woman, femi- 
nine, female : 1 Pet. iii. 7. (From Horn, down ; Sept.) * 

yrnrf], -aiKos, fj ; 1. univ. a looman of any age, wheth- 
er a virgin, or married, or a widow : Mt. ix. 20 ; xiii. 33 ; 
xxvii. 55 ; Lk. xiii. 11 ; Acts v. 14, etc. ; rj fie^vrja-revfievT] 
Tiv\ yvvTj, Lk. ii. 5 R G ; rj vnavdpos yvvrj, Ro. vii. 2 ; yvvrj 
xhpa, Lk. iv. 26 (1 K. vii. 2 (14); xvii. 9; femina vidua, 
Nep. praef. 4). 2. a wife : 1 Co. vii. 3 sq. 10, 13 sq. ; 
Eph. V. 22, etc. ; yvv^ tlvo^, Mt. v. 31 sq. ; xix. 3, 5 ; Acts 
V. 1, 7; 1 Co. vii. 2; Eph. v. 28; Rev. ii. 20 [GLWH 
mrg.J, etc. of a betrothed woman : Mt. i. 20, 24. fj yvvfj 
Tovirarpos his step-mother : 1 Co. v. 1 (2H HtJ'X, Lev. xviii. 
8). (x^iv yvvaiKa : Mt. xiv. 4 ; xxii. 28 ; Mk. vi. 18 ; xii. 
23 ; Lk. XX. 33 ; see i'xo), I. 2 b. fin. yvvai, as a form of 
address, may be used — either in indignation, Lk. xxii. 
57; or in admiration, Mt. xv. 28; or in kindness and 
favor, Lk. xiii. 12; Jn. iv. 21 ; or in respect, Jn. ii. 4; 
xix. 26, (as in Hom. II. 3, 204 ; Od. 19, 221 ; Joseph, antt. 
1, 16, 3). 



Twy, 6, (■^^J), indecl. prop, name, Gog, king of the land 
of Magog [q. v. in BB. DD.], who it is said in Ezek. 
xxxviii. sq. will come from the remote north, with innu- 
merable hosts of his own nation as well as of allies, and 
will attack the people of Israel, reestablished after the 
exile; but by divine interposition he will be utterly de- 
stroyed. Hence in Rev. xx. 8 sq. 6 Twy and 6 Maycoy 
are used collectively to designate the nations that at the 
close of the millennial reign, instigated by Satan, will 
break forth from the four quarters of the earth against 
the Messiah's kingdom, but will be destroyed by fire 
from heaven.* 

"YwvCa, -as, fj, [fr. Ildt. down], an angle, i. e. a. an 
external angle, corner (Germ. Ecke) : rav nXareiav, Mt. 
vi. 5 ; KfcfioXfj ycoi/iay, Mt. xxi. 42 ; Mk. xii. 10 ; Lk. xx. 
1 7 ; Acts iv. 11 ; 1 Pet. ii. 7, (n:p t^X"!, Ps. cxvii. (cxviii.) 
22), the head of the corner, i. e. the corner-stone, (dfcpo- 
ycovialos, q. v.) ; al TecTtrapes yoiviai ttjs yfjs, the four ex- 
treme limits of the earth, Rev. vii. 1 ; xx. 8. b. like 
Germ. Winkel, Lat. angidus, Eng. (internal) corner, 
i. q. a secret place : Acts xxvi. 26, (so Plat. Gorg. p. 485 d. 
/Si'oi/ ^luvai iv ycovla, Epict. diss. 2, 1 2, 1 7 ; [for other ex- 
amples see Wetst^in on Acts 1. c. ; Stallbaum on Plato 
1. c.]).* 



Aa^iS (the form in Rec. after the more recent codd. 
, [min uscules, cf. Tdf. on Mt. i. 1, and Treg. on Lk. iii. 
31]), Aavtb (Grsb., Schott, Knapp, Theile, al.),and Aau- 
eib (LTTrWH [on the ei see WH. App. p. 155 and 
s. V. ft, i] ; cf. W. p. 44 ; Bleek on Ileb. vol. ii. 1 p. 538 ; 
in Joseph, [antt. 6, 8, 1 sqq. also Nicol. of Damasc. fr. 31 p. 
114] AavtSrjs, -ov), 6, (T"!, and esp. after the exile T'H, 
[i. e. beloved]), David, indecl. name of by far the most 
celebrated king of the Israelites: Mt. i. 1, 6, 17, etc. fj 
aKrjvfj A. Acts XV. 16 ; )j kXcU rov A. Rev. iii. 7; odpovos 
A. Lk. i. 32; oviosA., a name of the Messiah, viz. the 
descendant of David and heir to his throne (see v'los, 
lb.); fj pi^a A. the offspring of David, Rev. v. 5 ; xxii. 
16; ^ ^a(Ti\eia rov A. Mk. xi. 10 (see fiacriXfla, 3); iv 
Aavt8, in the book of the Psalms of David, Heb. iv. 7 [al. 
take it personally, cf. i. 1 sq. ; yet see eV, I. 1 d.]. 

8ai)jiov(^o|xai ; 1 aor. pass. ptcp. Satfxoviardfis ; (8aip.(ov) ; 
to be under the power of a demon : aXXos kot SWtjv 8mfj.o- 
VL^erai Tvxqv, Philem. in Stob. eel. phys. 1 p. 196; of 
the insane, Plut. symp. 7, 5, 4, and in other later auth. 
In the N. T. haifxavi^ojievoi are persons afflicted with 
especially severe diseases, either bodily or mental (such 
as paralysis, blindness, deafness, loss of speech, epilepsy, 



melancholy, insanity, etc.), whose bodies in the opinion 
of the Jews demons (see baijioviov) had entered, and so 
held possession of them as not only to afflict them with 
ills, but also to dethrone the reason and take its place 
themselves ; accordingly the possessed were wont to ex- 
press the mind and consciousness of the demons dwell- 
ing in them ; and their cure was thought to require the 
expulsion of the demon — [but on this subject see B.D. 
Am. ed. s. v. Demoniacs and reff . there ; Weiss, Leben 
Jesu bk. iii. ch. 6] : Mt. iv. 24 ; viii. 16, 28, 33 ; ix. 32 ; 
xii. 22; xv. 22; Mk. i. 32; v. 15 sq. ; Jn. x. 21 ; haijxo- 
via-dfls, that had been possessed by a demon [demons], 
Mk. V. 18 ; Lk. viii. 36. They are said also to be o;^Xoij- 
pevoi vTTo or dno Trvevfj-drcov aKadaprav, Lk. vi. 18 [TTr 
WIT (vo-)(\.'\ ; Acts V. 16 ; KaTahwaa-Ttvop-evoi vno roij 8ia- 
^6\ov i. e. by his ministers, tlie demons, Acts x. 38.* 

Saifioviov, -ov, TO, (neut. of adj. 8aifj.6vioi, -a, -ov, divine, 
fr. 8aifi(ov ; equiv. to to de'iov) ; 1. the divine Power, 
deity, divinity; so sometimes in prof. auth. as Joseph, 
b. j. 1, 2, 8; Ael. v. h. 12, 57; in plur. Kaiva 8ain6via, 
Xen. mem. 1, 1, 1 sq., and once in the N. T. ^iva 8aifj.6- 
via, Acts xvii. 18. 2. a spirit, a being inferior to God, 
superior to men [nav to daifioviov fxfTa^v ecm deov re Ka\ 



SaifjLOViCoBTJ^ 



124 



Aa/j,aaK7]i/6<; 



6vT)Tov, Plat. symp. 23 p. 202 e. (where see Stallbaum)], 
in both a good sense and a bad ; thus Jesus, after liis 
resurrection, said to his disciples ovk flixi Saifioviov d<xo)- 
fiaroy, as Ignat. (ad Smyrn. 3, 2) records it ; irveiifia 
baifxovlov aKadaprov (gen. of apposition), Lk. iv. 33; 
{novripov, Tob. iii. 8, 1 7 ; banioviov rj nvfvfxa iT0vr)p6v, ibid. 
vi. 8). But elsewhere in the Scriptures used, without 
an adjunct, of evil spirits or the messengers and ministers 
of the devil [W. 23 (22)] : Lk. iv. 35 ; ix. 1, 42 ; x. 17 ; 
Jn. X. 21 ; Jas. ii. 19; (Ps. xc. (xci.) 6 ; Is. xiii. 21 ; xxxiv. 
14 ; Tob. vi. 18; viii. 3 ; Bar. iv. 35) ; Trvevfiara haifiovlaiv 
(Rec. haiyiovaiv) i. e. of that rank of spirits that are 
demons (gen. of appos.), Rev. xvi. 14 ; apx^v tcjv daifio- 
vi(ov, the prince of the demons, or the devil : Mt. ix. 34 ; 
xii. 24 ; Mk. iii. 22 ; Lk. xi. 15 ; they are said elaepxeo'dai 
eh Tiva, to enter into (the body of) one to vex him with 
diseases (see daip-ovi^ofiai) : Lk. viii. 30, 32 sq. ; eV/SX?;- 
Orjvai and e^tpx^oSai €k tivos or dno tivos, when they are 
forced to come out of one to restore him to health : Mt. 
ix. 33 ; xvii. 18 ; Mk. vii. 29, 30 ; Lk. iv. 35, 41 ; viii. 2, 
33, 35. fK^dWfiv 8aip.6via, is used of those who compel 
demons to come out : Mt. vii. 22 ; xii. 27 sq. ; Mk. i. 34, 
39 ; Lk. ix. 49, etc. ex*^'" 8aip.6viov, to have a demon, be 
possessed by a demon, is said of those who either suffer 
from some exceptionally severe disease, Lk. iv. 33 ; viii. 
27 (ex- 8aip.6via) ; or act and speak as though they were 
mad, Mt. xi. 18 ; Lk. vii. 33 ; Jn. vii. 20 ; viii. 48 sq. 52 ; 
X. 20. According to a Jewish opinion which passed 
over to the Christians, the demons are the gods of the 
Gentiles and the authors of idolatry ; hence daifxovia 
stands for D'V?>!; Ps. xcv. (xcvi.) 5, and D"^'d Deut. 
xxxii. 17 ; Ps. cv. (cvi.) 37, cf. Bar. iv. 7 : npocrKwelv rd 
Sat/iwta Koi rd ei'SwXa, Rev. ix. 20. The apostle Paul, 
though teaching that the gods of the (Gentiles are a fiction 
(1 Co. viii. 4 ; x. 19), thinks that the conception of them 
has been put into the minds of men by demons, who 
appropriate to their own use and honor the sacrifices 
offered to idols. Hence what the GentUes Svovai, he 
says 8aifioviois 6vov(nv koi ov dea, 1 Co. x. 20 (fr. the 
Sept. of Deut. xxxii. 1 7, cf. Bar. iv. 7), and those who 
frequent the sacrificial feasts of the Gentiles come into 
fellowship with demons, 1 Co. x. 20 sq. ; [cf. Baudissin, 
Stud, zur semit. Religionsgesch. vol. i. (St. ii. 4) p. 110 
sqq.]. Pernicious errors are disseminated by demons 
even among Christians, seducing them from the truth, 
1 Tim. iv. 1. Josephus also makes mention of 8aip.6via 
taking possession of men, antt. 6, 11, 2 sq. ; G, 8, 2; 8, 
2, 5 ; but he sees in them, not as the N. T. writers do, 
bad angels, but the spirits of wicked men deceased, b. j. 
7, 6, 3. 

8ai|jiovi(oSr^s, -es, {daipioviov, q. v., and ei8os), resembling 
or proceeding from an evil spirit, demon-like : Jas. iii. 15. 
[Schol. Arstph. ran. 295 ; Ps. xc. 6 Symm.] * 

SatfXMV, -ovos, d, f) ; 1. in Grk. auth. a god, a god- 
dess ; an inferior deity, whether good or bad ; hence 
dyaBohalixoves and KaKobaifioves are distinguished [cf. W. 
23 (22)]. 2. In the N. T. an evil spirit (see 8aip.6vi.ov, 
2): Mt. viii. 31 ; Mk. v. 12 [R L] ; Lk. viii. 29 [RGL 



mrg.] ; Rev. xvi. 14 (Rec.) ; xviii. 2 (where L T Tr WH 
daipLoviuv). [B. D. (esp. Am. ed.) s. v. Demon ; cf. 8ai- 
/ioi'i'^ofiai.] * 

8a.Kvo) ; to bite ; a. prop, with the teeth. b. metaph. 
to ivound the soul, cut, lacerate, rend with reproaches : 
Gal. V. 15. So even in Hom. H. 5, 493 fivBos baKe 
(pptvas, Menand. ap. Athen. 12, 77 p. 552 e., and times 
without number in other auth.* 

SciKpv, -vos, TO, and to ddKpvov, -ov, [fr. Ilom. down], 
a tear: Mk. ix. 24RG; Acts xx. 19, 31 ; 2 Co. ii. 4 ; 2 
Tim. i. 4 ; Heb. v. 7 ; xii. 1 7. The (nom.) form to 8d- 
Kpvov in Rev. vii. 17; xxi. 4, (Is. xxv. 8). dat. plur. 
duKpvai in Lk. vii. 38, 44, (Ps. cxxv. (cxxvi.) 5 ; Lam. 
ii. 11).* 

SaKpvw : 1 aor. ebaKpva-a ; to weep, shed tears : Jn. xi. 
35. [From Hom. down. Syn. see KXaico, fin.] * 

8aKT\iX.ios, -ov, 6, (fr. ddKTvXos, because decorating the 
fingers), a ring : Lk. xv. 22. (From Hdt. down.) * 

SaKTvXos, -ov, 6, [fr. Batrach. 45 and Hdt. down], a 
fnger : INIt. xxiii. 4 ; Lk. xi. 46 ; xvi. 24 : Mk. vii. 33 ; 
Jn. viii. 6 Rec. ; xx. 25, 27 ; ev SoktCXco 6eov, by the power 
of God, divine efficiency by which something is made 
visible to men, Lk. xi. 20 (Mt. xii. 28 iv nvevptaTi 6eo\i) ; 
Ex. viii. 19, [cf. xxxi. 18 ; Ps. viii. 4].* 

Aa\|iavov6d [on the accent cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 103], t), 
Dalmanutha, the name of a little town or village not far 
from Magd^a [better Magadan (q. v.)], or lying within 
its territory: Mk. viii. 10 (cf. Mt. xv. 39), see Fritzsche 
ad loc. [B. D. Am. ed. s. v.]. Derivation of the name 
uncertain; cf. Keim ii. 528 [(Eng. trans, iv. 238), who 
associates it with Zalmonah, Num. xxxiii. 41 sq., but 
mentions other opinions. Furrer in the Zeitschr. des 
Deutsch. Palaestin.-Vereins for 1879, p. 58 sqq. identi- 
fies it with Mimjeh (abbrev. Manutha, Lat. mensa)].* 

AoXfiarCa [Lchm. AeX/i. ("prob. Alexandrian but pos- 
sibly genuine," Hort)], -as, fj, Dalmatia, a part of Illyri- 
cum on the Adriatic Sea; on the east adjoining Pannonia* 
and upper Moesia, on the north separated from Liburnia 
by the river Titius, and extending southwards as far as 
to the river Drinus and the city Lissus [cf. Diet, of Geog. 
s. V. ; Conyh. and Hows. St. Paul, ii. 1 26 sq. ; Lewin, St. 
Paul, ii. 357]: 2 Tim. iv. 10.* 

Sa^dtw : 1 aor. eSdfiaa-a ; Pass., [pres. Sapd^op.ai'] ; pf. 
8e8dfj.aap.ai; [akin to Lat. domo, dominus, Goth, gatam- 
jan; Eng. tame; cf. Curtius § 260]; com. fr. Hom. 
down ; to tame : Mk. v. 4 ; Jas. iii. 7 ; to restrain, curb, 
TTjV yXaaaav, Jas. iii. 8.* 

8d(iaXis, -eas, fj, (fem. of 6 bapdXrji a young bullock 
or steer), a young cow, heifer, (Aeschyl., Dion. Hal., 
Lcian., al.) ; used in Num. xix. 2, 6, 9 sq. for rT]3 and 
in Heb. ix. 13 of the red heifer with whose ashes, by the 
Mosaic law, those were to be sprinkled who had become 
defiled. (Besides in Sept. chiefly for nSj;*.) * 

Ad^xapis, -tSoy, fj, Damaris, a woman of Athens con- 
verted by Paul : Acts xvii. 34 ; [cf. Mey. ad loc. ; B. D. 

s. V.].* 

Aafioo-icnvds, -17, -ov, of Damascus, Damascene ; sub- 
stantively oi AafiaaKTjvoi : 2 Co. xi. 32.* 



AafiacrK6<i 



125 



hk 



^afAcurKos, -ov, 17, Damascus, (Hebr. pE??3"l), a very an- 
cient (Gen. xiv. 15), celebrated, flourishing city of Syria, 
lying in a most lovely and fertile plain at the eastern 
base of Antilibanus. It had a great number of Jews 
among its inhabitants (Joseph, b. j. 2, 20, 2 cf. 7, 8, 7). 
Still one of the most opulent cities of western Asia, 
having about 109,000 inhabitants [" in 1859 about 
150,000; of these 6,000 were Jews, and 15,000 Chris- 
tians" (Porter)] : Acts ix. 2 sqq. ; xxii. 5 sqq. ; 2 Co. xi. 
32 ; Gal. i. 17. [Cf. BB.DD. s. v., esp. Alex.'s Kitto.J • 

Saveitw (T WHSai/ifw [see I, i]) ; 1 aor. eddveiaa (Lk. 
vi. 34 L txt. T WH Tr mrg.) ; 1 aor. mid. i8avei<Td/jLTiv ; 
(8dveLov, q. v.) ; [fr. Arstph. down] ; to lend money : Lk. 
vi. 34 sq. ; Mid. to have vioney lent to one's self, to take a 
loan, borrow [cf. W. § 38, 3 ; Riddell, Platon. idioms,§ 87] : 
Mt. V. 42. (Deut. xv. 6, 8 ; Prov. xLx. 17 ; in Grk. auth. 
fr. Xen. and Plat, down.) * 

[Stn. : dav (i^ai, kjxP'JM*- 5. to lend on interest, as a 
business transaction ; kCxp- to lend, grant the use of, as a 
f ri eudly act.] 

Sdvciov [WH bdviov, see I, i], -eiov, to, {hdvos a gift), 
a loan: Mt. xviii. 27. (Deut. xv. 8; xxiv. 13 (11); 
Aristot. eth. Nic. 9, 2, 3 ; Diod. 1, 79 ; Plut. ; al.) * 

8av€i<rT'^s (T WH Sawo-rTjs [see I, i ]), -ov, 6, (Savel^a, 
q. v.), a money-lender, creditor : Lk. vii. 41. (2 K. iv. 1 ; 
Ps. cviii. (cix.) 11 ; Prov. xxix. 13 ; Sir. xxix. 28. Dem. 
p. 885, 18 ; Plut. Sol. 13, 5 ; de vitand. aere, etc. 7, 8 ; 
[al.].)* 

SavC^ci), see davei^co. 

AaviT|\, 6, (^X'J'n and SnjT i. e. judge of God [or God 
is ray judge]), Daniel, prop, name of a Jewish prophet, 
conspicuous for his wisdom, to whom are ascribed the 
well-known prophecies composed between b. c. 167-164; 
[but cf. BB.DD.] : Mt. xxiv. 15 ; IVIk. xiii. 14 Rec* 

[Sdviov, see Sdveiov.^ 

8avi(rTT|s, see Sai/etcrrijy. 

Sairavdb), -w : f ut. baTTavqaca ; 1 aor. ehaTTavrfcra ; (baTravrj) ; 
fr. [Hdt. and] Thuc. down ; to incur expense, expend, 
spend: ri, Mk. v. 26 (1 Mace. xiv. 32); eni with dat. of 
pers., for one, in his favor, Acts xxi. 24 ; v-rrep rtvos, 2 Co. 
xii. 15. in a bad sense, to toaste, squander, consume: 
irdvra, Lk. xv. 14 ; Iva iv rals T]8ovdis vjiaiv SaTravrjcrjTf, 
that ye may consume, waste what ye receive, in luxuri- 
ous indulgence — [eV marking the realm in rather than 
the object on'] : Jas. iv. 3. [Comp. : 6K-, npoa-- darravda.] * 

8airdvTi, -r)s, r], (fr. bdnray to tear, consume, [akin are 
b(l.TTvov, Lat. daps ; Curtius § 261]), expense, cost : Lk. xiv. 
28. (2 Esdr. vi. 4 ; 1 Mace. iii. 30, etc. Among Grk. 
writ. Hes. opp. 721,Pind., Eur., Thuc, et sqq.)* 

AavcCS and AavfS, see Aaj3l8. 

Se (related to S17, as pev to prjv, cf. Klotz ad Devar. ii. 
2 p. 355), a particle adversative, distinctive, disjunctive, 
but, moreover, (W. § 53, 7 and 10, 2) ; it is much more 
freq. in the historical parts of the N. T. than in the other 
books, very rare in the Epp. of John and the Apocalypse. 
[On its general neglect of elision (when the next word 
begins with a vowel) cf. Tdf. Proleg. p. 96 ; WH. App. 
p. 146 ; W. § 5, 1 a. ; B. p. 10 sq.] It is used 1. 



univ. by way of opposition and distinction; it is 
added to statements opp. to a preceding statement : eav 
yap d(f)f]Te . . . edv fie prj d^/jre, Mt. vi. 14 sq. ; tav Se 6 
6(f)dukp6s kt\. Mt. vi. 23 ; eXfvaovrai 8e fjpepai, Mk. ii. 20 ; 
it opposes persons to persons or things previously men- 
tioned or thought of, — either with strong emphasis : 
eyo) Se, Mt. v. 22, 28, 32, 34, 39, 44 ; fjpf'is Se, 1 Co. i. 23 ; 
2 Co. X. 13 ; (TV Se, IMt. vi. 6 ; ipels Se, ]\Ik. viii. 29 ; oj Se 
viol TTJs jQacrtXetas, Mt. viii. 12; at aXcoTre/ces . . . 6 Se vlos 
Tov dv6p. Mt. viii. 20 ; Lk. ix. 58 ; Tray 6 Xaos . . . ot Se 
^apiaaioi, Lk. vii. 29 sq. ; 6 Se nvevnariKos, 1 Co. ii. 15, 
and often ; — or with a slight discrimination, 6 S«, avros Se' : 
Mk. i. 45 ; v. 34 ; vi. 37 ; vii. 6 ; Mt. xiii. 29, 37, 52 ; xv. 
23 sqq. ; Lk. iv. 40, 43 ; v. 16 ; vi. 8 ; viii. 10, 54 ; xv. 29 ; 

01 Se', Mt. ii. 5 ; Mk. iii. 4 ; viii. 28, etc., etc. ; with the addi- 
tion also of a prop, name, as 6 Se 'irjcrovs : Mt. viii. 22 
[Tdf. om. 'I.] ; ix. 12 [R G Trbr.], 22 [Tdf. om. '!.] ; xiii. 
57 ; Mk. i. 41 [R G L mrg. Tr mrg.] ; dnoKp. Se (6) 2i>wj/, 
Lk. vii. 43 R G L br. ; 17 Se Mapia, Lk. ii. 1 9, etc. 2. 
pev . . . Se', see pev. 3. after negative sentences, hut, 
but ratlier (Germ, rcold aber^ : Mt. vi. 19 sq. (/iiij Brjaav- 
piCeTf . . , Srja-avpiCeTe Se') ; x. 5 sq. ; Acts xii. 9, 14 ; Ro. 
iii. 4 ; iv. 5 ; 1 Co. i. 10 ; vii. 37 ; 1 Th. v. 21 [not Rec] ; 
Eph. iv. 14 sq. ; Heb. ii. 5 sq. ; iv. 13, 15 ; ix. 12 ; x. 2G sq. ; 
xii. 13 ; 1 Pet. i. 12 (oii;^ iavTols vplv [Rec. 17/i.] Se') ; Jas. 
i. 13 sq. ; ii. 11. 4. it is joined to terms which are re- 
peated with a certain emphasis, and with such additions 
as tend to explain and establish them more exactly ; in 
this use of the particle we may supply a suppressed neg- 
ative clause [and give its force in Eng. by inserting / 
say, and that, so then, etc.] : Ro. iii. 21 sq. (not that com- 
mon btKaioavvr) which the Jews boast of and strive after, 
but StAcatoo-. Sia TTio-recor) ; Ro. ix. 30 ; 1 Co. ii. 6 (a-oiplav 
Se ov TOV alwvos tovtov) ; Gal. ii. 2 (I went up, not of my 
own accord, but etc.) ; Phil. ii. 8 ; cf. Klotz ad Dev. ii. 

2 p. 361 sq. ; L. Dindorf'm Steph. Thes. ii. col. 928 ; [cf. 
W. 443 (412)]. 5. it serves to mark a transition to 
something new (Se' metabatic) ; by this use of the parti- 
cle, the new addition is distinguished from and, as it were, 
opposed to what goes before : Mt. i. 18 ; ii. 19 ; x. 21 ; 
Lk. xii. 13 ; xiii. 1 ; Jn. vii. 14, 37 ; Acts vi. 1 ; Ro. viii. 
28 ; 1 Co. vii. 1 ; viii. 1, etc., etc. ; so also in the phrase 
eye'j/ero Se, see y'lvopai, 2 c. 6. it introduces explanar 
tions and separates them from the things to be explained : 
Jn. iii. 19 ; vi. 39 ; 1 Co. i. 12 ; vii. 6, 29 ; Eph. v. 32, etc. ; — 
esp. remarks and explanations intercalated into the dis- 
course, or added, as it were, by way of appendix : Mk. v. 
13 {?i(jav Se etc. R L br.) ; xv. 25 ; xvi. 8 [R G] ; Jn. vi. 10 ; 
ix. 14 ; xii. 3 ; tovto Se ylyove, Mt. i. 22; xxi. 4. Owing 
to this use, the particle not infrequently came to be con- 
founded in the Mss. (of prof. writ, also) with yap ; cf. 
Winer on Gal. i. 11 ; Fritzsche on Mk. xiv. 2 ; also his 
Com. on Rom. vol. i. pp. 234, 265 ; ii. p. 476; iii. p. 196 ; 
[W. 452 (421) ; B. 363 (312)]. 7. after a parenthe- 
sis or an explanation which had led away from the sub- 
ject under discussion, it serves to take up the discourse 
again [cf. W. 443 (412)] : Mt. iii. 4 ; Lk. iv. 1 ; Ro. v. 8 ; 
2 Co. ii. 12 ; v. 8 ; x. 2 ; Eph. ii. 4 ; cf. Klotz ad Devar. 



Bei]a-i<i 



126 



heLKVVOi 



ii. 2 p. 376 sq. 8. it introduces the apodosis and, 
as it were, opposes it to the protasis : Acts xi. 1 7 R G (1 
Mace. xiv. 29 ; 2 Mace. i. 34) ; after a participial con- 
struction which has the force of a protasis : Col. i. 22 (21); 
cf. Matthiae ii. 1470 ; Kuhner ii. 818 ; [Jelf § 770] ; Klotz 
u. s. p, 370 sq. ; [B. 364 (312)]. 9. koi . . . be, but . . . 

also, j/ea and, moreover also : Mt. x. 18 ; xvi. 18 ; Lk. ii. 35 
[WII txt. cm. L Tr br. 8« J ; Jn. vi. 51 ; xv. 2 7 ; Acts iii. 24 ; 
xxii. 29 ; Ro. xi. 23 ; 2 Tim. iii. 12 ; iJn. i. 3 ; 2 Pet. i. 
5; cf. Klotz u. s. p. 645 sq. ; B. 364 (312) ; [also W. 443 
(413) ; Ellic. on 1 Tim. iii. 10 ; Mey. on Jn. vi. 51]. koi 
iav Se yea even if: Jn. viii. 16. 10. de never stands 
as the first word in the sentence, but generally second ; 
and when the words to which it is added cannot be sep- 
arated, it stands third (as in Mt. x. 1 1 ; xviii. 25 ; Mk. iv. 
34 ; Lk. X. 31 ; Acts xvii. 6 ; xxviii. 6 ; Gal. iii. 23 ; 2 Tim. 
iii. 8, etc. ; in o^ /xdi/oi/ be, Ro. v. 3, 11, etc.), or even in 
the fourth place, Mt. x. 18 ; Jn. vi. 51 ; viii. 16 sq. ; 1 Jn. 
i. 3; 1 Co. iv. 18; [Lk. xxii. 69 LTTrWH]. 

8£T]o-is, -ecoj, ^, (S/o/xat) ; !• need, indigence, (Ps. xxi. 
(xxii.) 25 ; Aeschin. dial. 2, 39 sq. ; [Plato, Eryx. 405 e. 
bis] ; Aristot. rhet. 2, 7 [ii. p. 1385% 27]). 2. a seek- 
ing, asking, entreating, entreaty, (fr. Plat, down) ; in the 
N. T. requests addi-essed by men to God (Germ. Bittge- 
bet, supplication ) ; univ. : Jas. v. 1 6 ; 1 Pet. iii. 1 2 ; as 
often in the Sept., joined with Trpoafvxh (i- ^- ^°y pious 
address to God [see below]) : Acts i. 14 Rec. ; Eph. vi. 
18 ; Phil. iv. 6 ; plur. 2 Tim. i. 3 ; joined with npoa-evxat, 
1 Tim. V. 5; with yqareiai, Lk. ii. 37; noLflcrdai berjaiv, 
Phil. i. 4 ; tt, 8eij<rety, Lk. v. 33 ; 1 Tim. ii. 1. contextu- 
ally, of prayers imploring God's aid in some particular 
matter: Lk. i. 13; Phil. i. 19; plur. Ileb. v. 7; suppli- 
cation for others: [2 Co. i. 11]; irepl nvoi, Eph. vi. 18; 
virkp Tivos, 2 Co. ix. 14 ; Phil. i. 4 ; with the addition 
irpos Tov Oeov, Ro. x. 1.* 

[Syx. SeTitris, irpocrev xv, evrev^is: irp., as Prof. 
Grimm remarks, is mirestricted as respects its contents, 
while 5. is petitionary; moreover irp. is a word of s a c r e d char- 
acter, being limited to prayer to God, whereas S. may also be 
used of a request addressed to man. In Byzantine Grk. it is 
used of a written supplication (like our petition) ; cf. Soph. 
Lex. s. v. See more at length Trench § Ii. ; also Bp. Lghtft. 
on Phil. iv. 6 ; Ellic. on Eph. vi. 18 ; cf. Schmidt ch. vii. In 
1 Tim. ii. 1 to these two words is added eyrtv^ts, which ex- 
presses confiding access to God ; tluis, in combination, Sfr^ais 
gives prominence to the expression of personal need, irpoa- 
evxv to the element of devotion, ^vrevi,is to that of child- 
hke confidence, by representing prayer as the heart's con- 
verse with God. See Huther's extended note ad loc. ; Ellic. 
ad loc. ; Trench u. s.] 

8€i; subjunc. pres. Se?/ ; impf. eSet ; an impers. verb 
[cf. B. § 132, 12; cf. § 131, 3; fr. Hom. down]; (S/o,, 
so. TWOS, to have need of, be in want of ; cf. Germ, es 
bedarf), it is necessary, there is need of, it behooves, is 
right and proper ; foil, either by the inf. alone (cf. our 
one ought), or by the ace. with inf. [cf. B. 147 (129)], 
it denotes any sort of necessity ; as a. necessity 

lying in the nature of the case : Jn. iii. 30 ; 2 Tim. ii. 
6. b. necessity brought on by circumstances or by 



the conduct of others toward us : Mt. xxvi. 35 (kov bfjj 
pe dnodavflv), cf. Mk. xiv. 31 ; Jn. iv. 4; Acts xxvii. 21 ; 
2 Co. xi. 30 ; [xii. 1 L T Tr WHtxt.] ; or imposed by a 
condition of mind : Lk. ii. 49 ; xix. 5. c. necessity in 
reference to what is required to attain some end : Lk. 
xii. 12 ; Jn. iii. 7 ; Acts ix. 6 ; xvi. 30 ; 1 Co. xi. 19 ; Ileb. 
ix. 26 (on this cf. W. 283 (266); [also B. 216 (187) ; 
225 (195)]); Lleb. xi. 6. d. a necessity of law and 
command, of duty, equity : Mt. xviii. 33 ; xxiii. 23 ; Lk. 
xi. 42 ; xiii. 14 ; xv. 32 ; xviii. 1 ; xxii. 7 ; Jn. iv. 20 ; 
Acts V. 29 ; xv. 5; Ro. i. 27 {avripKrOiav, r]v tSet, sc. djro- 
\ap^ave(T6ai, the recompense due by the law of God) ; 
Ro. viii. 26 ; xii. 3 ; 1 Co. viii. 2, etc. or of office : Lk. 
iv. 43; xiii. 33; Jn. ix. 4; x. 16; Eph. vi. 20; Col. iv. 4; 
2 Tim. ii. 24. e. necessity established by the counsel 
and decree of God, esp. by that purpose of his which 
relates to the salvation of men by the intervention of 
Christ and which is disclosed in the O. T. prophecies : 
Mt. xvii. 10; xxiv. 6; Mk. ix. 11; Acts iv. 12; 1 Co. xv. 
53 ; in this use, esp. of what Christ was destined finally 
to undergo, his sufferings, death, resurrection, ascen- 
sion : Lk. xxiv. 46 [RGLbr.]; Mt. xxvi. 54; Jn. iii. 14; 
Acts iii. 21, etc. (of the necessity of fate in Hdt. 5, 33 ; 
with the addition Kara to BeoTrp/miov, 8, 53 ; Thuc. 5, 26.) 
[Syn. : Set, xpv- S«r seems to be more suggestive of 
moral obligation, denoting esp. that constraint which arises 
from divine appointment ; whereas xP'f) signifies rather the 
necessity resulting from time and circumstance. Schmidt 
ch. 150.] 

8€i7|j.a, -TO?, TO, (bfiKvvpi) ', a. prop, thing shoivn. 
b. a specimen of any thing, example, pattern : nvpos 
alaviov, set forth as a warning, Jude 7. (From Xen., 
Plat., Isocr. down.) * 

SeiYiiarC^w : 1 aor. fbeiyfidriaa ; (Sfiy/xa) ; to make an 
example of, to show as an example ; Tivd, to expose one 
to disgrace (cf . -KapabeiypaTi^w, BeaTpL^o)) : Mt. i. 1 9 L T 
TrWH; Col. ii. 15. A word unknown to Grk. writ. 
[Cf. Act. Petr. et Paul. §33; W. 25 (24); 91 (87); 
beiypariafios occurs on the Rosetta stone, line 30 ; Boeckh, 
Inscrr. 4697. CoMP. : Trapa-Stiy/xaTi'^o).] * 

SciKviJu (bfiKvveiv, Mt. xvi. 21 ; 8eiKi/v(is, Jn. ii. 18; rou 
bfiKvvovTos, Rev. xxii. 8 [not Tdf.]) and 8(iKi>vp.i (1 Co. 
xii. 31 ; i\It. iv. 8 ; Jn. v. 20 ; cf. B. 45 (39)) ; fut. 8(i$u> ; 
1 aor. i'bei^a ; 1 aor. pass. ptcp. deix^fis (Ileb. viii. 5) ; 
Sept. mostly for HX^n ; to show, exhibit ; 1. prop, to 
show i. e. expose to the eyes : tivi ti, Mt. iv. 8 ; Lk. iv. 5 ; 
XX. 24 (for Rec. fViSeif ) ; xxii. 12; xxiv. 40 [RGL, 
but Tom. Trbr. WII reject the vs.]; Mk. xiv. 15 ; Jn. 
XX. 20; Acts vii. 3; obov tivi, metaph., in which one 
ought to go, i. e. to teach one what he ought to do, 1 Co. 
xii. 31 ; KaTo. tov tvttov tov beixdfVTa aoi, Ileb. viii. 5; 
eavTov BfiKvvvai Tivi to expose one's self to the view of 
one, Mt. viii. 4 ; ]\Ik. i. 44 ; Lk. v. 14 ; bel^ov fjplv tov 
naTtpa render the Father visil^le to us, Jn. xiv. 8 sq. ; of 
things presented to one in a vision : rii/i n, Rev. xvii. 1 ; 
xxi. 9 sq. ; xxii. 1,8; Bd^al tivi, a del yeveaOai, Rev. i. 1 ; 
iv. 1 ; xxii. 6. to show, i. (j. to bring to pa.'fs, produce 
what can be seen (Germ, sehen lasseu) ; of miracles per- 



Sei^ca 



127 



AeKObirokL^ 



formed in presence of others to be seen by them : a-Tjfiflov, 
Jn. ii. 18, (Bar. vi. [i. e. ep. Jer.] C6 ; a-rifia, Horn. Od. 3, 
174; n. 13, 244) ; epya €k rivos, works done by the aid 
of one, Jn. x. 32 ; rrjv tmcpdvaav 'irjcrov XpiaTov, spoken 
of God, as tlie author of Clirist's visible return, 1 Tim. 
vi. 15; epya Sdicvveiv is used differently in Jn. v. 20, to 
show works to one for him to do. 2. metaph. a. 
with ace. of the thing, to give the evidence or proof of a 
thing : nia-Tiv, Jas. ii. 18 ; r\ eK tipos, as t^v niariv eV toiv 
fpyuiv, ibid. ; to. epya €K rrjs (caX^y dvaarpocf)!]!, Jas. iii. 13. 
b. to show by words, to teach : foil, by ort, Mt. xvi. 21 
(8i8a(TKeiv in Mk. viii. 3 1 for SaKvveiv) ; foil, by an inf. 
Acts X. 28. [COMP. : dva-, dno-, iv-, em-, VTTO-SeiKvvpi.l * 

SeiXia, -Of, 17, (SeiXor), timidity, fearfulness, coiourdice : 
2 Tim. i. 7. (Soph., [Hdt.], Eur., [Arstph.], Thuc, and 
subseq. writ.) * 

[Syn. 5tt\ia, (I)6^os,ev\d0eia: "of these three words 
the first is used always in a bad sense ; the second is a mid- 
dle term, capable of a good interpretation, capable of an evil, 
and lying pretty evenly between the two ; the third is quite 
predominantly used in a good sense, though it too has not 
altogether escaped being employed in an evil." Trench § x. 
q. V. ; cf . Stos.] 

SciXido), -6J ; (SfiXi'a, q. v.) ; to be timid, fearful : Jn. xiv. 
27. (Deut. xxxi. 6 ; i. 21 and often in Sept. ; Sir. xxii. 
16; xxxi. (xxxiv.) 16; 4 Mace. xiv. 4. Diod. 20, 78. 
The Greeks prefer the comp. dnoheikia>.) * 

8eiX6s, -17, -6v, (beib(x> to fear), timid, fearful : Mt. viii. 
26 ; Mk. iv. 40 ; in Rev. xxi. 8 of Christians who through 
cowardice give way under persecutions and apostatize. 
(From Hom. down.) * 

Seiva, 6, rf, to ; gen. 8eivos ; dat. Belpi ; ace. tov, ttjv, to 
8(7va (cf. Matthiae § 151), such a one, a certain one, i. e. 
one whose name I cannot call on the instant, or whose 
name it is of no importance to mention ; once in the 
Scriptures, viz. Mt. xxvi. 18. (Arstph., Dem., al.) * 

Scivws, adv., (deivos), terribly, grievously: Mt. viii. 6; 
Lk. xi. 53. [From Hdt. down.] * 

Bswrvew, -w : [fut. 861771/170-0)]; 1 aor. fSeiTrvrja-a; (Sei- 
TTvov) ; to sup : Lk. xvii. 8 ; xxii. 20 [WII reject the 
whole pass., see their App.] ; 1 Co. xi. 25 ; in an alle- 
gory, Set7n'i70-co per avTov, I will make him to share in 
my most intimate and blissful intercourse : Rev. iii. 20.* 

Selirvov, -ou, to, and acc. to a rare and late form 6 
BfiTTvos in Lk. xiv. 16 Lchm. [cf. Tdf. on Rev. xix. 9, 17, 
also W. 65 (64) ; on deriv. cf. dandvrj'], (in Hom. the 
morning meal or breakfast, cf. Passow [more fully L. and 
S.] s. V. ; this the Greeks afterwards call to apuTTov q. v. 
[and reff. there], designating as to beinvov the evening 
meal or supper) ; 1. supper, esp. « formal meal usu- 
ally held at evening: Lk. xiv. 17, 24; Jn. xiii. 2,4; xxi. 
20; plur.: Mt. xxiii. 6 ; Mk. xii. 39 ; Lk. (xi. 43 Lchm. 
in br.) ; xx. 46 ; used of the Messiah's feast, symbolizing 
salvation in the kingdom of heaven : Rev. xix. 9, 1 7 ; 
KvpioKuv bflnvov (see KvpiaKos, 1 ), • 1 Co. xi. 20 ; noinv 
be'invov, Lk. xiv. 12 (npiaTov rj Belnvou) : 16 (Dan. v. 1 
[Theodot.]) ; with the addition tivI, Mk. vi. 21 ; Jn. 
xii. 2. 2. uD.iv.yboc? taken at evening: 1 Co. xi. 21.* 



8€i(ri8ai.|iov(a, -as, fj, (8fi(n8aifia)v),fear of the gods ; 1. 
in a good sense, reverence for the gods, piety, religion : 
Polyb. 6, 56, 7; Joseph. . antt. 10, 3, 2; Ka\ 6fo(Pi\iis 
^ios, Diod. 1, 70. 2. i. q. 77 baXla irpos to baipoviow 

(Theophr. char. 16 (22) init. [cf. Jebb p. 263 sq.]) ; su- 
perstition : [Polyb. 12, 24, 5] ; Plut. [Sol 12, 4] ; Alex. 75, 
1 ; de adulat. et am. 25, and in his Essay nepl ttjs Betai- 
8aipovias ; Antonin. 6, 30 dfoae^fjs ^wp'? 8fi(Tibaipoviai. 
3. religion, in an objective sense ; in which sense Jose- 
phus, antt. 19, 5, 3, says Claudius commanded the Jews 
pr] Tas Tcov o'XXcov eOvau 8eLai,8aipovias f^ovBevl^fiv. Festus 
in the presence of Agrippa the Jewish king employs 
the word ambiguously and cautiously, in Acts xxv. 19, 
of the Jewish religion, viz. so as to leave liis own judg- 
ment concerning its truth in suspense. Cf. Zezschwitz, 
Profangracitat u. bibl. Sprachgeist, p. 59 ; [iT. F. Her- 
mann, Lelirb. d. gottestlienstl. Alterthiimer, § 8 note 6 ; 
Trench § xlviii.; (cf. Kenrick, Bibl. Essays, 1864, p. 108 
sqq. ; Field, Otium Xorv. iii. p. 80 sq.)].* 

8£i<ri-8ai(jL&)v, -ov, gen. -oi/o?, (Sei'Sco to fear, and dalpcov 
deity), fearing the deity or deities, like the Lat. religiosus; 
used either 1. in a good sense, reverencing god or the 
gods, pious, religious : Xen. Cyr. 3, 3, 58 ; Ages, 11, 8; 
Aristot. pol. 5, 11 [p. 1315% 1] ; or 2. in a bad sense, 
stiperstitious : Theophr. char. 16 (22); Diod. 1, 62; 4, 
51 ; Plut. de adul. c. 16 ; de superstit. c. 10 sq. Paul 
in the opening of his address to the Athenians, Acts 
xvii. 22, calls them, with kindly ambiguity, kuto irdvra 
SeKnbaipopfa-Tf'pnvi (sc. than the rest of the Greeks [W. 
244 (22:*)], cf. Meyer ad loc), as being devout without 
the knowledge of the true God ; cf. Bengel ad loc* 

8€Ka, 01, al. Ta, [fr. Hom. down], ten : Mt. xx. 24, etc. 
6\i\j/is Tjpfpibv 6eVa, i. e. to last a short time : Rev, ii. 10; 
cf. Dan. i. 12, 14; Num. xi. 19; Ter, heaut. 5, 1, 36 
decern dieruin vix mi est familia. 

8€Ka-8vo, rare in the earlier writ., frequent in the later 
(see Passow s. v. 8eKa [esp. Soph. Lex. s. v. ; cf. W. 23 
(22); Bp. Lghtft. on Gal. i. 18]), and in Sept.; i. q. 
ScoSeica, twelv/i : Acts xix. 7 and xxiv. 11 , in both places 
LT Tr WII SciSefca ; [Rev. xxi. 16 Tdf. edd. 2, 7].* 

[StKa-4^, sixteen : Rev. xiii. 18 Lmrg. (Sept., al.) *] 

[8eKa-0KTu for S«Va Ka\ 6ktu>, eighteen : Tdf. in Lk. xiii. 4, 
11, but WHom. LTrbr. kol; cf. s. v. koI, L 1 b.*] 

8eKa-ir€VT€, for the earlier irevrficaiSfKa, fifteen : Jn. xi. 
18; Acts xxvii. 28; Gal. i. 18; [Gen. vii. 20 Aid., 
Compl.; Ex. xxvii. 15 ; 1 Mace. x. 40; Polyb. 3, 56, 3 
var. ; Diod. 2, 13 ; Plut. Dion 38, 1 ; al. ; cf. beKadioy 

AcKu-iroXis, -ews, t], Decapolis (regio decapolitana, Plin. 
h. n. 5, 16. 1 7), i. e. a region embracing ten cities. This 
name is borne by a district of the tribe of Manasseh 
beyond the Jordan and bordering upon Syria, embrac- 
ing ten principal cities with smaller towns also scattered 
in among them. But the ancient geographers vary in 
their enumeration of these ten cities. Pliny 1. c. reckons 
Damascus among them, which Josephus seems to have 
excluded, calling Scythopolis peyla-Triv ttjs deKanoXecos, 
b. j. 3, 9, 7. All seem to agree in this, that Gadara, 
Hippo, Pella and Scythopolis were of the number. Cf. 



)eKaTeacrape<i 



128 



Sefto? 



Win. RWB. s. v. Decapolis ; Vaihinger in Herzog iii. 
325 sq. ; Riehm, HWB. 266 sq. ; [BB.DD. s. v.] : Mt. 
iv. 25; IVIk. V. 20; vii. 31.* 

8«Ka-T€(r<rap€s, -cav, oi, at, -crapa, rd, fourteen : Mt. i. 1 7 ; 
2 Co. xii. 2 ; Gal. ii. 1. [Gen. xxxi. 41 ; Tob. viii. 19 ; x. 
7; Polyb. 1, 36, 11 ; cf. SeKoSuo.] * 

SeKciTTi, -T]s, Tj, (deKaros), the tenth part of any thing, 
a tithe ; specially the tenth part of booty taken from the 
enemy : Ileb. vii. 2, 4 ; the tithes of the fruits of the 
earth and of the flocks, which, by the law of Moses, were 
presented to the Levites in the congregation of Israel : 
Heb. vii. 8 sq. (In Grk. writ. fr. [Simon. 133 Bgk. ; 
Hdt. 2, 135]; 4, 152 down; Sept. for ity;!"?-) [Cf. 
BB.DD. s. V. Tithe.] * 

ScKaros, -TJ, -ov, (S«'ku), [fr. Horn, down], the tenth : Jn. 
i. 39 (40); Rev. xxi. 20; to SeKarov, subst., the tenth 
part : Rev. xi. 13.* 

ScKarow, -w : pf . deBeKartoKa ; pf . pass. Be^eKarcofiai. ; (Se- 
KOTOs) ; to exact or receive the tenth part (for which Grk. 
writ, use beKareva) [W. 24]) : with ace. of pers. from 
whom, Heb. vii. 6 [on the pf. cf. W. § 40, 4 a. ; Lghtft. 
St. Clement, App. p. 414] ; Pass, to pay tithes (Vulg. 
decimor): Heb. vii. 9. (Neh. x, 37.) [Comp. : aivo- 
Sejcaroo).] * 

8«kt6s, -17, -ov, {dexofiai), accepted, acceptable : Lk. iv. 
24 ; Phil. iv. 18; nvi. Acts x. 35 ; the phrases Kaipos 
deKTos, 2 Co. vi. 2 (Is. xlix. 8 for p'yn r\>'), and iviavTos 
8(kt6s, Lk. iv. 19 (Is. Ixi. 2 for p':fn njty), denote that 
most blessed time when salvation and the free favors of 
God profusely abound. (Ex. xxviii. 34 ; Is. Ivi. 7, [etc.]. 
Among prof. auth. used by Jambl. protr. symb. § 20 
p. 350.)* 

ScXcd^o) ; [pres. pass. SfXfafo/iat] ; (SeXeap a bait) ; 1. 
prop, to bait, catch by a bait: Xen. mem. 2, 1, 4, et al. 
2. as often in prof, auth., metaph. to beguile by blandish- 
ments, allure, entice, deceive: nva, 2 Pet. ii. 14, 18; Jas. 
i. 14, on this pass. cf. Philo, quod oran. prob. lib. § 22 
Trpoj eTndvfJLias eXavperai fj vcf)' fjSovfjs beXed^ercu.* 

[AtXjiarCa see AaX/xarta.] 

SevSpov, -ov, TO, a tree : IVlt. vii. 1 7, etc. ; ylvetrOai 8ev8pov 
or eiy 8fv8pov, to grow to the shape and size of a tree, 
Mt. xiii. 32; Lk. xiii. 19. [(Hom., Hdt.), Arstph., 
Thuc. down.] 

8£^io-P<SXos, -ov, 6, (fr. 6e|tdr and /SaXXo)), throwing with 
the right hand, a slinger, an archer : Acts xxiii. 23 in 
Lchm. ed. min. ; cf. the foil, word.* 

8<|ioXdpos, -ov, 6, (Sector and Xan^avco), a word un- 
known to the earlier writ., found in Constant. Por- 
phyrogenitus (10th cent.) de them. 1, 1, who speaks 
of Sf^toXd/3oi, as a kind of soldiers, in company with 
bow-men {To^o(})6poi) and peltasts ; [they are also men- 
tioned by Theoph. Simoc. (hist. 4, 1) in the 7th cent.; 
see the quotations in Meyer]. Since in Acts xxiii. 23 
two hundred of them are ordered to be ready, appar- 
ently spearmen are referred to (carrying a lance in the 
right hand) ; and so the Vulg. has taken it. The great 
number spoken of conflicts with the interpretation of 
those who suppose them to be soldiers whose duty it was 



to guard captives bound by a chain on the right hand. 
Meyer ad loc. understands them to be [either] javelin- 
men [or slingers^.* 

8c|i6s, -d, -ov, (fr. Se;(o/xai, f ut. di^opai, or f r. fie'/co), which 
is akin to BeiKvvfJLi ; prop, of that hand which is wont to 
tu/i-e hold o/'as well as to point out ; just as a^ios comes fr. 
a^co, fut. of ayo> ; [cf. Curtius §§ 11, 266]), the right : Mt. 
v. 2'J, 39 ; Lk. xxii. 50; Jn. xviii. 10; Rev. x. 2; 17 Se^ia 
Xfip, Mt. V. 30 ; Lk. vi. 6 ; Acts iii. 7 ; Rev. i. 16 ; xiii. 
16; and (with x^^p omitted) 77 8f$id (like rj dpia-repd), 
Mt. vi. 3 ; xxvii. 29 ; Rev. i. 20 ; ii. 1 ; v. 7 ; eTrl t))i/ 8(^idv 
[on the right hand 1. e.] at the right side. Rev. v. 1 [but 
al. take it more closely, in the right hand ; cf. vs. 7 and 
XX. 1] ; bibovai ttjv Bf^idv or tqs 8e^ids, to pledge either 
a mutual friendship, or a compact, by joining the right 
hands : Gal. ii. 9 (1 Mace. vi. 58; xi. 50, 62, 66 ; xiii. 50 ; 
2 Mace. xi. 26 ; xii. 11 ; xiii. 22; cf. Gesenius, Thesaur. 
ii. pp. 566 and 599 ; and in prof. auth. as Xen. an. 1, 6, 
6 ; 2, 5, 3 ; Joseph, antt. 18, 9, 3 8e^idv t€ koI tiIo-tlv 8i86vai 
Tivi) ; God is said to have done something ttj Se^ta avTov 
with his right hand i. e., ace. to Ilebr. idiom, by his own 
power [cf. W. 214 (201)] : Acts ii. 33 ; v. 31 ; Ta orrXa to 
8e^id, arms carried in the right hand and used for attack, 
as the sword, the spear, koi dpLaTepd those carried in the 
left hand, for the purpose of defence, as the shield : 2 
Co. vi. 7 ; Ta 8(^ia pepr) toii ttXolov, Jn. xxi. 6. to Se^ia 
the right side [W. 176 (166)]: Mk. xvi. 5; (k 8($mv 
Tivos on one's right hand (Lat. ad alicuius dextram), JMt. 
XXV. 33 sq. ; xxvii. 38 ; Mk. xv. 27 ; Lk. i. 11 ; xxiii. 33 ; 
elvai. Acts ii. 25 (fr. Ps. xv. (xvi.) 8, he is at my right 
hand, sc. as a leader, to sustain me) . As in this expression 
the Greeks use the prep. tK, so the Hebrews sometimes 
use p (pp'P from i. e. at the right, '^3 h'iiV!.'? from i. e. 
at the side of any one) and the Romans ab (^sedere a 
d extra alicuius, proximum esse ab aliquo), because they 
define the position of one standing or sitting next another 
by proceeding y"ro?n the one next to whom he is said to 
stand or sit [cf. W. 367 (344)]. Kadlaai tK Se^twi; k. e$ 
(vcovvpcov Tivoi ^aaiXeas, to occupy the places of honor 
nearest the king, Mt. xx. 21, 23; Mk. x. 37, 40; (32?; 
^'3 yrp'h, 1 K. ii. 19 ; Ps. xliv. (xlv.) 10). Hence, after 
Ps. cix. (ex.) 1 as applied to the Messiah (Mt. xxii. 44 ; 
Mk. xii. 36 ; Lk. xx. 42), Christ is said to have ascended 
Kadijadai or naBlaai eK 8e^iu>v (at or on the right hand) of 
God, Mt. xxvi. 64 ; Mk. xiv. 62; xvi. 19; Lk. xxii. 69; 
Acts ii. 34 ; Heb. i. 1 3 ; flvai or Kadia-ai iv 8e^ia t. 6eov, 
Ro. viii. 34 ; Eph. i. 20 ; Col. iii. 1; Heb. i. 3 ; viii. 1 ; x. 12 ; 
xii. 2, — to indicate that he has become a partner in God's 
universal government (cf. Kiiapp, De J. Chr. ad dextram 
dei sedente, in his Scripta var. arg. p. 41 sqq. ; \_Stuart, 
Com. on Heb., excurs. iv.]). That these expressions are 
to be understood in this figurative sense, and not of a fixed 
and definite place in the highest heavens (as Chr. Fr. 
Fritzschc in Xov. Opuscc. acad. p. 209 sqq. tries to prove, 
after the orthodox theologians of the reformed church), 
will be questioned by no one who carefully considers 
Rev. iii. 21. Christ is once spoken of as tVrojs- fV 8f^ia)v 
rov 6(0X1, as though in indignation at liis adversaries [ace. 



Beofiai, 



129 



he(T fjbo^vka^ 



to others, to welcome his martyred servant] he had risen 
from his heavenly throne, Acts vii. 55 sq. 

8€0|j.ai ; 3 pers. sing. impf. eSeVro (of. Lob. ad Phryn. 
p. 220; W. 46; [Veitch s. v. bea> lu need fin.]), Lk. viii. 
38 (where Lehm. eSsetro, Tr AVH eSftro ; cf. Mey. ad loc; 
[T^//. App. p. 1G6]; B. 55 (48)); 1 aor. ihfi^6r)v\ (fr. 
fieci) to want, need ; whence mid. deofiai. to stand in need 
of, want /or one's self) ; [fr. Hdt. down] ; 1. io want, 
lack: Tivos- 2. to desire, long for : tivos. 3. to ask, 
beg, (Germ, bitten) ; a. univ. — the thing asked for be- 
ing evident from the context : with gen. of the pers. from 
whom. Gal. iv. 12; the thing sought being specified 
in direct discourse: Lk. v. 12; viii. 28; ix. 38 (ace. to 
the reading eTri^Xeyj/ov R L) ; Acts viii. 34 (Seo/xai aov, 
Trepi Tivos 6 7rpo<pijTr]s Ae'yei rovTo; of whom, I Jiray thee, 
doth the prophet say this?) ; Acts xxi. 39 ; 2 Co. v. 20 ; 
foil, by the inf., Lk. viii. 38 ; ix. 38 (ace. to the reading 
fVijSXe^at Tr WH) ; Acts xxvi. 3 (where G L T Tr WH 
cm. (Toil after S/o/nat) ; foil, by iva, Lk. ix. 40 (cf. W. 335 
(315) ; [B. 258 (222)]) ; foil, by rd with inf. 2 Co. x. 2 
[cf. B. 263 (226), 279 (239); W. 321, 322 (301 sq.)] ; 
with gen. of pers. and ace. of thing, 2 Co. viii. 4 (G L T 
Tr WH ; for Rec. adds Be^aadai ly/xas without warrant), 
[cf. B. 164 (143) ; W. 198 (186)]. b. spec, of requests 
addressed to God ; absol. to pray, make supplication : Acts 
iv. 31 ; Tov deov, Acts x. 2 ; foil, by el apa, Acts viii. 22 
[B. 256 (220) ; W. 300 (282)] ; roC Kvpiov, owas etc. Mt. 
ix. 38 ; Lk. x. 2 ; without the gen. deov, — foil, by el' ttws, 
Ro. i. 10 [cf. W. and B. 11. cc] ; by ha, Lk. xxi. 36 ; xxii. 
32; by the telic els to, 1 Th. iii. 10 [cf. B. 265 (228)]; 
vnep TIVOS TTpos tov Kvpiov, ona>s. Acts viii. 24. [Syn. see 
aireo) and Berja-LS. COMP. : Trpocr-Se'o/xat.] * 

Se'ov, -ovtos, to, (ptcp. of del, q. v.), fr. [Soph, and] Hdt. 
down, that of which there is need, which is requisite, due, 
proper : 8eov earl there is need, 1 Pet. i. 6 [T Tr txt. WH 
cm. Tr mrg. br. e.] ; foil, by ace. with inf. Acts xix. 36 ; 
TO pf) beovra that are not proper, 1 Tim. v. 13.* 

Se'os, -ovs, TO, (SetSo)), [fr. Hom. down], /ear, awe : peTa 
eiXa/3eias Kal 8eovs, Heb. xii. 28 L T Tr WH.* 

[Syn. ^eos {apprehension),^ 6^0 s (fear): Ammonius s. v:' 
5. says ^eos Koi (po^os Siacjiepft- Seos pev yap icrri ■KoKvxp^- 
vios KUKOv virSvota. (po^os Se ?; TvapavTiKa ■7rT67iais. Plato 
(Laches p. 198 b.) : Seos yap e'ivat TrpoaSoKlav peAAovTos kukov. 
Cf. Stallbaum on Plato's Protag. p. 167 ; Schmidt eh. 139 ; 
and see s. v. SeiA-ia.] 

Aeppaios, -ov, 6, ofDerbe, a native ofDerbe : Acts xx. 4.* 

Acp^T], -7JS, 17, Derbe, a city of Lycaonia, on the confines 
of Isauria, [on its supposed site see Lewin, St. Paul, i. 
151 sq. ; B.D. s. v. ; cf. Conyb. and Hows. St. Paul, Index 
s. v.] : Acts xiv. 6, 20 ; xvi. 1.* 

8e'p|ia, -ros, to, (fr. hepa or 8eipa>, as Keppa fr. Keipca), a 
skin, hide, leather : Heb. xi. 37. (Hom. et sqq.) * 

Scpixdrivos, -r), -ov, (8eppa), made of skin, leathern (Vulg. 
pelliceus) : Mt. iii. 4 ; Mk. i. 6 ; cf. 2 K. i. 8. (Horn., 
Hdt., Plat., Strab., al.) * 

Se'pw ; 1 aor. eSeipa ; 2 fut. pass. Saprjaopai ; 1. to 

flay, skin: Hom. II. 1,459; 23, 167, etc. 2. to beat, 

thrash, smite, (cf. Germ, durchgerben, [low Eng. hide"]), so 

sometimes in prof. auth. fr. Arstph. ran. 619 [cf. vesp. 

9 



485] down : Ttvd, Mt. xxi. 35 ; Mk. xii. 3, 5 ; Lk. xx. 10 
sq. ; xxii. 63; Jn. .xviii. 23 ; Acts v. 40; xvi. 37; xxii. 
1 9 ; els TTpocTuinov Sepeiv Tivd, 2 Co. xi. 20 ; depa bepeiv 
(see dr]p), 1 Co. ix. 26 ; Pass. : Mk. xiii. 9 ; Lk. xii. 47 
(bapr)(TeTai. TroXXay, SC. Trkrjyds, will be beaten with many 
stripes) ; 48, {uklyas, cf. Xen. an. 5, 8, 12 traieiv okiyas, 
Soph. El. 1415 Tvaieiv hmXriv, Arstph. nub. 968 (972) 
TVTrrecrdai noXXas, Plat. legg. 8 p. 845 a. paariyovadat 
7r\r,yds; cf. [AV. 589 (548)]; B. [82 (72)]; §134, 6).* 

8€o-|Ji£v<>> ; [impf. pass. 3 pers. sing. edea-peveTo (Lk. 
viii. 29 T Tr WH)] ; (8ea-p6s) ; a. to put in chains : 
Lk. viii. 29 T Tr WH ; Acts xxii. 4 ; (Sept. Judg. xvi. 1 1 ; 
Eur. Bacch. 616; Xen. Hier. 6, 14; Plat. legg. 7 p. 
808 d.). b. to bind up, bind together: (f)opTia, IMt. xxiii. 
4 ; (8pdypaTa, Gen. xxxvii. 7 ; Judith viii. 3. [lies. opp. 
479, al.J>* 

8e(r|i£a), -m : [impf. pass. 3 pers. sing. e8eape'iTo'] ; to bind, 
tie : Lk. viii. 29 R G L ; see 8eapev(o. ([Aristot. de plant. 
1, 2 p. 81 7^ 21 ; al.]; Heliod. 8, 9.)* 

8«<r(AT], -rjs, or as others write it [e. g. Rec. ^' T ; yet cf . 
Lob. Paralip. p. 396 ; Chandler § 132] 8e(rp^, -ijs, f/, (Sew), 
a bundle : Mt. xiii. 30. (Ex. xii. 22. Dem., Dion. 
Hal., al.) * 

SeVpiios, -ov, 6, bound, in bonds, a captive, a prisoner, 
[fr. Soph, down] : Mt. xxvii. 15 sq. ; Mk. xv. 6 ; Acts 
xvi. 25, 27; xxiii. 18; xxv. 14, 27; xxviii. 16 [R G], 
17; Heb. x. 34 G L T Tr txt. WH ; xiii. 3; 6 8e<Tpios 
TOV XpicTTov 'irjaoi), whom Christ, i. e. his truth which I 
have preached, has put in bonds (W. 189 (178) ; [B. 169 
(147)]), Eph. iii. 1 ; 2 Tim. i. 8 ; Philem. 1, 9 ; in the same 
sense 6 8ea-pLos ev Kvplco, Eph. iv. 1 ; [cf. Bp. Lghtft. on 
Philem. 13].* 

8€(r(i.6s, -ov, 6, (Se'w), [fr. Hom. down], a band or bond: 
Mk. vii. 35 (eXu^Tj 6 8eap6s ttjs •yXwcrcrjyj avTov, i. e. the 
impediment in his speech was removed) ; Lk. xiii. 1 6 
CKvdrjvai dno Toi) 8eo-poii, of a woman bowed together, 
held fast as it were by a bond). The plur. form to. 8e- 
a-pd, the more com. form in Grk. writ. (W. 63 (62) [cf. B. 
23 (21) ; see below]), is found in Lk. viii. 29 ; Acts xvi. 
26 ; XX. 23 ; the other form 01 8ea-poi in Phil. i. 13 (atare 
Tovs 8ecrpovs pov (pavepovs ev Xpicrrw yeveadai, SO that my 
captivity became manifest as made for the cause of Christ), 
[" 8eiTpd sunt vincula quibus quis constringitur, sed Se- 
a-pos est in carcerem conjectio et captivitas in vincidis . . . 
Utraque forma et ceteri Graeci omnes et Attici utuntur, 
sed non promiscue ut inter se permutari possint." Cobet 
as quoted in Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 353] ; the gen. 
and dat. in Acts xxii. 30 Rec; xxiii. 29; xxvi. 29, 31 ; 
Phil. i. 7, 14, 16 (17); Col. iv. 18; 2 Tim. ii. 9 ; Philem. 
10 ; Heb. x. 34 R Tr mrg. ; xi. 36 ; Jude 6 ; ev roly 8e(Tpoh 
TOV evayyeTiiov, in the captivity into which the preaching 
of the gospel has thrown me, Philem. 13 [W. 189 (1 78) ; 
cf. ref. s. V. 8e(Tpioi, fin.].* 

8€orp.o-<j)i)Xci|, -Kos, 6, {dea-pos and <f)v\a$, like drjcravpo- 
(})v\a^ [cf. W. 100 (95)]), a keeper of a prison, a jailer : 
Acts xvi. 23, 27, 36. (Joseph, antt. 2, 5, 1 ; Lcian. Tox. 
30 ; [Artem. oneir. 3, 60 ; al.] ; dpxi8eap.o(f)v\a^, Gea 
xxxix. 21-23.)* 



Bea-fjLcoTTjptou 



130 



Be^o/xai 



S£(r|ib>TT|piov, -ov, TO, a prison, Jail : Mt. xi. 2 ; Acts v. 
21, 23 ; xvi. 26. (Gen. xl. 3 ; [Hdt.], Thuc, Plat., Dem., 
al.)* 

8ecrfj.aJrtis, -ov, 6, one bound, a prisoner : Acts xxvii. 
1, 42. (Gen. xxxix. 20 ; Bar. i. 9 ; Hdt., Aeschyl., Soph., 
Thuc, subseq. writ.)* 

8£(rir6TT)s, -ov, 6, [fr. Find, down], a master, lord (as of 
SowXot, olK(Tai) : 1 Tim. vi. 1, [2] ; 2 Tim. ii. 21 ; Tit. ii. 
9 ; 1 Pet. ii. 18; God is thus addressed b}' one who calls 
himself his 8ov\os : Lk. ii. 29, cf. Acts iv. 24, 29, (Seo-Tro- 
TT]s tQ>v -navTwv, Job V. 8 ; Sap. vi. 8) ; Christ is so called, 
as one who has bought his servants, 2 Pet. ii. 1 ; rules 
over his church, Jude 4 [some take 8. here as designating 
God; cf . 11. V. mrg.] ; and whose prerogative it is to 
take vengeance on those who persecute his followers, 
Rev. vi. 10.* 

[Syn. Sea-TTtJrTjs, Kvpios: S. was strictly the correla- 
tive of slave, 5oCa.os, and heuce deuoted absolute ownership 
and uncontrolled power ; Kvpios had a wider meaning, appli- 
cable to the various ranks and relations of life, and not sug- 
gestive either of property or of absolutism. Ammonius s. v. 
Se(rir6T7]s says S. 6 rSiv apyvpcovriruv • Kvpios 5e koI warijp vlov 
Kol avrSs Tis kavrov. So Pliilo, quis rer. div. heres § 6 oKne 
rhv SeffTr6TTji' Kvpiov elvai Kal €ti axravil <po0ephv Kvptov, ov 
fi6vov rh Kvpos KoX rb Kparos aTravTwv avTf]/xfxevov, aWa Kal 
Sfoi Koi <p6fiov iKavhv i/xTroiTJcrai. Cf. Trench § xxviii. ; Wool- 
sey, in Bib. Sacr. for 1861, p. 599 sq. ; Schmidt ch. 161, 5.] 

Sevpo, adv., fr. Hom. down ; 1. of place, a. hither; 
to this place, b. in urging and calling, here ! come ! 
(Sept. esp.for ^'7 and HD^) : Mt. xix. 21 ; Mk. x. 21 ; Lk. 
xviii. 22 ; Jn. xi. 43 (bevpo e^o) come forth). Acts vii. 34 ; 
Kev. xvii. 1 ; xxi. 9 ; 8fvpo ets yrjv, f)v ktK. Acts vii. 3 
(bfxjpo fli Tov oIkou aov, 1 K. i. 53 ; eij IlroXe/xatSa, 1 ^lacc. 
xii. 45). 2. of time, hitherto, noiv : lixpi' tov Seupo up to 
this time, Ro. i. 13 {p.txP'- ^^vpo, [Plat. legg. 7 p. 811 c.]; 
Athen. 1, 62 p. 34 c. ; Plut. vit. Num. 4 ; Pomp. 24).* 

SevTt, adv., used when two or more are addressed [cf. 
B. 70 (61)] ; perhaps fr. 8fiip ire [yet see Bttju. Gram. 
21te Aufl. § 115 Anm. 8], see bevpo, 1 ; 1. fr. Horn, 
down, co7ne hither, come here, come : foil, by an impv,, 
devTf, K\T]povopr](TaTf, Mt. xxv. 34 ; SeOre, I'Serf , Mt. xxviii. 
6 ; Jn. iv. 29 ; SeCre, dpLcrTTjcraTf, Jn. x.xi. 12 ; 8fVT(, crvva- 
X^Te (Rec. S. Koi a-vvayeade). Rev. xix. 17. 8(VTf oTria-a 
fiov come after me, be my disciples : j\It. iv. 19 ; Mk. i. 1 7, 
(equiv. to nnX oS, 2 K. vi. 19) ; Se&Te et? T.yap.ovs, Mt. 
xxii. 4 ; ets ipr\p.ov tottop, Mk. vi. 31 ; SeiiTf npos p.f, Mt. 
xi. 28. 2. It gets the force of an interjection, come ! 
come now ! foil, by a hortat. subj. : btvTe, d7roKTfivcop.€v, 
Mt. xxi. 38 ; Mk. xii. 7 and R G in Lk. xx. 14. (Sept. 
mostly for oS, sometimes for Mil.) * 

ScvTEpaios, -aia, -aiov, {8(VTfpos), [Hdt., Xen., al.], of 
or belonging to the second ; of one who comes, or does a 
thing, on the second day (cf. Tptrmof, TtTapToios, etc.) : 
8fVT€paioi Tp^dofifv, Acts xxviii. 13; cf. W. § 54, 2; [B. 
§ 123, 9].* 

8€VTep6-irp<DTos, -ov, second-first (cf. 8evTfp€a-xaTos sec- 
ond-last, last but one) : eV aa^^aTm 8tvTeponpa)T<a in Lk. 
vi. 1 seems to be, the second of the first sabbaths after the 
feast of the Passover ; cf. Redslob in the Intelligenzblatt 



zur Hall. Lit. Zeit. 1847, N. 70; Ewald, Jahrbb. d. bibl. 
Wissensch. i. p. 72 ; [ WII. App. ad loc.]. The various 
opinions of others are reviewed by Meyer [and McClcl- 
lan] ad loc. and Liibkert in the Stud, und Krit. for 1835, 
p. 664 sqq. (Eustrat. in vita Eutych. n. 95 calls the first 
Sunday after Easter 8evTepo7rpa)TT)u KvpioKrjv). [But the 
genuineness of the word is (juestionable. It is wanting in 
f<BLl , 33, 69 and some other authorities. Hence Tr txt. 
WH om. the word, L Tr mrg. br. it. Tischendorf, after 
expunging it in his 2d ed., restored it in his 7th, subse- 
quently put it in brackets, and finally (ed. 8) inserted 
it again. It is questioned or discarded, by Mey., Bleek, 
AK., Weiss (on Mk. p. 101), Holtz., Ililgenf., Volkm., 
Farrar (Com. ad loc. and Life of Christ i. 435), al. For 
the evidence see Tdf.'s note, and for discussions of it 
see WH. App. ad loc. ; Scrivener, Intr. p. 515 sq. ; Green,' 
" Developed Criticism " jid loc] * 

8€VT€pos, -epa, -epoi/, [fr. Hom. down; Curtius §277], 
second: Mt. xxii. 26 ; Mk. xii. 21 ; Lk. xii. 38; Jn. iv. 54 ; 
Rev. iv. 7, etc. ; the second, the other of two : Mt. xxii. 
39 ; Mk, xii. 31 ; 1 Co. xv. 47 ; Tit. iii. 10 ; 2 Pet. iii. 1 ; 
Heb. viii. 7; x. 9 ; 8€VTepos davaTos (see ^di/aros, 3), Rev. 
ii. 11 ; XX. 14 ; xxi. 8 ; 8evTepa x«/"f i" 2 Co. i. 15 is not 
a double benefit, but a second, oj)p. to the former which 
the Corinthians would have had if Paul in passing 
through Achaia into Macedonia had visited them npore- 
pov, [WII txt. Tr mrg. read 8evT. x^pav, q. v.]. The 
neuter 8evTepov is used adverbially in the second place, a 
second time [cf. W. § 37, 5 Note 1] : Jn. iii. 4; Rev. xix. 
3 ; TToKiv is added, as often in Grk. writ, (see apoidev, 
fin.): Jn. xxi. 16; also to 8evTfpov, 2 Co. xiii. 2; Jude 
5; €K 8fVTepov (1 Mace ix. 1), Mk. xiv. 72; Jn. ix. 24; 
Acts xi. 9 ; Ileb. ix. 28 ; cf. W. § 51, 1 d. ; with ttoXii^ added, 
Mt. xxvi. 42 ; Acts x. 15, (Hom. Od. 3, 161 eVl 8fVT(pov 
avTis) ; fv T<u 8(VTep(o at the second time, Acts vii. 13 (when 
they had come the second time) ; Sevrepov in a partition, 
then, in the second place : 1 Co. xii. 28. 

Se'xoiiai ; [fut. 2 pers. plur. 8i$((T6e, Eph. vi. 1 7 Rec.*"^] ; 
1 aor. e8f^dpr]v; pf- Se'Sfy/xat (Acts viii. 14) ; depon. mid.; 
"Sept. mostly for npS ; 1. to take with the haiid : to 
ypafipa [L txt. T Tr WII tu ypdpp.aTa~\, Lk. xvi. 6 sq. ; to 
iroTrjpiov, Lk. xxii. 1 7 ; ^0 take hold of take up, t. irepi- 
Kf(f)a\aiav, r. p.axaipav, Eph. vi. 1 7 ; to irai8inv els Tas 
dyKaXas, Lk. ii. 28. 2. to take up, receive, (Germ, auf- 

nehmen, annehmen) ; a. used of a place receiving one; 
ov 8eiovpavov 8e^a(T6ai (ovp. is subject), Acts iii. 21, (Plat. 
Theaet. p. 177 a. TeXevTrjcravTos avTovs ... 6 twv KaKciv 
Kadapos Toiroi oii 8e^fTai). b. with acc of pers. to receive, 
grant access to, a visitor; not to refuse intercourse or friend- 
ship : Lk. ix. 11 R G ; Jn. iv. 45 ; 2 Co. vii. 15 ; Gal. iv. 
14 ; Col. iv. 10 ; to receive to hospitality, Mt. x. 14, 40 sq. ; 
Mk. vi. 11 ; Lk. ix. 5, 53; x. 8, 10; Acts xxi. 17 Rec; 
Heb. xi. 31, (often in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down) ; ■Kai8iov, 
to receive into one's family in order to bring up and edu- 
cate, Mt. xviii. 5 ; Mk. ix. 37; Lk. ix. 48; to receive els 
T. oXkovs, Tas (TKrjvds, Lk. xvi. 4,9; Se^at to nvf vfxd fiov, to 
thyself in heaven. Acts vii. 59. c. with acc. of the thingr 
offered in speaking, teaching, instructing; to receive fa- 



8e 



eco 



131 



SrjXoco 



vorably, give ear to, embrace, make one's own, approve, 
not to reject: rov \6yov, Lk. viii. 13; Acts viii. 14 ; xi. 

1 ; xvii. 11 ; 1 Tli. i. G ; ii. 13 ; Jas. i. 21 ; to tov nvev- 
fiaroi, 1 Co. ii. 14; Tr]VTrapaKXr]aiv, 2 Co. viii. 17 ; rfjv dydiTt]v 
TTJi aXrjOelas sc. commended to them, 2 Th. ii. 10; [add 
the elliptical constr. in Mt. xi. 14], (often in Grk. writ.) ; 
to receive a benefit offered, not to reject it, 2 Co. viii. 4 
Rec. d. to receive i. q. to take upon one's self, sustain, 
bear, endure : nva, his bearing and behavior, 2 Co. xi. IG, 
(rrjv dbiKiav, Ilebr. XK/J, Gen. 1. 1 7 ; ttuv, o eav enaxdfl, 
Sir. ii. 4 ; nvdov xa^fTrdf, Horn. Od. 20, 271, and often in 
Grk. writ.). 3. to receive, get, (Germ, empfangen) : 
enL<TTo\di, Acts xxii. 6 ; ypd^fiara. Acts xxviii. 21 ; ttjv 
j3a(Ti\fiav Tov 6eov, to become a jiartaker of the benefits 
of God's kingdom, Mk. x. 15 ; Lk. xviii. 1 7 ; \6yia (chvra, 
Acts vii. 38 ; eiayyeXiov, 2 Co. xi. 4 ; rfjv X'^P'" ^"^ 0fov, 

2 Co. vi. 1 ; — i. q. to learn: Phil. iv. 18 [(?) see the 
Comm. ad loc.].* 

[Syn. Se'xoM"') f^auPdveo: The earlier classic use 
of these verbs sustains in the main the distinction laid down 
in the g^lossaries (e. g. Ammonius s. v. \a^e7v: \a0e7y fxiv 

Xetp6s), and the suggestion of a self -prompted taking still 
adheres to A., in many connexions (cf. \afii7v tivol ywaiKa, 
apxhv \a0e7v) in distinction from a receiving of what is 
offered ; in use, however, the words overlap and distinctions 
disappear ; yet the suggestion of a w e 1 c o m i n g or an a p- 
propriating reception generally cleaves to 5. See Schmidt 
eh. 107, who treats of the comp. of S. in detail. Comp. : ava-, 
airo-, Sia-, elff-, e/c-, air-e/c-, dv-, siri-, Trapa-, irpoff-, uiro-Se^Ojuai.] 

8e'« : [fut. Sijcrco] ; 1 aor. ibr^aa ; pf. ptcp. SeSe/cco? (Acts 
xxii. 29) ; Pass., pf. Bebefiat ; 1 aor. inf. heOrjvai (Acts xxi. 
83) ; Sept. chiefly for "IDX ; [fr. Hom. down] ; to bind, tie, 
fasten ; 1. prop. : ri, els dfaixds, Mt. xiii. 30 [Tr WH 
br.Gprob.om.«r,cf.B. 150(131); W. 225 (211)]; 6e6m] 
Teaa-apa-iv apxals SeSep,. a sheet bound by the four cor- 
ners (to the sky), Acts x. 11 (G L T Tr WH om. 8f8fp. 
Kai) ; an animal, to prevent it from straying about, ovos 
Sf'^tpevrj, TrwXoy SeSe^ei/oy, jNIt. xxi. 2 ; i\Ik. xi. 2 ; Lk. xix. 
30 ; with npos r. dvpav added, Mk. xi. 4 ; with ace. of 
pers. to bind, to fasten with chains, to throtv into chains : 
dyyfXovs, Rev. ix. 14; a madman, neSais koi aXvatai, Mk. 
T. 3 sq. ; captives, Mt. [xii. 29] ; xiv. 3 ; xxii. 13 ; xxvii. 
2; Mk. [iii. 27]; vi. 17; xv. 1 ; Jn. xviii. 12; Acts ix. 14; 
xxi. 11 ; xxii. 29 ; Rev. xx. 2 ; Pass., Mk. xv. 7 ; Jn. xviii. 
24; Acts ix. 2, 21 (in the last two pass. 8e8epfvov ayeiv 
Twd) ; Acts xxi. 13 ; xxii. 5 ; xxiv. 27 ; Col. iv. 3 ; dXva-eai, 
Acts xii. 6 ; xxi. 33 ; 6 Xo'yof roii 6fov ov Se'Sfrat, fig. for 
these bonds of mine in no way hinder its course, i. e. 
the preaching, extension, and efficacy of the gospel, 2 
Tim. ii. 9 ; the bodies of the dead, which were wont to 
be bound with bandages and linen cloths : 6 TfBvqKas 
d(8ep€vos Tovs nobas k. ras x^^pos Kfiplais, bound hand and 
foot with grave-cloths, Jn. xi. 44 ; to aapa odoviois (Tdf. 
2, 7 fv 66ov.), to swathe in linen cloths, Jn.xix. 40. 2. 
metaph. a. Satan is said 8fjcrai a woman bent together, 
i. e. by means of a demon, as his messenger, taking pos- 
session of the woman and preventing her from standing 
upright, Lk. xiii. 16 cf. 11. h. to bind, i. e. put under 



obligation, sc. of law, duty, etc. : SeSf/xeVo? rw irvtvpaTt, 
bound or constrained in my spirit, i. e. compelled by my 
convictions. Acts xx. 22 (so not infreq. in Grk. auth. 
as Plat. rep. 8 p. 5G7 d. dvdyKr} SeSfrai. ^ TrpoardTTd av- 
Tw) ; with dat. of pers. 8(8(0-601 tlvl to be bound to one : 
dvbpi, of a wife, Ro. vii. 2 ; ywaiKi, of a husband, 1 Co. 
vii. 27; 8e8fTai absol., opp. to iXevBtpa icrTi, ibid. 39; 
(Achill. Tat. 1, 11 p. 41 liWrj S/Se/xat napdtva, Jambl. 
vit. Pyth. 11, 56 ttjv piv ciyapov, . . . TrjV §€ rrpbs (ivbpa 8f- 
bepevrjv). c. by a Chald. and rabbin, idiom (equiv. to 
IQK) to forbid, prohibit, declare to be illicit: Mt. xvi. 
19 ; xviii. 18. [Comp. : Kara-, irepi-, crvv-, vno-8ea.^ * 

8ifj, (shortened fr. j'j8r] [al. al.]), a particle which, the 
Epic phrases S17 rdre, S17 yap excepted, is never placed 
at the beginning of a sentence, but is joined to some pre- 
cedinsc word, and indicates that " what it introduces can 
be taken as something settled, laid down in deed and in 
truth" (Klotz ad Devar. ii. 2 p. 392): 7ioio therefore, 
then, verily, in truth, (Lat. jam, igitur, sane, etc. — al- 
though neither Lat., Germ., [nor Eng.] has a word pre- 
cisely equiv. to 8r}). 1. added to relative pronouns : 
6y 8t) who is such a one as, tcho preeminently, tvho then, 
Mt. xiii. 23. 2. joined to imperatives and hortatory 
subjunctives it signifies that the thing enjoined must be 
done forthwith, at once [cf. W. § 43, 3 a.], so that it may 
be evident that it is being done (cf. Passow i. p. 612''), 
where the Lat. says agedum,jam, Germ, doch, nur, [Eng. 
now, only, but'] : Lk. ii. 15; Acts [vi. 3 L WHmrg. br.] ; 
xiii. 2; xv. 36 ; 1 Co. vi. 20, (Sir. xliv. 1). 3. surely, 
certainly : 2 Co. xii. 1 R G.* 

STjXavyws, (fr. bTJkos and avyrf), radiantly, in full light, 
clearly: Mk. viii. 25 TWH mrg. with codd. X*CLa for 
Rec. TrjKavywi. Hesych. says 8r)Kavya)S' ayav <pavfpa>s', 
add 8r]\avy€cn TeKprjpiois, Democrit. in Fabricius, Biblioth. 
Gr. iv. p. 333. With the exception of this word [5;;Xo- 
TToteo), (Plut. Pericl. 33, 8 ; al.)] and the very rare 877X0- 
(pavTjs, S^Xos is not found in composition.* 

SfjXos, -T], -ov, [fr. Hom. down], clear, evident, manifest : 
Mt. xxvi. 73 ; 8rj\ov sc. ia-Tiv it is manifest, evident, foil, 
by on (4 Mace. ii. 7 ; Xen. an. 1, 3, 9 ; al.) : 1 Co. xv. 27 
[here some would take the words adverbially and paren- 
thetically i. e. 8t}}\.ov6ti. manifestly cf. W. § 64, 2 a.] ; Gal. 
iii. 11 ; 1 Tim. vi. 7 (here L T Tr WH om. S^Xo^-* 

[Syn. 5^A.os, <pav(p6s: S. evident, what is known and un- 
derstood, <p. manifest, as opp. to what is concealed or invisible ; 
5. points rather to inner perception, <^. to outward appear- 
ance. Cf. Schmidt ch. 129.] 

8t]X6m, -w ; [impf. f8r)\ovv ; fut. ST^Xcbaco] ; 1 aor. e8^- 
Xava; Pass., [impf. 3 pers. sing. l8rjkovTo (1 Pet. i. 11 
WHmrg.)]; 1 aor. i8rjKcaer)v; (8^\os) ; Sept. for ;,ynin 
and sometimes for rT^l'n ; in Grk. auth. fr. [Aeschyl. and] 
Hdt. down ; to make manifest : tI, 1 Co. iii. 13; to make 
known by relating, to declare : ri, Col. i. 8 ; tiv\ rrfpi rtvos, 
oTi, 1 Co. i. 1 1 ; to give one to understand, to indicate, 
signify : ri, Heb. xii. 27 ; 2 Pet. i. 14 ; foil, by ace. with 
inf. Heb. ix. 8 ; flV ri, point unto, 1 Pet. i. 11.* 

[Syn. SrjXrfo), 6^ a »"' C'^ ■ fM<^- to manifest to the sight, 
make visible ; 5. to render evident to the mind, of such dis- 
closures as exhibit character or suggest inferences ; hence 



^rjfid<; 



132 



Bid 



esp. of prophetical, typical, or other supernatural disclosures. 
Cf. Schmidt ch. 129 § 6; Bleek on Heb. ix. 8.] 

AY]|xds, 6, Demas, (prop, name, contracted apparently 
fr. Arj^rjTpLos, of. W. 103 (97) ; [on its declension, cf. B. 
20 (18)]), a companion of Paul, who deserted the apos- 
tle when he was a prisoner at Rome and returned to 
Thessalonica : Col. iv. 14; Philem. 24; 2 Tim. iv. 10.* 

STuxTiYopio), -CO : [impf. eSrjfjLijyopovv] ; (to be a drjfirjyopos, 
fr. bfifios and dyopevo) to harangue the people) ; to dddress 
a public assembly, make a speech to the people : ihr^pijjyopfi 
•npbs avTovs [A. V. made an oration'], Acts xii. 21. (Ar- 
stph., Xen., Plat., Dem., al. Prov. xxx. 31 (xxiv. 66) ; 

4 Mace. V. 15.)* 

Ai^jxTiTpios, -ou, 6, Demetrius ; 1. a silversmith of 
Ephesus, a heathen: Acts xix. 24, 38. 2. a certain 
Christian : 3 Jn. 12.* 

SrijiiovpYos, -ov, 6, {drjpios public, belonging to the peo- 
ple, and EPrQ ; cf. Upovpyos, dnweXovpyoi, etc.), often in 
Grk. writ. fr. Horn, down ; a. prop, a loorkman for the 
public, b. univ. the author of anj/ work, an artisan, 
framer, builder: rfxyirri^ k. 87]ixiovpy6s, Heb. xi. 10; (Xen. 
mem. 1,4, 7 [cf. 9] aocfiov nvos b-qp,iovpyov Tex^vrjfxa. God 
is called 6 tov ovpavov 8r]p.iovpy6s in Plat. rep. 7 p. 530 a. ; 
6 Brjp.. Tcov oXtoi' in Joseph, uutt. 1, 7, 1, and often in eccl. 
writ, from Clem. Rom. 1 Cor. 20, 11; 26, 1 ; 33, 2 on; 
[cf. Philo, de mut. nom. § 4 ; de opif. mund. ed. Miiller 
p. 133; Piper, Einl. in monument. Theol. § 26; Soph. 
Lex. s. V.]. In the Scriptures, besides, only in 2 Mace. 
iv. 1 KOKQiv 8T]fjL.). [Cf. Trench § cv.] * 

Sfj^os, -ov, 6, the people, the mass of the people assembled 
in a piddic place: Acts xii. 22; xix. 33; ayeiv [R G], 
(laiKBelv et? tov Brjfjiov : Acts xvii. 5 [L T Tr WH npoay.'] ; 
xix. 30. [From Horn, down.] * 

[Syn. Srj fxos, Kaos: in classic Grk. Sri/xos denotes the peo- 
ple as organized into a body politic, \a6s the unorganized 
people at large. But in biblical Grk. \a6s is used esp. of the 
chosen people of God ; Stj/xos on the other hand (found only 
in Acts) denotes the people of a heathen city. Cf. Trench 
§ xcviii. ; Schmidt ch. 199.] 

8T]|Ji6(rios, -a, -ov, esp. freq. in Attic; belonging to the 
people or state, public (opp. to I'Stos) : Acts v. 18 ; in dat. 
fem. drjfioa-ia used adverbially (opp. to I8ia) [cf. W. 591 
(549) note], publicly, in public places, in view of all : Acts 
xvi. 37; xviii. 28; Srjp.. kg) kut o'lkovs. Acts xx. 20; (2 
Mace. vi. 10 ; 3 Mace. ii. 27 ; in Grk. writ, also by public 
authority, at the public expense).* 

St^vdpiov, -ov, TO, [Plut., Epict., al.], a Lat. word, a de- 
narius, a silver coin, originally consisting of ten [whence 
its name], afterwards [fr. B. c. 217 on] of sixteen asses; 
about [3.898 grams, i. e. 8| pence or 1C|^ cents; rapidly 
debased fr. Xero on ; cf. BB.DD. s. v. Denarius] : Mt. 
xviii. 28; xx. 2, 9, 13 ; xxii. 19 ; Mk. vi. 37; xii. 15; xiv. 

5 ; Lk. vii. 41 ; x. 35 ; xx. 24 ; Jn. vi. 7 ; xii. 5 ; Rev. vi. 

6 [cf. W. 587 (546) ; B. 164 (143)] ; to dva brjvapiov sc. 
ov the pay of a denarius apiece promised to each work- 
man, :\rt. XX. 10 T Tr [txt., Trmrg. WH br. ro].* 

8^^7roT€ (fr. br) and Trore), adv., now at length (Jam 
aliquando): at any lime ; af last, etc., Just exactly ; [hence 
it generalizes a relative, like the Lat. cumque ; see Lob. 



ad Phryn. p. 3 73]: <» SijTrore voafjuoTi, with whatsoever 
disease, Jn. v. 4 [RG, but L olaSrjnoTovv].* 

Stj-itov [L WH 8rj nov; cf. Lipsius, Gram. Untersuch. p. 
123 sq.], adv., (fr. hi] and ttov), prop, now in some way, 
ichatever that way is ; it is used when something is affirmed 
in a slightly ironical manner, as if with an affectation of 
uncertainty , perhaps, doubtless, verily : ov brjnov not surely 
(Germ, doch nicht etwa), hardly I trow ; (cf. Rost in 
Passow i. p. 613'' ; /v/o^sad Devar. ii. 2 p. 427 sq.). Once 
in Scripture: Heb. ii. 16.* 

[Aia, see Zeus.] 

8ia, [" written St' before a vowel, exc. in prop, names 
and 2 Co. v. 7; Ro. viii. 10 " Tdj: Proleg. p. 94], akin 
to fit's and Lat. dis in composition, prop, denoting a divis- 
ion into two or more parts ; a preposition taking the 
gen. and the ace. In its use the bibl. writ, differ in no 
respect fr. the Grk. ; cf. W. 377 (353) sqq. ; 398 (372) sq. 

A. with the Genitive: through; I. of Place; 

1. prop, after verbs denoting an extension, or a motion, 
or an act, that occurs through any place : 8i aX'Krji obov 
dvaxu>peiv, Mt. ii. 12 ; 8i dvvbpa^v Toncov, Mt. xii. 43 ; bia 
TTJs 'S.ap.apeias, Jn. iv. 4 ; 8ia Trjs Ovpas, Jn. x. 1 sq. ; add, 
Mt. xix. 24; Mk. ii. 23; x. 25; xi. 16; Lk.iv. 30; v. 19; 
xviii. 25; 2 Co. xi. 33; Heb. ix. 11 sq. ; xi. 29, etc.; St' 
vp-div, through your city, Ro. xv. 28 ; [on Sta trdvToiv, 
Acts Lx. 32, see -nds, II. 1] ; 6 6ia iravTwv, diffusing his 
saving influence through all, Ejih. iv. G ; aa^fa-dai hia 
TTvpoi, 1 Co. iii. 15 ; Stao-w^. St' vbaros, 1 Pet. iii. 20 (Ev. 
Nicod. c. 9 p. 568 sq. ed. Thilo [p. 228 ed. Tdf.] Sta 
6a\dcra~r]S cos Sta ^rjpds) ', /SXtVeti/ St' iaoTTTpov, 1 Co. xiii. 
12 [cf. W. 380 (356)], Add the adverbial phrase St' 
oXov from top to bottom, throughout, Jn. xix. 23 (met- 
aph. in every way, 1 Mace. vi. 18). From this use of 
the preposition has come 2. its tropical use of a 

state or condition in which (prop, passing through 
which as through a space) one does or suffers some- 
thing, where we, with a different conception, employ 
with, in, etc. (Germ, bei, unter, mit) : 6 Sio ypdpp.aTos <■ 
TrepiToprjs TrapajSaTrjs v6p.ov, Ro. ii. 27 [M . 380 (355)] ; ol 
Tn.(TTfvovTfs St' d<pol3va-Tias who believe though uncircuin- 
cised (see aKpojiva-Tia, a.), Ro. iv. 11 ; Sta npoa-Kop-paTos 
(crdUtv, with offence, or so as to be an offence [cf. W. 380 
(350), and see npoa-Kop.pa'], Ro. xiv. 20 ; Sta nia-Tecos nepi- 
iraTfiv, oil Sta f'tSous (see eiSoj, 1), 2 Co. v. 7 ; to Sto 
[Lchm.mrg. (cf. Trmrg.) to. t'Sia (see Mey. ad loc.)] roi 
adypiaTos, done in the body (i. e. while we were clothed 
with our earthly body [al. take Sta' here instrumentally ; 
see III. 2 below]), 2 Co. v. 10 ; Sta noWav baKpvcov, 2 Co. 
ii. 4 ; Sta So^^t;?, clothed with glory, 2 Co. iii. 1 1 ; fpxfo-dai, 
elatpx- bid rti/os icith a thing, Heb. ix. 12 ; 1 Jn. v. G, [but 
cf. W. 380 (355)] ; St' vnonovf]s, Ro. viii. 25, (Sta ivivBovi 
TO yfjpas bidyfiv, Xen. Cyr. 4, 6, 6 ; cf. Matthiae ii. 
p. 1353). 

II. of Time [cf. W. 380 (356); Ellic. or Mey. on 
Gal. ii. 1; Fritzsche as below]; 1. of continued 
time ; hence a. of the time throughout (during) which 
anything is done: Mt. xxvi. 61 ; IVIk. xiv. 58; St' SXrit 
(t^is R G) vvktos, Lk. V. 5 ; Sta navTos tov ^v, Heb. ii. 15 ; 



5ta 



133 



Bid 



dta natrros [so L WH Tr (exc. Mk. v. 5 ; Lk. xxiv. 53)], 
or written together dianavroi [so G T (exc. in Mt.) ; cf. 
W. 46 (45) ; Lipsim, Gram. Unters. p. 125], continualli/, 
always: Mt. xviii. 10; Mk. v. 5; Lk. xxiv. 53; Acts ii. 
25 (fr. Ps. XV. (xvi.) 8) ; x. 2; xxiv. 16 ; Ro. xi. 10 (fr. 
Ps. Ixviii. (Ixix.) 24) ; 2 Tli. iii. 16 ; Heb. ix. 6 ; xiii. 15, 
(often in Grk. writ.), b. of the time within which a 
thing is done : Sta ttj's pvktos (L T Tr WH bui wktos), by 
night, Acts V. U» ; xvi. 9; xvii. 10; xxiii. 31, (Palaeph. 
1, 10) ; 8i Tjtiepwu reaaapaKovTa, repeatedly within the 
space of forty days, Acts i. 3 ; — (denying this use of the 
prep., C. F. A. Fritzsche in Fritzschiorum Opuscc. p. 
164 sq. would refer these instances to the use noted 
under a. [see Win., Ellic, Mey. u. s.]). 2. of time 
elapsed, and which has, so to say, been passed 
through: Gal. ii. 1 [cf. AV. 380 (356)]; 8t' ^^fp«i/, 
(some) days having intervened, after (some) days, Mk. ii. 
1 ; bC fToip nXfiovav, Acts xxiv. 1 7 ; exx. fr. Grk. auth. in 
Fritzsche on Mk. p. 50 ; [W. 380 (356) ; L. and S. s. v. A. 
n. 2; Soph. Lex. s. v. 2; Field, Otium Norv. iii. p. 14]. 
III. of the Means or Instrument by which any- 
thing is effected ; because what is done by means of a 
person or thing seems to pass as it were through the 
same [cf. W. 378 (354)]. 1. of one who is the author 
of the action as well as its instrument, or of the effi- 
cient cause: 5i' aiiTov (i. e. TOv deov) to. navra sc. iarlv 
or iyevero, Ro. xi. 36 ; also St' ov, Heb. ii. 10; St' ov (kXtj- 
erjre, 1 Co. i. 9 ; add [Gal. iv. 7 L T Tr WH, see below] ; 
Heb. vii. 21 (17 larpiKr] rraaa 8ia tov deov tovtov, i. e. Aes- 
culapius, Kv^epvarai, Plat. symp. p. 186 e. ; cf. Fritzsche 
on Rom. vol. i. p. 15, [and for exx. Soph. Lex. s. v. 1]) ; of 
him to whom that is due which any one has or has done ; 
hence i. q. by the fault of any one : St' ov to (tkuvSoXov 
epx^rai, Mt. xviii. 7 ; St' ews av6p. ff apapria . . . fla-r]Kde, 
Ro. V. 12, cf. 16—19 ; rja-Ofvei 8ia r^? aapKos, Ro. viii. 3 ; 
hy the merit, aid, favor of any one : ev ^(ofj ^aa ikfixTovai 
bia etc. Ro. V. 1 7, cf. 18 sq. ; 1 Co. xv. 21 ; bia tov Xpta-rov, 
and the like: Ro. v. 1 sq. 11 ; Acts x. 43; Gal. iv. 7 
[Rec, but see above] ; So|u^6ti' r. 6f6v Sta 'It^o-oO Xpicrrov, 
1 Pet. iv. 11, and fixapia-Tflv tm Sea 8ia 'irjcr. Xp. Ro. i. 
8 ; vii. 25 (where L T Tr WH txt. x"P'? ^^ ^«^) > Col. iii. 
17, — because the possibility both of glorifying God and 
of giving thanks to him is due to the kindness of Christ ; 
Kavxaadai iv roi 6(a 8ia 'irja. Xp. Ro. v. 1 1 ; dvanavetrdai 
8ia Tipoi, Philem. 7 ; ol nfTriaTfvKOTes 8ia Trjs ;(aptTO$', Acts 
xvm. 27 ; ttoXXtj? fiprjvrjs Tvy^^avovres 8ia crov . . . 8ia r^s 
cr^s npovoias. Acts xxiv. 2 (3) ; vnepviKau 8ia tov dyanfj- 
aavTos Tjpas, Ro. viii. 37; Trepifrcrfiifiu 8id rivoi, by the 
increase which comes from one, Phil. i. 26 ; 2 Co. i. 5 ; 
ix. 12 ; Sta ttjs vpa>v Se^o-ecoy, Phil. i. 19 ; add, Philem. 22 ; 
Ro. i. 12 ; 2 Co. i. 4 ; Gal. iv. 23 ; 1 Pet. i. 5. 2. of the 
instrument used to accomplish a thing, or of the instru- 
mental cause in the stricter sense: — with gen. of 
pers. hy the service, the intervention of any one ; with gen. 
of thing, hy means of with the help of any thiny ; a. in 
passages where a subject expressly mentioned is said to 
do or to have done a thing by some person or by some 
thing : Mk. xvi. 20 (tov Kvpiov tov \oyov ^(^aioxJvTos Sta 



r. crT]p,€ia)v) ; Lk. i. 70 ; Acts i. 16 ; ii. 22 (repaa-i k. (TTfpd- 
ois, ols enoirj(Tf 8C avTov 6 Seas) ; viii. 20 ; x. 36 ; xv. 23 
{ypd\f/avTfs 8id )(fipus avTcov) ; xx. 28; xxi. 19; xxviii. 
25 ; Ro. ii. 16 ; iii. 31 ; vii. 13 ; [viii. 11 RucM^ e'^ L ed. 
min. TWHtxt.]; xv. 18; xvi. 18; 1 Co. i. 21 [cf. W. 
381 (357)]; ii. 10; iv. 15; vi. 14 ; xiv. 9, 19 [RG] ; xv. 
57; 2C0. i. 4; iv. 14 RG; v. 18, 20; ix. 13 [cf. W. 381 
(357)]; X. 9; xii. 17; Eph.i. 5; ii. 16; Col. i. 20, 22; ii. 
8 ; 1 Th. iv. 14 ; 2 Th. ii. 14 ; Tit. iii. 5 ; Heb. i. 2, 3 [R 
G]; ii. 14; vi. 12; vii. 19; ix. 26 ; xiii. 2, 1 2, 15, 21 ; 
Rev. i. 1 ; yij e^ v8aTos (material cause) k. 81 vSaros awe- 
(TTuxra TM Toi) 6eov Xoyw, 2 Pet. iii. 5 [W. 419 (390) cf. 
217 (204)]. b. in passages in which the author or prin- 
cipal cause is not mentioned, but is easily understood 
from the nature of the case, or from the context : Ro. i. 
12 ; 1 Co. xi. 12 [cf. W. 381 (357)] ; Phil. i. 20 ; 1 Th. iii. 
7 ; 2 Th. ii. 2, 15 ; Heb. xi. 39 [cf. W. u. s., also § 50, 3] ; 
xii. 11,15; 1 Pet. i. 7 ; Sta TroXXwr/ papTvpcov, by the me- 
diation (intervention) of many witnesses, they being 
summoned for that purpose [cf. W. 378 (354); A. V. 
amonyl, 2 Tim. ii. 2. Where it is evident from the relig- 
ious conceptions of the Bible that G o d is the author or 
first cause : Jn. xi. 4 ; Acts v. 12 ; Eph. iii. 10 ; iv. 10 ; 
Col. ii. 19 ; 2 Tim. i. 6 ; Heb. x. 10 ; 2 Pet. iii. ; o-m^e- 
aBai 8ia r. nlcTTecos, Eph. ii. 8 ; avveyeipeaBai 8id r. ttiot. 
Col. ii. 12 ; biKaioiiaBai. 8id t. ttio-t. Gal. ii. IG, cf. Ro. iii. 
30 ; in the phrases Sta tov ^Irja. XpicrTov, and the like : 
Jn. i. 1 7 ; iii. 1 7 ; Acts xiii. 38 ; Ro. i. 5 ; v. 9 ; 1 Co. xv. 
57 ; 1 Jn. iv. 9 ; Phil. i. 11 ; Sta tov fvayyeXiov, 1 Co. xv. 
2 ; Eph. iii. 6 ; Sta Xoyou deoi, 1 Pet. i. 23, cf. 3 ; Sta 
vopov, Ro. iii. 27 ; iv. 13 ; St' dnoKaXyylAetos 'irja: Xp. Gal. 
i, 12, cf. 15 sq. ; Sta ToiJ (dyiov) nvevpaTOs, Ro. v. 5 ; 1 Co. 
xii. 8; Eph. iii. 16; TnaTeveiv Sta tivos (see ■jriaTevco, 
1 b. y.), Jn. i. 7 ; 1 Co. iii. 5 ; arjpdov yeyove 81 avToiv, 
Acts iv. 16 ; 6 Xoyos St' dyyfKojv \a\r]3eis, Heb. ii. 2, cf. 
Gal. iii. 19 ; 6 i/6/xo? Sta Mwvaecoi i866r], Jn. i. 17 ; in pas- 
sages in which something is said to have been spoken 
through the O. T. prophets, or some one of them [cf. 
Lqhtft. Fresh Revision etc. p. 121 sq.] : Mt. ii. 5, 17 L T 
Tr WH, 23 ; [iii. 3 L T Tr AVH] ; iv. 14 ; viii. 1 7 ; xu. 
17 ; xxi. 4 ; xxiv. 15 ; xxvii. 9 ; Acts ii. 16 ; or to have 
been so written : Lk. xviii. 31 ; with the added mention 
of the first cause : virb tov Kvpiov Sta tox) iTpo(p. Mt. i. 22 ; 
ii. 15, cf. Lk. i. 70; Acts i. 16; xxviii. 25; Ro. i. 2 ; in 
passages relating to the Logos : Trai^a St' avTov (i. e. 
through the divine Logos [cf. W. 379 (355)]) eyeWro or 
fKT'ia-erj : Jn. i. 3 ; 1 Co. viii. 6 (where he is expressly 
distinguished from the first cause: t^ airov [AV. 419 
(391)]); Col. i. 16 [AV. 1. c], cf. Heb. i. 2, (Philo de 
cherub. § 35). The instrumental cause and the princi- 
pal are distinguished in 1 Co. xi. 1 2 (Sta r^y ywaiKos ■ . . 
i< TOV 6eov) ; Gal. i. 1 («7r' dvdpwnav . . . 81 didpanov [cf. 
W. 418 (390)]). 3. with the gen. of a thing Stu is used 
to denote the manner in wliich a thing is done, or the 
formal cause: fine 8id irapa^oXfj^, Lk. viii. 4 ; f iTre St 
opdpaTos, Acts xviii. 9 ; drrayyeXXftv Sta Xoyov, hy word of 
mouth, Acts XV. 27 ; tw Xoyw St' iiria-ToXav, 2 Co. x. 11, 
cf. 2 Th. ii. 15 ; nioTis ivfpyovptvq St' dydirr]^, GaL v. 6; 



Std 



134 



Ha 



Kf;^dpicrrat Si' eTrayyeXias, Gal. iii. 1 8 ; 8ov\fv(iv Slot ttjs 
ayaTTTjy, Gal. v. 13; (TricrTeXXfiv 8ia ^pa)(ea)v, Ileb. xiii. 
22; ypa<^6ii/ 8t' oAiycoi/, 1 Pet. v. 12, (Flat. Gorg. p. 449 b. 
Sia fioKpuiv Xoyovs noulcrdai [see oXiyos, fin. ; cf. W. § 51, 
1 b.]); dia x^P^ov Koi peXavos, 2 .In. 12; Sia p.eXauos k. 
KaXdp.ov, 3 Jn. 13, (Pint. Sol. 17, 3). To this head I 
should refer also the use of 8id twos in exhortations etc., 
where one seeks to strengthen his exhortation by the 
mention of a thing or a ])erson held sacred by those 
whom he is admonishing (Sta equiv. to by an allusion to, 
by reminding you of [cf. W. 381 (357)]) : Ro. xii. 1 ; 
XV. 30; 1 Co. i. 10; 2 Co. x. 1 ; 1 Th. iv. 2 [yet cf. AV. 379 
(355) note] ; 2 Th. iii. 12 R G. 

B. with the Accusative [W. 398 (372) sq.]. I. of 
Place; through ; often so in the Grk. poets, once in the 
N. T. ace. to LTTrWII viz. Lk. xvii. 11 Sii ^xeVoi/ 
2a/tapeias, for RG hia piaov "lap., [but see ptaos, 2]. 

II. of the Ground or Reason on account of which 
anything is or is not done ; by reason of, because of 
(Germ, aus Grund). 1. of the i-eason for which a 
thin"- is done, or of the efficient reason, when for 
greater perspicuity it may be rendered by [cf. Kiihner 
§ 434 Anm.] ; a. with ace. of the thing : Si' rjv, viz. 
Tr]v Tov 6fov Tjpepav (projj. by reason of which day i. e. 
because it will come [cf. W. 400 (373)]), 2 Pet. iii. 12; 
Sia r. \6yov (prop, by reason of the word i. e. because 
the word has cleansing power), Jn. xv. 3 ; Sia to deXrjpa 
(TOV (Vulg. propter voluntatem tuam i. e. because thou 
didst will it), Rev. iv. 11; add. Rev. xii. 11; xiii. 14, 
(dva^ioiaKfTai Sta ttjv tov Tvarpos (f>v(nv, Plato, symp. p. 
203 e.) ; cf. Grimm on 2 JNIacc. iii. 1. b. with ace. of 
the person, by whose will, agency, favor, fault, any- 
thing is or is done : Sia tov Trarepa ... St' e'/ie (prop, be- 
cause the father lives . . . because I live [cf. W. 399 
(373)]), Jn. vi. 57; Sia tov inrord^avTa, by the will of 
him who subjected it, opp. to ovx (xovaa, Ro. viii. 20 
[cf. Win. 399 (373) note]; pfi f'lTrrjs oti Sia Kvpiov dne- 
OTTjv, Sir. XV. 1 1 ; so too in the Grk. writ, of every age ; 
cf. Kruger § 68, 23 ; Grimm on 2 Mace. vi. 25. Much 
oftener 2. of the reason or cause on account 

f which anything is or is done, or ought to be done ; 
on account of, because of; a. in the phrases Sia tovto 
for this cause '-, for this reason ; therefore ; on this account ; 
since this is so: Mt. vi. 25; xii. 27, 31; xiii. 13, etc.; 
Mk. vi. 14 ; xi. 24 ; Lk. xi. 49 ; xiv. 20 ; Jn. vi. 65 ; ix. 
23 ; Acts ii. 26 ; Ro. i. 26 ; iv. 1 6 ; v. 1 2 ; xiii. 6 ; xv. 9 ; 

1 Co. iv. 17; xi. 10, 30; 2 Co. iv. 1; Eph. i. 15; v. 17; 
vi. 13 ; Col i. 9 ; 1 Th. ii. 13 ; iii. 5, 7 ; 2 Th. ii. 11 ; 2 Tim. 
ii. 10; Heb. i. 9 ; ii. 1 ; 1 Jn. iv. 5 ; 3 Jn. 10; Rev. vii. 
15; xii. 12; xviii. 8. foil, by oti., for this cause . . . be- 
cause, therefore . . . because : Jn. v. 16, 18 ; viii. 47 ; x. 
17 ; xii. 18, 39 ; 1 Jn. iii. 1 ; cf. Tholuck cd. 7 on Jn. x. 
17, [he questions, at least for x. 17 and xii. 39, the canon 
of Meyer (on xii. 39), Luthardt (on x. 1 7), al., that in this 
phrase in Jn. the tovto always looks backwards], in the 
opposite order (when the words that precede with on are 
to be emphasized) : Jn. xv. 19. It indicates the end 
and purpose, being foU. either by Iva, 2 Co. xiii. 10; 1 



Tim. i. 16 ; Philem. 15, (in the opp. order, Jn. i. 31) ; or 
by oTTOJs, Heb. ix. 15. Sia tL [so L Tr WH] and written 
together Sioti [so G T ; cf . W. 45 ; Lipsius, Gram. Unters. 
p. 1 26], lohy ? wherefore ? Mt. ix. 11,14; xiii. 10 ; xvii. 19 ; 
Mk. ii. 18 ; Lk. v. 30 ; Jn. vii. 45 ; Acts v. 3 ; Ro. ix. 32 ; 1 
Co. vi. 7 ; Rev. xvii. 7. St' f)v airiav, see airia, 1 . tis tj alria, 
St' fjv. Acts X. 21 ; xxiii. 28; Sia Tavrr)v ttjv ahlav. Acts 
xxviii. 20 ; Sia TavTa, Eph. v. 6, etc. b. used, with the ace. 
of any noun, of the mental affection by which one is im- 
pelled to some act [Eng.for; cf. W. 399 (372)] : Sta cfydo- 
vov, because prompted by envy, for envy, Mt. xxvii. 18 ; 
IVIk. XV. 10 ; 8id tov cj^o^ov tivos, Jn. vii. 13 ; xix. 38 ; xx. 
19 ; Rev. xviii. 10, 15 ; Sia ttjv noXXfiv dydnrjv, Eph. ii. 4. 
of any other cause on account of which one is said to do 
or to have done something, — as in Mt. xiv. 3, 9 ; xv. 3, 6 ; 
Jn. iv. 39, 41 sq. ; xii. 11 ; xiv. 11 ; Acts xxviii. 2; Ro. 
iii. 25 (Sia Trjv ndpfaiv ToiVTrpoyey- dpapTtjp. because of the 
pretermission etc., i. e. because he had left the sins un- 
punished) ; Ro. vi. 19 ; xv. 15 ; 2 Co. ix. 14 ; Gal. iv. 13 
(St' dadeveiav ttjs aapKos, on account of an infirmity of the 
llesh, i. e. detained among you by sickness ; cf. Wieseler 
[or Bp. Lghtft.] ad loc.) ; — or to suffer or have suffered 
something, Mt. xxiv. 9 ; xxvii. 19 ; Lk. xxiii. 19, 25 ; Acts 
xxi. 35 ; 2 Co. iv. 11 ; Col. iii. 6 ; 1 Pet. iii. 14 ; Rev. i. 9 ; 
vi. 9 ; — or to have obtained something, Heb. ii. 9 ; v. 14 ; 1 
Jn. ii. 1 2 ; — or to be or to become something, Ro. viii. 10 ; 
xi. 28 ; Eph. iv. 18 ; Heb. v. 12 [W. 399 (373)] ; vii. 18. 
of the impeding cause, where by reason of some per- 
son or thing something is said to have been impossible : 
Mt. xiii. 58 ; xvii. 20 ; Mk. ii. 4 ; Lk. v. 19 ; viii. 19 ; Acts 
xxi. 34 ; Heb. iii. 19 ; iv. 6. Sia with the ace. of a pers. 
is often i. q.for the benefit of, [Eng._/«?- tlie sake o/] : Mk. 
ii. 27 ; Jn. xi. 42 ; xii. 30 ; 1 Co. xi. 9 ; Heb. i. 14 ; vi. 7 ; 
Sta Tovs fKXeKTois, Mt. xxiv. 22; Mk. xiii. 20; 2 Tim. ii. 
10; Sta Xpia-Tov for Christ's sake, to promote his cause, 
1 Co. iv. 10; St' vpds, Jn. xii. 30; 2 Co. iv. 15; viii. 9; 
Phil. i. 24 ; 1 Th. i. 5. Sta Tiva, because of the example 
set by one : 2 Co. ii. 10 ; Ro. ii. 24 ; 2 Pet. ii. 2 ; Sta tov 
Xpia-Tovfor Christ, to become a partner of Christ, Phil, 
iii. 7 (equiv. to ii^a Xpta-Tov KepbTjaco, vs. 8). C. Sia to, 
because that, for that, is placed before the inf., — either 
standing alone, as Lk. ix. 7 ; Heb. vii. 23 ; — or having a 
subject ace. expressed, as Mt. xxiv. 12 ; Mk. v. 4 ; Lk. ii. 
4 ; xix. 1 1 ; Acts iv. 2 ; xii. 20 ; xviii. 2 ; xxvii. 4, 9 ; xxviii. 
18 ; Phil. i. 7 ; Heb. vii. 24 ; x. 2 ; Jas. iv. 2 ; — or with its 
subject ace. evident from the context, as Mt. xiii. 6 ; Mk. 
iv. 6 ; Lk. xi. 8 ; xviii. 5 ; xxiii. 8 ; Acts viii. 11 ; xviii. 3. 
C. In Composition Sta indicates 1. a passing 
through space or time, through, (Sia/3aiV(i), dupxopai, SiiJ- 
Xi((o, etc.) ; hence 2. continuity of time (8iapfv<o, 8ta- 
rfX/o), 8LaTT]p(co), and completeness of action (8iaKadapi(ci>y 
Bia^oijvwpi). 3. distribution (SiaSi'Sw^i, diayyeXXm, 8ia- 
(f)T]pi^(i)). 4. separation (SiaXvco, Siaipeo)). 5. rival- 
ry and endeavor (dianivco, biaKaTtXtyxopai; cf. Ilerm. ad 
Vig. p. 854; [Winer, as below, p. 6]). 6. transition 
from one state to another (SiaXXao-trcD, 8iopd6co). [Cf. Win- 
er, De verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. ; Valckenaer on Hdt *, 
18; Cottier. Gazophyl. ed. Abresch, Cant. 1810, p. 39; A. 



Sia^aivQ) 



135 



Bidyo) 



Rieder, Ueb. d. mit mehr als ein. priip. zusammeng. verba 
im N. T. p. 1 7 sq.] No one of the N. T. writers makes 
more freq. use of verbs compounded with Std than Luke, 
[see the list in Winer, u. s. p. 3 note ; on their constr. W. 
§ 52, 4, 8]. 

8ia-Pa(v(i> : 2 aor. Sie^rfv, inf. dui^fjuai, ptcp. 8iaj3ds ; as 
in Grk. writ. fr. Horn, down ; (PUn. pertranseo) ; to pass 
through, cross over ; a. transitively : rfju daXaaaav wy 8ia 
^rjpas, Heb. xi. 29. b. intrans. : irpos riva, Lk. xvi. 26 ; 
etV with ace. of place, Acts xvi. 9 ; (for "15;,^^ 1 S. xiii. 7).* 

8ia-paXX.w : 1 aor. pass. Bif^Xrjdrjv ; 1. prop, to throtv 
over or across, to send over, (tI 8ia riuoi). 2. very often, 
fr. Hdt. down, to traduce, calumniate, slander, accuse, 
defame (cf. Lat. perstringere. Germ. durchziehen,[^dia 
as it were from one to another ; see Winer, De verb, 
comp. etc. Pt. V. p. 17]), not only of those who bring a 
false charge against one {dtejST^rjTo irpos avrbv dSiVcor, 
Joseph, antt. 7, 11, 3), but also of those who disseminate 
the truth concerning a man, but do so maliciously, insidi- 
ously, with hostility [cf. Lucian's Essay de calumn. non 
temere credend.], (Dan. iii. 8 Sept.; Dan. vi. 24 Theo- 
dot.) ; so du^Xrjdr] avra cos BiacrKopnlCoiv, Lk. xvi. 1 (with 
dat. of pers. to whom the charge is made, also in Ildt. 5, 
35, et al. ; riva npos riva, Hdt. 5, 96, et al. ; foil, by ws 
with ptcp., Xen. Hell. 2, 3, 23 ; Plat. epp. 7 p. 334 a.). 
[Syn. see Karr^yopfa).] * 

8ia-P«Pai6o[i.ai (-ovp-ai) ; mid. to affirm strongly, assert 
confidenthi, [cf. W. 253 (238)] : Trept nvos (Polyb. 12, 
11 (12), 6), 1 Tim. i. 7 [cf. WH. App. p. 1G7]; Tit. iii. 
8. (Dem. p. 220, 4 ; Diod., Dion. Hal., Plut., Ael.) * 

8ia-|3\e-n-(o : fut. 8(a/3Xe\|/a) ; 1 aor. 8tej3Xe\//'a ; to look 
through, penetrate hij vision ; a. to look fixedly, stare 
straight before one (Plat. Phaedo p. 86 d.) : bu^\e-^e, of 
a blind man recovering sight, Mk. viii. 25 T WH Tr txt. 
[some refer this to b.]. b. to see clearly : foil, by an inf. 
expressing the purpose, Mt. vii. 5 ; Lk. vi. 42. (Aristot., 
Plut.) * 

810.^0X05, -ov, (Sta/SaXXw, q. Y.), prone to slander, slander- 
ous, accusing falsely, (Arstph., Andoc, Plut., al.) : 1 
Tim. iii. 1 1 ; 2 Tim. iii. 3 ; Tit. ii. 3 ; as subst. 6 hia^okos, 
a calumniator, false accuser, slanderer, [see KaTtjyopeco, 
fin.], (Xen. Ages. 11, 5; [Aristot., al.]) : Sept. Esth. vii. 
4; viii. 1. In tlie Bible and in eccl. writ. 6 Std^oXos 
[also 8id^. without the art.; cf. W. 124 (118) ; B. 89 
(78)] is applied kut i^ox^v to the one called in Hebr. 
r^t«;n, 6 aaravds (q. v.), viz. Satan, the prince of demons, 
the author of evil, persecuting good men (Job i. ; Zech. 
iii. 1 sqq., cf. Rev. xii. 10), estranging mankind from God 
and enticing them to sin, and afflicting them with dis- 
eases by means of demons who take possession of their 
bodies at his bidding ; the malignant enemy of God and 
the Messiah : Mt. iv. 1, 5, [8, 11] ; xiii. 39 ; xxv. 41 ; Lk. 
iv. 2, [3, 5 RL, 6, 13]; viii. 12; Jn.xiii. 2; Acts x. 38; 
Eph. iv. 27 ; vi. 11 ; 1 Tim. iii. 6 sq. ; 2 Tim. ii. 26 ; Heb. 
ii. 14 ; Jas. iv. 7 ; 1 Pet. v. 8 ; Jude 9 ; Rev. ii. 10 ; xii. 
9, 12 ; XX. 2, 10 ; (Sap. ii. 24 ; [cf. Ps. cviii. (cix.) 6 ; 1 Chr. 
xxi. 1]). Men who resemble the devil in mind and will 
are said twai eV row dta/SoXov to be of the devil, prop, to de- 



rive their origin from the devil, trop. to depend upon the 
devil in thought and action, to be prompted and governed 
hy him.: ,In. viii. 44; 1 -In. iii. 8; the same are called 
TeKva Tnv 8ia^. children of the devil, 1 Jn. iii. 10; viol 
Tov 8. sons of the devil. Acts xiii. 10, cf. Mt. xiii. 38 ; Jn. 
viii. 38 ; 1 Jn. iii. 10. The name 8id/3oXof is fig. applied 
to a man who, by opposing the cause of God, may be 
said to act the part of the devil or to side with liiin : Jn. 
vi. 70, cf. Mt. xvi. 23 ; Mk. viii. 33. [Cf. (rardv fin.] * 

Si-a-y-ycXXw ; 2 aor. pass. SirjyyeXrjv; fr. Pind. down; to 
carry a message through, announce everywhere, through 
places, through assemblies of men, etc. ; to publish abroad, 
declare, [see Sid, C. 3] : W, Lk. ix. 60 ; Acts xxi. 26 {8iay- 
yeXKciv, sc. to all who were in the temple and were 
knowing to the affair) ; with the addition eV Traa-r] rfj yfj, 
Ro. ix. 1 7 fr. Ex. ix. 16. (Lev. xxv. 9 ; Josh. vi. 10 ; Ps. 
ii. 7; [Iviii. (lix.) 13]; Sir. xliii. 2; 2 Mace. iii. 34.) * 

8ia--y6, see ye, 1. 

8i.a-7(vo|j.ai : 2 aor. 8ieyfv6fir}v ; 1. to be through, con- 
tinue. 2. to be between, intervene ; hence in Grk. writ. 
fr. Isaeus (p. 84, 14, 9 [or. de Hagn. hered.] xpovodv 8iaye- 
vojifvmv) down, the aor. is used of time, to have intervened, 
elapsed, passed meaniohile, [cf. xpo^ov fisTa^v 8iayevop.ivov 
Lys. 93, 6]: ruiepcov biayevoiieuoiv riviov, Acts xxv. 13; 
'iKavoii xpovov 8iayevop,evov, Acts xxvii. 9 ; Siayevofxevov Toii 
aa^^drov, Mk. xvi. 1.* 

8ia-'Yivw<rKw ; fut. Siayvwaofiai ; 1. to distinguish (Lat. 
dignosco), i. e. to I't^ow accurately, ascertain exactly: rl. 
Acts xxiii. 15; (so in Grk. writ. fr. Hom. down). 2. 
in a legal sense, to examine, determine, decide, (cf. Cic. 
cognosco) : ra kuO' vpa? your case, Acts xxiv. 22 ; (2 
Mace. ix. 15 ; Dem. p. 629, 25 ; p. 545, 9 ; al.).* 

8i.a-7vc>>pCt<o : 1 aor. bifyvoipia-a ; to publish abroad, make 
known thoroughly : nepl rivos, Lk. ii. 1 7 R G. Besides, 
only in [Philo, quod det. pot. § 26, i. 210, 16 ed. Mang. 
and] in Schol. in Bekk. Anecd. p. 787, 15 to discriminate.* 

8id,--yvw<rts, -ecos, i], (see Sta-yti/wtrKco) ; 1. a distin- 
guishing. 2. in a legal sense (Lat. cognitio), examina- 
tion, opinion, decision, (Sap. iii. 1 8 ; Plat. legg. 9 p. 865 c.) : 
Acts xxv. 21.* 

8ia-7077v5w : impf . dieyoyyv^ov ; to murmur (8id i. e. 
either through a whole crowd, or ' among one another,' 
Germ, durch einander[ci. 8id,C.']); hence it is always 
used of many indignantly complaining (see yoyyv^a) : 
Lk. XV. 2 ; xix. 7. (Ex. xvi. 2, 7, 8 ; [Num. xiv. 2] ; Josh, 
ix. 24 (18), etc.; Sir. xxxiv. (xxxi.) 24; Clem. Alex. i. 
p. 528 ed. Pott. ; Heliod. 7, 27, and in some Byzant. writ.) 
Cf. Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. p. 16 sq.* 

8ia--ypT]-YopE'(o, -co : 1 aor. 8i(ypr]y6pT}(Ta ; to loatch through, 
(Hdian. 3, 4, 8 [4 ed. Bekk.] ndarjs rris vvktos • ■ ■ 8ta- 
yprjyopTjaavres, Niceph. Greg. Hist. Byz. p. 205 f. and 571 
a.) ; to remain awake : Lk. ix. 32 (for they had overcome 
the force of sleep, with which they were weighed down, 
^(^aprjix. vnv<o) ; [al. (e. g. R. V. txt.) to be fully awake, 
cf. Niceph. u. s. p. 205 f. 86^ai> dTTe^aXofiTji/ Sxrirep 01 8ia- 
ypTjyopi'ia-am-es rd iv rotf virvois oudpara; Win. De verb, 
comp. etc. Pt. v. p. 11 sq.].* 

81-d-yu ; 1. to lead through, lead across, send across. 



Stabe'^ofiac 



136 



Bia6'>]K7] 



2. with TOP ^iov, Tov xpo'»'o»'> ^tc, added or understood, 
to pass : jilov, 1 Tim. ii. 2 (very often in Grk. writ.) ; 
hLoyeiv fv Tivi, .<C. rov ^iov to lice [W. 593 (551 sq.) ; B. 
144 (126)], Tit. iii. 3 (eV (f)i\o<To(f)ia, Plat. Phaedr. p. 
259 d. ; ev elpr]v;i Koi (rxo>^j], Plut. Timol. 3).* 

8ia-8€'xo|xai : 1 aor. 8ie8€^dfirjv ; prop, to receive through 
another anything left or bequeathed by him, to receive in 
succession, receive in turn, succeed to : ttjv o-ktjvtjv the 
tabernacle, Acts vii. 45. (Tr]v apxrjv. rrjv ^aaiXelav, etc., 
in Polyb., Diod., Joseph., al.) [Cf. St'^o/iai.] * 

8id8ii|ia, -Tos, TO, (SiaSeco to bind round), d diadem, i. e. 
the blue band marked with white with which Persian 
kings used to bind on the turban or tiara ; the kingly or- 
nament for the head : Rev, xii. 3 ; xiii. 1 ; xix. 12. (Xen. 
Cyr. 8, 3, 13 ; Esth. i. 11 ; ii. 17 for "IP3 ; 1 Mace. i. 9.)* 
[Syn. SidSrina, are^avos: (tt. like the Lat. corona is 
a crown in tlie sense of a chaplet, ■\\Teath, or garland — tlie 
badge of " victory in the games, of civic worth, of military 
valor, of nuptial joy, of festal gladness " ; SidSruxa is a crown 
as the badge of royalty, fiaai\eias yvcipia/xa (Luciau, Pise. 35)- 
Cf . Trench § xxiii. • Bp. Lghtft. on Phil. iv. 1 ; Diet, of 
Christ. .iVntiq. s. v. Coronation p. 464 sq. ; B. D. Am. ed. s. v. 
Diadem ; but cf . arf<pavos, a.] 

8ia-8i8w(jii ; fut. SiaStSoxro) (Rev. xvii. 13 Rec.) ; 1 aor. 
bUboiKa ; 2 aor. irapv. StaSor ; Pass., impf. 3 pers. sing. 
8u8i8oTo (Acts iv. 35), for which L T Tr WH read 8u- 
8i8{To (see dTTo8i8(ont) ; 1. to distribute, divide among 
several [cf. bid, C. 3] : W, Lk. xi. 22 ; tI tivi, Lk. xviii. 22 
(Lchni. So?) ; Jn. vi. 11 (Tdf. e8a)Kfv) ; pass. Acts iv. 35. 
Its meaning is esp. illustrated by Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 7 tov 
Kiipov Aa/3oi/ra to)v Kpeav 8ia8i86vai toIs . ■ . depanevTois 
. . . ToiavTa eiTOiei, emy 8if8i8ov navra a eXa^e Kpea. 2. 

to give over, deliver : tL tivi. Rev. xvii. 13 ; but here G L 
TTr WII have restored 8i8c,acn (cf. 8i8(op.i, init.).* 

8id-8oxos, -ov, 6, T], (fitaSe'xoMai), succeeding, a successor : 
Acts xxiv. 27. (Sir. xlvi. 1 ; [xlviii. 8] ; 2 Mace. xiv. 26 ; 
often in Grk. writ. fr. [Aeschyl. and] Ildt. 5, 26 down.) * 
8ia-5«vvvw or 8ta^6)vvvfii : 1 aor. 8uC(o(ra ; 1 aor. mid. 
8i.fC<^(TdfiT]v ; pf. pass. ptcp. 8ie^a)crp.ivos ; to hind or gird 
all around (8id; this force of the prep, appears in the 
trop. use of the verb in Plut. Brut. 31, 2 w? S' 17 (^X6| pvfi.aa 
KCLi bia^oicracra 7ravTa)(odev Tr]V noKiv 8iiKap-^f ttoX- 
X^) : eavTov, Jn. xiii. 4 ; Pass. 8ia^a>vwpLai ti to be girded : 
a (by attraction for o [yet cf. Mey.]) rjv 8if(o)ap.evo9, Jn. 
xiii. 5 ; Mid. 8ia(Q)in>vfiai ri to gird one's self v:it]t a thing, 
gird a thing around one's self: Jn. xxi. 7 ; (Ezek. xxiii. 

15 [Alex.], in Grk. writ, occasionally fr. Time. on). 
Cf. Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. v..p. 13.* 

8ia6T|KT), -jjf, 17, {8iaTidTjp.i) ; 1. a disposition, arrange- 
ment, of any sort, which one wishes to be valid, (Germ. 
Verordnung, Willensverfugung) : Gal. iii. 15, where un- 
der the name of n man's disposition is meant specifically a 
testament, so far forth as it is a specimen and example of 
that disposition [cf. IMey. or Bp. Lghtft. ad loc] ; esp. the 
last disposal which one makes of his earthly possessions 
after his death, a testament or will (so in Grk. writ. fr. 
[Arstph.], Plat. legg. lip. 922 c. sqq. down) : Heb. ix. 

16 sq. 2. a compact, covenant (Arstph. av. 440), 
very often in the Scriptures for nna (Vulg. testamen- 



tum). For the word covenant is used to denote the close 
relationship wliich God entered into, first with Noah 
(Gen. vi. 18; ix. 9 si^q. [cf. Sir. xliv. 18]), then with 
Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and their posterity (Lev. 
xxvi. 42 [cf. 2 Mace. i. 2]), but esp. with Abraham (Gen. 
XV. and xvii.), and afterwards through Moses with the 
people of Israel (Ex. xxiv. ; Dent. v. 2 ; xxviii. 09 (xxix. 
1)). By this last covenant the Israelites are bound to 
obey God's will as expressed and solemnly promulged in 
the Mosaic law ; and he promises them his almighty 
protection and blessings of every kind in this world, 
but threatens transgressors with the severest punish- 
ments. Hence in the N. T. we find mention of al rrXoKes 
T^s 8ia0^Kr}s (n"i3ri mn^S, Deut. ix. 9, 15), the tables 0/ 
the late, on which the duties of the covenant were inscribed 
(Ex. XX.) ; of f) KijSwTo? T^ff 8i.ad. (iT-)3n p'lN, Deut. x. 
8; xxxi. 9; Josh. iii. C, etc.), the ark of the covenantor 
law, in which those tables were deposited, lleb. ix. 4 ; 
Rev. xi. 19 ; of 17 8i,a6rjKr] TrfpiTopfjs the covenant of cir- 
cumcision, made with Abraham, whose sign and seal was 
circumcision (Gen. xvii. 10 sqq.). Acts vii. 8 ; of ro alua 
Tfjs 8iadT]Kr]s the blood of the victims, by the shedding and 
sprinkling of which the Mosaic covenant was ratified, 
Heb. ix. 20 fr. Ex. xxiv. 8 ; of ai Sia^^/cat the covenants, 
one made with Abraham, the other through Moses with 
the Israelites, Ro. ix. 4 [L txt. Tr mrg. 17 8ta6r]Kri'] (Sap. 
xviii. 22 ; Sir. xliv. 11 ; 2 Mace. viii. 15 ; Ep. of Barn. 9 ; 
[cf. W. 177 (166)]); of al 8ia6fJKai Tfjs eVayyfXi'as, the 
covenants to which the promise of salvation through the 
Messiah was annexed, Eph. ii. 12 (a-vv6^Kai dyadcov vtto- 
(Txi<yf<ov, Sap. xii. 21); for Christian salvation is the 
fulfilment of the divine promises annexed to those cov- 
enants, esp. to that made with Abraham : Lk. i. 72 sq. : 
Acts iii. 25; Ro. xi. 27; Gal. iii. 17 (where biadrjio] is 
God's arrangement i. e. the promise made to Abraham). 
As the new and far more excellent bond of friendship 
which God in the Messiah's time would enter into with 
the people of Israel is called T\W~vr\ n'13, Kaivi) 8ia6f]Krj 
(Jer. xxxviii. (xxxi.) 31), — which divine promise Christ 
has made good (Heb. viii. 8-10 ; x. 16), — we find in the 
N. T. two distinct covenants spoken of, 8vo 8ia6^Kai (Gal. 
iv. 24), viz. the Mosaic and the Christian, with the 
former of which (rrj irpoiTj) 8ia6f]Kr], Heb. ix. 15, 18, cf. 
viii. 9) the latter is contrasted, as Kaivr] 8ia6r]Kr], Mt. xxvi. 
28 ; Mk. xiv. 24 (in both pass, in R G L [in Mt. in Tr 
also]) ; Lk. xxii. 20 [WH reject the pass.] ; 1 Co. xi. 25 ; 
2 Co. iii. 6 ; Heb. viii. 8 ; KpeiTTcov 8ia6rjKr], Heb. vii. 22 ; 
alavios 8i,a6r]Kr), Heb. xiii. 20 ; and Christ is called Kpeir- 
Tovos or KaiVT)^ or veas 8ta6rjKT]s pea-lrqs : Heb. viii. 6 ; ix. 
15; xii. 24. This new covenant binds men to exercise 
faith in Christ, and God promises them grace and salva- 
tion eternal. This covenant Christ set up and ratified by 
undergoing death; hence the phrases to alp,a t^j koiv^s 
buidriKT]!, TO alp.a Trjs 8ia6rfKr)s, (see alp.a sub fin.), [Heb. 
X. 29] ; ro ai/xd p.ov Tr)s 8LaQr]Kr)<:, my blood by the shed- 
ding of which the covenant is established, Mt. xxvi. 28 
T WH and Mk. xiv. 24 T Tr WH (on two gen. after one 
noun cf. Matthiae § 380, Anm. 1 ; Kiihner ii. p. 288 sq. ; 



8caip€(Ti<; 



137 



^laKovia 



[Jelf § 543, 1, cf. § 466 ; W. § 30, 3 Note 3 ; B. 155 (136)]). 
By metonymy of the contained for the container t) naXaia 
8iadi)KT) is used in 2 Co. iii. 14 of the sacred books of the 
0. T. because in them the conditions and principles of 
the older covenant were recorded. Finally must be 
noted the amphiboly or twofold use [cf. Philo de mut. 
nom. § 6] by which the writer to the Hebrews, in ix. 16 
sq., substitutes for the meaning covenant which diadrjKrj 
bears elsewhere in the Ep. that of testament (see 1 above), 
and likens Christ to a testator, — not only because the 
author regards eternal blessedness as an inheritance be- 
queathed by Christ, but also because he is endeavoring 
to show, both that the attainment of eternal salvation is 
made possible for the disciples of Christ by his death 
(ix. 15), and that even the Mosaic covenant had been 
consecrated by blood (18 sqcj.). This, apparently, led 
the Latin Vulgate to render 8ia6r]KTj wherever it occurs 
in the Bible [i. e. in the New Test., not always in the 
Old ; see B. D. s. v. Covenant, and B. D. Am. ed. s. v. 
Testament] by the word testamentum* 

8i-aCpeo-is, -ecoy, r], (diaipe'co, q. v.) ; 1. division, dis- 
tribution, (Hdt., Xen., Plat., al.). 2. distinction, differ- 
ence, (Plat. Soph. p. 267 b. riva biaipecnv dyvaxriai t€ kol 
yvaxTfcoi drjCTOfiev ; al.) ; in particular, « distinction arisiii;/ 
from a different distribution to different persons, [A. V. 
diversity'] : 1 Co. xii. 4-6, cf . 1 1 hiaipovv 181a. eKaara KaOas 
^ovXerai* 

8i-ai,p€(o, -<a ; 2 aor. SielXov ; 1. to divide into parts, 
to part, to tear, cleave or cut asunder, (Hom. and subseq. 
writ.; Gen. xv. 10; 1 K. iii. 25). 2. to distribute: ri 
Tivi (Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 51 ; Hell. 3, 2, 10) : Lk. xv. 12 ; 1 
Co. xii. 11 ; (Josh, xviii. 5; 1 Chr. xxiii. 6, etc.).* 

[8ia-Ka0aip« : 1 aor. difKuBapa (un-Attic and later form ; 
cf. Moeris, ed. Piers, p. 137 ; Lob. ad Phryn. p. 25 ; Veitch 
s. v. icadaipco), inf. btaKaBapai. ; to cleanse (throughly cf. Sta, 
C. 2 i.e.) thorough! I/: Lk. iii. 17 T WH Lmrg. Tr mrg. ; 
for R G diaKadapi^o). (Fr. Arstph. and Plat, down.) *] 

8ia-Kaeapita>: fut. diuKadapia [B. 37 (32) ; W. § 13, 1 c. ; 
WH. Ap]). p. 163]; to cleanse thoroughly, (Vulg. per- 
miindo) : rfju a\cova, Mt. iii. 12; Lk. iii. 17 [T WH etc. 
dioKadapai, q. v.]. (Not found in prof, auth., who use 
8iaKa6aipu), as ttjv akco, Alciphr. ep. 3, 26.) * 

8i,a-KaT-e\€'-yxoH'''*'' • itupf- 8iaKaTr]\ey)(6fniv ; to confute 
with rivalry and effort or in a contest (on this use of the 
prep, hid in compos, cf. Herm. ad Vig. p. 854 ; [al. give 
it here the sense of completeness ; see bid, C. 2]) : with 
dat.of pers. [W. § 31, If.; B. 177(154)]; not found exc. 
in Acts xviii. 28 [R. V. poioerfulhj confuted].* 

8iaKov€(o, -o) ; impf. 8it]k6vovv (as if the verb were com- 
pounded of bid and aKoviu), for the rarer and earlier form 
4biaK6vovv, cf. B. 35 (31) ; Ph. Bttin. Ausf. Spr. § 86 Anm. 
6 ; Kriiger §28, 14, 13); [fut. biaKovria-o)']; 1 aor. biriKo- 
VTja-a (for the earlier ebiaKovrjaa) ; Pass., pres. ptcp. bia- 
Kouovfifvos ; 1 aor. inf. biaKovTjdrjvai, ptcp. biaKovrjdds ; 
{biuKovos, q. V.) ; in Grk. writ. fr. [Soph.], Hdt. down ; to 
be a servant, attendant, domestic ; to serve, wait upon ; 1. 
univ. : [absol. 6 bioKovav, Lk. xxii. 26] ; with dat. of 
pers. to minister to one ; render ministering offices to : Jn. 



xii. 26; Acts xix. 22; Philem. 13; Pass. <o be served, 
ministered unto (W. § 39, 1 ; [B. 188 (163)]) : IMt. xx. 
28 ; Mk. X. 45. 2. Like the Lat. ministrare, to wait 
at table and offer food and drink to the guests, [cf. W. 593 
(552)] : with dat. of pers., Mt. iv. 11 ; viii. 15 ; Mk. i. 13, 
31 ; Lk. iv. 31) ; xii. 37; xvii. 8; absol. 6 biaKovwv, Lk. 
xxii. 27 ; so also of women preparing food, Lk. x. 40 ; Jn. 
xii. 2 ; (Menand. ap. Athen. G c. 46, p. 245 c. ; Anacr. 
4, 6 ; al. ; pass. biaKoveiaOai vno tivo9, Diod. 5, 28 ; Philo, 
vit. contempl. § 9). 3. to minister i. e. supply food and 
the necessaries of life : with dat. of pers., Mt. xxv. 44 ; 
xxvii. 55 ; Mk. xv. 41 ; biTjKovovv alrois e'fc (Rec. dno) 
Ta)v vTrap)(6vTa)v avTois, Lk. viii. 3 ; to relieve one's neces- 
sities (e. g. by collecting alms) : Ro. xv. 25 ; Heb. vi. 10 ; 
rpane^ais , to provide, take care of, distribute, the things 
necessary to sustain life, Acts vi. 2. absol., those are 
said bioKovflv, i. e. to take care of the poor and the sick, 
who administer the office of deacon (see biaKovos, 2) in 
the Christian churches, to serve as deacons : 1 Tim. iii. 
10, 13; 1 Pet. iv. 11 [many take this last ex. in a gen- 
eral rather than an official sense]. 4. with ace. 
of the thing, to minister i. e. attend to, anything, that may 
serve another's interests : x^P'S' ^laKovovfievr] v(\) fjpwv, 2 
Co. viii. 19 ; \_dbporrjs, ibid. 20] ; oaa birjKovrja-e, how many 
things I owe to his ministration, 2 Tim. i. 18 ; eTntrroXi) 
biaKovr]6eiaa vc})' r]p.a>v, an epistle written, as it were, by 
our serving as amanuenses, 2 Co. iii. 3. with ace. of the 
thing and dat. of pers., to minister a thing unto one, to 
serve one with or by supplying any thing: 1 Pet. i. 12 ; rl 
els eavTovs, i. e. els dXXrjXovi to one another, for mutual 
use, 1 Pet. iv. 10.* 

8iaK0v(a, -as, f], (bidnovos), [fr. Thuc, Plat, down], ser- 
vice, ministering, esp. of those who execute the commands 
of others; 1. univ. : 2 Tim. iv. 11 ; Heb. i. 14. 2. 
of those who by the command of God proclaim and pro- 
mote religion among men ; a. of the office of Moses: 
17 biaK. Tov Oavdrov, conciselj^ for the ministration by 
which the law is promulgated that threatens and brings 
death, 2 Co. iii. 7 ; t^? Karaicplaeois, the ministration by 
which condemnation is announced, ibid. 9. b. of the 
office of the apostles and its administration : Acts i. 
17, 25 ; XX. 24 ; xxi. 19 ; Ro. xi. 13 ; 2 Co. iv. 1 ; vi. 3 ; 
1 Tim. i. 1 2 ; tov Xoyov, Acts vi. 4 ; tov Trvevp-aTos, the 
ministry whose office it is to cause men to obtain and 
be governed by the Holy Spirit, 2 Co. iii. 8 ; rJjy biKaio- 
(Tvvrjs, by which men are taught how they may become 
righteous with God, ibid. 9 ; rijs KaTaXXayfjs, the ministry 
whose work it is to induce men to embrace the offered 
reconciliation with God, 2 Co. v. 18 ; npos rfju vfiS)v bia- 
Koviav, that by preaching the gospel I might minister 
unto you, 2 Co. xi. 8. c. of the ministration or service 
of all who, endowed by God with powers of mind and 
heart peculiarly adapted to this end, endeavor zealously 
and laboriously to promote the cause of Christ among 
men, as apostles, prophets, evangelists, elders, etc. : 1 Co. 
xii. 5 ; Eph. iv. 12 ; 2 Tim. iv. 5. What ministry is re- 
ferred to in Col. iv. 1 7 is not clear. 3. the ministra- 
tion of those who render to others the offices of Christian 



SiUKOVO^ 



138 



BiaKpi] 



LV(0 



affection: 1 Co. xvi. 15 ; Rev. ii. 19, esp. of those who 
succor need by either collecting or bestowing benefac- 
tions [Acts xii. 25] ; the care of the poor, the supplying 
or distributing of charities, (Luther uses Handreichung) : 
Acts vi. 1 ; 2 Co. ix. 13 ; i^ 8iaKovia fj ds roiis dyiovs, 2 Co. 
viii. 4 ; ix. 1 ; ^ dtaKOuia rfji Xfirovpylas, the ministration 
rendered through this Xetroupyta, 2 Co. ix. 12; nefxjrfiv 
(Is dioKovlav Tivi, to send a thing to one for the relief of 
his want [A. V. to send relief unto'], Acts xi. 29 (^Kofii^eiv 
^pTj^ra TToXXa els biaKoviav rav )(rjpQ)v, Acta Thomae § 5G, 
p. 233 ed. Tdf.) ; ij biaKovla fiov fj els 'ifpovaaX. " my min- 
istration in bringing the money collected by me, a minis- 
tration intended for Jerusalem " (Fritzsche), Ro. xv. 31 
[here L Tr mrg. read rj 8copo(f)opLa . . . fV etc.]. 4. the 
office of deacon in the primitive church (see dioKovos, 
2) : Ro. xii. 7. 5. the service of those who prepare 
and present food : Lk. x. 40 (as in Xen. oec. 7, 41).* 

SiaKovos, -ou, 6, f], (of uncert. origin, but by no means, 
as was formerly thought, compounded of 8ia and kovis, 
so as to mean prop. ' raising dust by hastening ' ; cf. 
iyKovfiv ; for a in the prep, bid is short, in bidnovos long. 
Bttm. Lexil. i. p. 218 sqq. [Eng. trans, p. 231 sq.] thinks 
it is derived fr. obsol. Siaxo) i. q. StijAcw [allied with biaKto ; 
cf. Vanicek p. 363]); one who executes the coymnands 
of another, esp. of a master ; a servant, attendant, min- 
ister ; 1. univ. : of the servant of a king, Mt. xxii. 
13 ; with gen. of the pers. served, Mt. xx. 26 ; xxiii. 11 ; 
Mk. ix. 35 ; x. 43, (in which pass, it is used fig. of those 
who advance others' interests even at the sacrifice of their 
own) ; TTfs fKKXrjaias, of one who does what promotes the 
welfare and prosperity of the church. Col. i. 25 ; BiaKovoi 
Tov 6fov, those through whom God carries on his admin- 
istration on earth, as magistrates, Ro. xiii. 4 ; teachers 
of the Christian religion, 1 Co. iii. 5 ; 2 Co. vi. 4 ; 1 Th. iii. 
2 R T Tr WH txt. L mrg. ; the same are called diaKovoi 
(tov) Xpia-Toi), 2 Co. xi. 23 ; Col. i. 7 ; 1 Tim. iv. 6 ; eV Kvpiu>, 
in the cause of the Lord, Col. iv. 7 ; [Eph. vi. 21] ; 6 Smk. 
fiov my follower, Jn. xii. 26 ; toO 2aTavd, whom Satan 
uses as a servant, 2 Co. xi. 15; [dpapTias, Gal. ii. 17]; 
BiuK. nepiTopris (abstr. for concr.), of Christ, who labored 
for the salvation of the circumcised i. e. the Jews, Ro. xv. 
8 ; with gen. of the thing to which service is rendered, 
i. e. to which one is devoted : Kaivrjs diadTjKrjs, 2 Co. iii. 6 ; 
TOV (iayyfXlov, Eph. iii. 7 ; Col. i. 23 ; biKaioa-virqs, 2 Co. 
xi. 15. 2. a deacon, one who, by virtue of the office 
assigned him by the church, cares for the poor and has 
charge of and distributes the money collected for their 
use, [cf. BB.DD., Diet, of Christ. Antiq., Schaff-Herzog 
s. V. Deacon ; Bp. Lghtft. Com. on Phil, dissert, i. § i. ; 
Julius Milller, Dogmatische Abhandlungen, p. 560 
sqq.] : Phil. i. 1 ; 1 Tim. iii. 8, 12, cf. Acts vi. 3 sqq. ; 
17 htaKovos, a deaconess (ministra, Plin. epp. 10, 97), a wo- 
man to whom the care of either poor or sick women was 
entrusted, Ro. xvi. 1 [cf. Diets, as above, s. v. Deaconess ; 
Lghtft. as above p. 191; B. D. s. v. Phcebe]. 3. a 

waiter, one who serves food and drink : Jn. ii. 5, 9, as in 
Xen. mem. 1, 5, 2; Hier. 3, 11 (4, 2); Polyb. 31,4, 5; 
Lcian. de merced. cond. § 26; Athen. 7, p. 291 a.; 10, 



420 e. ; see biaKovim, 2 and -via, 5 ; [also Wetst. on Mt. iv. 
11].* 

[Stn. ^laKovos, SovAos, depawaiy, vitt] p err) s : " Sid- 
Kovos represents the servant in his activity for the work; not 
iu his relation, either servile, as that of the SoCAos, or more 
voluntary, as in the case of the Qepairoiv, to a person" 
Trench ; [yet cf. e. g. Ro. xiii. 4; 2 Cor. vi. 4 etc.]. SovKos 
opp. to iKevdfpos, and correlate to Seo-Trc^TTjs or Kvpios, denotes 
a bondman, one who sustains a permanent servile relation to 
another. Oepdirwu is the voluntary performer of services, 
whether as a freeman or a slave ; it is a nobler, tenderer word 
than SovKos. virnp. ace. to its etymol. suggests subordi- 
nation. Cf. Trench § ix. ; B. D. s. v. Minister ; Mey. on 
Eph. iii. 7 ; Schmidt ch. 164.J 

SiaKoo-ioi, -at, -a, two hundred : Mk. vi. 37 ; Jn. vi. 7, etc. 

8i-aKova> : fut. 8iaKov(ropai ; pro}!, to hear one through, 
hear to the end, hear tcith care, hear full if, [cf. hid, C. 2] 
(Xen., Plat., sqq.) : of a judge trying a cause, Acts xxiii. 
35 ; so in Deut. i. 16 ; Dio Cass. 36, 53 (36).* 

Sta-KpCvo) ; \m\\i.hiiKpLvov; I nor. huKpiva; Mid., [pres. 
biaKpivopai]; imj)f. huKpivop-qv; 1 aor. buKpidrjv (in prof, 
auth. in a pass, sense, to be separated ; cf. W. § 39, 2 ; [B. 
52 (45)]) ; in Grk. writ. fr. Ilom. down; in Sept. chiefly 
for £DD^, also for y\T\ etc. 1. to separate, make a dis- 
tinction, discriminate, [cf. Sia, C. 4] : ovbeu 8uKpive fifra^v 
fjpav re Koi avTwv, Acts xv. 9 ; firjdev 8iaKpivavTa, making 
no difference, sc. between Jews and Gentiles, Acts xi. 12 
L T Tr WH ; like the Lat. distinguo, used emphatically : 
to distinguish or separate a person or thing from the rest, 
in effect i. q. to prefer, yield to him the preference or 
honor: Tivd, 1 Co. iv. 7 [cf. W. 452 (421)]; to aapa {tov 
Kvpiov), 1 Co. xi. 29. 2. to learn by discrimination, 
to try, decide : Mt. xvi. 3 [T br. WII reject the pass.] ; 1 
Co. xiv. 29 ; iavrov, 1 Co. xi. 31 ; to determine, give Judg- 
ment, decide a dispute : 1 Co. vi. 5. Pass, and Mid. to be 
parted, to separate one's self from; 1. to withdraw from 
one, desert him (Thuc. 1, 105 ; 3, 9) ; of heretics withdi-aw- 
ing from the society of true Christians (Sozom. 7, 2 [p. 705 
ed. Vales.] eV tovtov oi pev binKpLdevres I8ia fKKKrjaia^ov^ : 
Jude 22 ace. to the (preferable) reading of L T Tr txt. 
fXeyxfTf biaKpivopivovs, those icho separate themselves from 
you, i. e. who apostatize ; instead of the Ree. e'Xfeirf bia- 
Kpipopevoi, which is to be rendered, making for yourselves 
a selection ; cf . Huther ad loc. ; [others though adopting 
the reading preferred above, refer htaKp. to the following 
head and translate it while they dispute with you ; but 
WII (see their App.) Tr mrg. follow codd. NB and a few 
other author, in reading e'Xearf diaKpivoptvovs ace. to 
which 8iaKp. is probably to be referred to signification 3 : 
R. V. txt. " on some have mercy, who are in doubt "]. 2. 
to separate one's self in a hostile spirit, to oppose, strive 
ivith, dispute, contend: with dat. of pers. Jude 9, (Polyb. 
2,22,11 [cf.W. §31,lg.; B. 177 (154)]) ; npos Tiva, Acts 
xi. 2, (Hdt. 9, 58). 3. in a sense not found in prof, 
auth. to be at variance with one's self hesitate, doubt : Mt. 
xxi. 21 ; Ro. xiv. 23 ; Jas. i. 6 ; tv rfj KapSla. avrov, Mk. xi. 
23 ; (V eavT<o [i. 8. -roiy], Jas. ii. 4 [al. refer this to 1 : do 
ye not make distinctions among yourselves'] ; prjbev dioKpi- 
voptvos, nothing doubting i. e. wholly free from doubt, 



hiaKpL<Ti<i 



139 



BLa/xapTvpofiat 



Jas. i. 6 ; without any hesitation as to whether it be law- 
ful or not, Acts x. 20 and ace. to R G in xi. 12; ov 8ie- 
KpiOr] Tjj ama-Tia he did not hesitate through want of faith, 
Ro. iv.' 20.* 

8id-Kpi<ris, -€(os, f], (biaKpiva), a distinguishing, discern- 
ing, Judging: TrvevfxaTtov, 1 Co. xii. 10; koKov re koi kukov, 
Heb. V. 14 ; /L117 els 8i.aKpiaeis 8i.a\oyi(TiJ.6)v not for the pur- 
pose of passing judgment on opinions, as to which one is 
to be preferred as the more correct, Ro. xiv. 1 [see 8ia- 
Xoyto-juoy, 1]. (Xen., Plat., al.)* 

8i<i-K«\vw: impf. SieKcoXvov, (did in this compound does 
not denote effort as is com. said, but separation, 
Lat. dis, cf. Germ, verhindern, Lat. prohibere; cf. 8ia- 
Kkeio), to separate by shutting, shut out ; cf . Win. De verb, 
comp. etc. Pt. V. p. 17 sq.) ; to hinder, prevent : rivd, 
Mt. iii. 14 [on the tense cf. W. § 40, 3 c.; B. 205 (178)]. 
(From Soph, and Thuc. down.) * 

8ia-Xa\€(>) : impf. bieXaXovV, impf. pass. 8i.e\aKovfj,r)v; 
to converse together, to talk loith, (8id denoting by turns, 
or one with another; see biaKaTeXfyxoi^ai), ri, pass. 
\were talked of"\, Lk. i. 65 ; nphs aK\r]\ovs (as Polyb. 23, 
9, 6), ri av 'noir](Teiav [-aaiei/ al.], of the conference of men 
deliberating, Lk. vi. 11. (Eur. CycL 175.) * 

8ia-\€'-yo[xai ; impf. bie\ey6pr]v; [1 aor. 3 pers. sing, bie- 
\i^aTo (LTTrWH in Acts xvii. 2; xviii. 19)]; 1 aor. 
bLe\ix^rjv\ (mid. of fiiaXeyco, to select, distinguish) ; 1. 
to think different things with one's self, mingle thought with 
thought (cf. StaXo-yifojum) ; to ponder, revolve in mind ; so 
in Horn. 2. as very freq. in Attic, to converse, dis- 
course with one, argue, discuss : absol.. Acts [xviii. 4] ; 
xix. 8 sq. ; [xx. 9] ; wept tipos, Acts xxiv. 25 ; rivi, with 
one, Acts xvii. 1 7 ; xviii. 1 9 ; xx. 7 ; Heb. xii. 5 ; otto tcov 
ypa(pcov, drawing arguments from the Scriptures, Acts 
xvii. 2 ; irpos tipo. Acts xvii. 1 7 ; xxiv. 1 2 ; with the idea 
of disputing prominent : rrpo? dXkfjXovs, foU. by interrog. 
Tis, Mk. ix. 34 ; nepi rivos, Jude 9.* 

Sia-Xeiiro) : [2 aor. dUXmov^ : to interpose a delay, to in- 
termit, leave off for a time something already begun : ov 
SieXtTTf [T WII mrg. SteXetTrei/] KaTa({)i\oii(ra (on the ptcp. 
of. W. § 45, 4 a.; [B. 300 (257)]), she has not ceased 
kissing, has continually kissed, Lk. vii. 45. (Is. v. 14 ; 
Jer. xvii. 8 ; often in Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. down.) * 

8ia-X€KTOs,-ov, 17, (StaXe'yco) ; 1. conversation, speech, 
discourse, language (Plat., Dem., al.). 2. fr. Polyb. 
[cf. Aristot. probl. 10, 38 tov dvdpanrov pia (pavri, dXXa 
StdXeKTot TToXXai] down, the tongue or language peculiar 
to any people : Acts i. 1 9 ; ii. 6, 8 ; xxi. 40 ; xxii. 2 ; xxvi. 
14. (Polyb. 1, 80, 6 ; 3, 22, 3 ; 40, 6, 3 sq. ; peBepprjveveiv 
elsTfjV 'YXXrivoiv 8ia\eKT0v, Diod. 1,37; nda-a pev SidXe/cros, 
i] 8' iXXrjviKr) 8La(j)ep6vTa)s ovopdrav TrXouTf I, Philo, vit. 
Moys. ii. § 7; [cf. Miiller on Joseph, c. Ap. 1, 22, 4 fin.].)* 

[Sia-XijAiravw (or -Xv/iTrdi/w) : impf. 8ie\ipTravnv ; to in- 
termit, cease : Kka'iwv ov bieXlprravev, Acts viii. 24 WH (re- 
jected) mrg.; cf. W. 345 sq. (323 sq.) ; B. 300 (257). 
(Tobit X. 7 ; Galen in Hippoor. Epid. 1,3; cf. Bornem. 
on Acts 1. c. ; Veitch s. v. Xt/uTrdvo).) *] 

8i-aXXd<r<r(i> : 2 aor. pass. 8ir}\'Xdyrjv; (see Sid, C. 6); 
1. to change : tI avri twos [cf. W. 206 (194)]. 2. to 



change the mind of any one, to reconcile (so fr. [Aeschyl.l 
Thuc. down) : rivd rivi. Pass, to be reconciled, rivi, to re- 
new friendship with one : Mt. v. 24 ; (1 S. xxix. 4 ; 1 
Esdr. iv. 31). See Fritzsche's learned discussion of this 
word in his Com. on Rom. vol. i. p. 276 sqq. [in opp. to 
Tittmann's view that it implies mutual enmity; see 
KaraWdaa-to, fin.] ; cf. Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. pp. 
7, 10 ; \_Tholuck; Bergrede Christi, p. 1 71 (on Mt. v. 24)].* 

8itt-Xo-y(to(AO''' ; dep. mid.; impf. 8i.e\oyL^npr]v ; [1 aor. 
8ie\oyi(Tdpr]v, Lk. xx. 14 Lchm.] ; (^8id as in StaXeyo/xai) ; 
to bring together different reasons, to reckon up the reasons, 
to reason, revolve in one's mind, deliberate : simply, Lk. i. 
29 ; V. 21 ; eV rfj Kap8ia, IMk. ii. 6, 8 ; Lk. v. 22 ; with ad- 
dition of TTfpt rti/os, Lk. iii. 15 ; eV eavTa [or-roi?], with- 
in himself, etc., Mk. ii. 8 ; Lk. xii. 17; ev eavrols i. q. ev 
dXXjjXoiy among themselves, Mt. xvi. 7 sq. ; npos eavrovs 
i. q. TTpos dXX^Xovs, one turned towards another, one with 
another, Mk. ix. 33 Rec. ; xi. 31 L T Tr Wli ; Lk. xx. 
14; ■npbs dXX^Xov?, Mk. viii. 16; Trap eavrols [see napd, 
IL c], Mt. xxi. 25 [LTrWHtxt. eu f] ; on, Jn. xi. 50 
Rec; on equiv. to nepl rovrov ort, Mk. viii. 17. (For 
2'dT\ several times in the Psalms ; 2 Mace. xii. 43 ; in 
Grk. writ. fr. Plat, and Xen. down.) * 

8ia-\o-ywr|J.6s, -ov, 6, (8ia\oyi(opai), Sept. for HDCfnO 
and Chald. \yy.'\, in Grk. writ. fr. Plat, down, the thinking 
of a mail deliberating with himself; hence 1. a thought, 
inivard reasoning : Lk. ii. 35 ; v. 22 ; vi. 8 ; ix. 46 sq. ; 
Ro. xiv. 1 [yet some bring this under 2] ; the reasoning 
of those who think themselves to be wise, Ro. i. 21 ; 1 
Co. iii. 20 ; an opinion : Kpiral 8ia\oyi(Tpa)v TrovTjpav judges 
with evil thoughts, i. e. who follow perverse opinions, rep- 
rehensible principles, Jas. ii. 4 [cf, W. 187 (176)] ; pur- 
pose, design: Mt. xv. 19; Mk. vii. 21. 2. a deliberat- 
ing, questioning, about what is true : Lk. xxiv. 38 ; when 
in reference to what ought to be done, hesitation, doubt- 
ing : X'^P'-^ yoyyva-pmv Kal biaXoyia-pwv, Phil. ii. 14 [' yoyy. 
is the mora 1, SiaX. the intellectual rebellion against 
God ' Bp. Lghtft.] ; ;^<<)pis opyrjs K. 8ia\oyi(Tpov, 1 Tim. ii. 
8; [in the last two pass. al. still advocate the rendering 
disputing ; yet cf. Mey. on Phil. 1. c.].* 

Sia-Xtio) : 1 aor. pass. 8ie\v6Tiv ; to dissolve [cf. 8id, C. 4] : 
in Acts V. 36 of a body of men broken up and dispersed, 
as often in Grk. writ.* 

8i.a-|j.apTvpofi.ai ; dep. mid. ; impf. 8iepapTvp6pi]u (Acts 
ii. 40 Rec.) ; 1 aor. 8iepaprvpdpT}v ; in Sept. mostly for 
T|«n ; often in Grk. writ. fr. Xen. down ; see a multitude 
of exx. fr. them in Wi7i. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. p. 20 
sqq. ; to call gods and men to witness [Std, with the inter- 
position of gods and men ; cf. Ellic. (after Win.) on 1 
Tim. v. 21] ; 1. to testify, i. e. earnestly, religiously to 
charge : foil, by an impv. Acts ii. 40 ; eva>inov rov 6eov k. 
Xpta-Toii 'irja-ov, 2 Tim. iv. 1, (2 K. xvii. 13 ; Xen. Cyr. 7, 

1, 17 (TV /lit) nporepov ep^aWe to7s iroXepiois, 8Lapaprvpopai, 
TTpiv etc.) ; also with ivumiov rov 6eov kt\. foil, by tva [cf. 
B. 237 (204)], 1 Tim. v. 21, (foil, by plj, Ex. xix. 21) j 
foil, by the inf. 2 Tim. ii. 14 [not Lchm.], (Neh. ix. 26). 

2. to attest, testify to, solemnly affirm : Acts xx. 23 ; 1 Th. 
iv. 6 ; Heb. ii. 6 ; foil, by ort, Acts x. 42 ; with dat. of pers. 



Biafid')(^o/jLat 



140 



'icaTrepaod 



to give solemn testimony to one, Lk. xvi. 28 ; with ace. of 
the obj. to confirm a thing by (the interposition of) 
testimony, to testify, cause it to be believed : rbv \6yov rov 
Kvplov, Acts viii. 25 ; to eiayyeXiov, Acts xx. 24 ; rfiv jSh- 
(TiXelav Toil Bfov, Acts xxviii. 2o ; for all the apostolic in- 
struction came back finally to testimony respecting things 
which they themselves had seen or heard, or which had 
been disclosed to them by divine revelation, (Acts i. 21 
sq. ; V. 32 ; x. 41 ; xxii. 1 8) ; with the addition of ets and 
an ace. of the place unto which the testimony is borne : 
Tct TTfpl (fioi) els'lepova: Acts xxiii. 11 ; with the addition 
of a dat. of the pers. to whom the testimony is given : to'is 
'lovdaiois Tov Xpia-Tov "iTjaoiiv, the Messianic dignity of 
Jesus, Acts xviii. 5 ; 'lovb- rijv fxeTuvoiau koL tvicttlv, the 
necessity of repentance and faith, Acts xx. 21, {rfi 'lepovar. 
ras avopias, into what sins she has fallen, Ezek. xvi. 2).* 

Sia-jiaxoiiai : impf. Sie/xaxo/ifji'; to Jiyht it out; contend 
fiercely : of disputants, Acts xxiii. 9. (Sir. viii. 1, 3 ; 
very freq. in Attic writ.) * 

8ia-|ji€vw ; [inipf. Sie'/iei/oi^] ; 2 pers. sing. fut. Sia/iei/fZ? 
(Heb. i. 11 Knapi), Bleek, al, for llec. [G L T Tr 
WH al.] diafiiveis) ', 1 aor. dUfieiua ; pf . diapepevT^Ka ; to 
Stay permanently, remain permanently, continue, [cf. per- 
dure ; Ski, C. 2] (Philo de gigant. § 7 nvevpa delov fiiveiv 
hvvarov iv '^I'XVi 8iapevfiv 8e d^vvarov) : Gal. ii. 5 ; opp. 
to dnoKXvfjLai, Heb. i. 11 fr. Ps. ci. (cii.) 27 ; with an adj. 
or adv. added denoting the condition : Biffieive Koycpoi, Lk. 
i. 22 ; ovTO), as they are, 2 Pet. iii. 4 ; to persevere : 'iv tivi, 
Lk. xxii. 28. (Xen., Plat, and subseq. writ.) * 

8ia-n€pitw : impf. diep-tpi^ov ; 1 aor. impv. 2 pers. plur. 
hiapepicraTf ; Pass., [pres. bLaptpi^^opai] ; pf. ptcp. 8iap.e- 
fj.fpi(Tp.evos', 1 nor. 8ifpfpiadriv; f ut. Sta/i6ptcr^i7cro/xat ; [Mid., 
pres. diapfpi^opat ; 1 aor. difpfpLauprjv^ ; to divide ; 1. 
to cleave asunder, cut in pieces : (coa diapepiaBevTa sc. by 
the butcher, Plat. legg. 8 p. 849 d. ; ace. to a use pecu- 
Uar to Lk. in pass, to be divided into opposing parts, to be 
at variance, in dissension : eVi Tiva, against one, Lk. xi. 
17 sq. ; eVt tivi, xii. 52 sq. 2. to distribute (Plat, polit. 
p. 289 c. ; in Sept>. chiefly for pSn) : tI, Mk. xv. 24 Rec; 
Ti Tivi, Lk. xxii. 1 7 (where L T Tr WH els iavTovs for 
11 G iavTols) ; Acts ii. 45 ; Pass. Acts ii. 3 ; Mid. to dis- 
tribute among themselves : ri, Mt. xxvii. 3.5 ; Mk. xv. 24 
G L T Tr WH ; Lk. xxiii. 34 ; with tavro'is added, [Mt. 
xxvii. 35 Rec.]; Jn. xix. 24 fr. Ps. xxi. (xxii.) 19.* 

iia-\i.ip\.a-\i.6s,-ov, 6, (diap-fpL^a), division; 1. a part- 
ing, distribution: Plat. legg. 6 p. 771 d. ; Diod. 11, 47; 
Joseph, antt. 10, 11, 7, Sept. Ezek. xlviii. 29; Mic. vii. 
12. 2. disunion, dissension: opp. to etp^i/»j, Lk. xii. 
51 ; see 8iap€pt(<i), l* 

8ia-v€fj.u> : 1 aor. pass, difvffiedrjv ; to distribute, divide, 
(Arstph., Xen., Plat., sqq.) : pass, ds tov "Kaov to be dis- 
seminated, spread, among the people. Acts iv. 1 7.* 

8ia-vev(i> ; to express one's meaning by a sign, nod to, 
beckon to, tvink at, (bid, because " the sign is conceived of 
as passing through the intervening space to him to whom 
it is made" Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. p. 4) : Lk. 
i. 22. (Ps. xxxiv. (xxxv.) 19; Sir. xxvii. 22; Diod. 3, 
18; 17 37; Lcian. ver. hist. 2, 44 ; Icarom. 15; [al.].)* 



8ia-v6i])jLa, -roy, to, (8iat/oe<a to think), a thought : Lk. xi. 
17. (Sept. ; Sir. ; often in Plat.) * 

8idvoia, -as, f), {8id and voos), Sept. for 2h and 22h • 
very freq. in Grk. writ. fr. [Aeschyl.] Hdt. down ; ' 1. 
the mind as the faculty of understanding, feeling, desiring: 
Mt. xxii. 37 ; Mk. xii. 30 [Tr mrg. br.] ; Lk.x. 27 ; Eph. 
i. 18 Rec. ; iv. 18 ; Heb. viii. 10 ; x. 16 ; 1 Pet. i. 13. 2. 
understanding : 1 Jn. v. 20. 3. mind i. e. spi7-if (Lat. 
animus), icay of thinking and feeling: Col. i. 21 ; Lk. i. 
51 ; 2 Pet. iii. 1. 4. thought ; plur. contextually in a 
bad sense, evil thoughts: Eph. ii. 3, as in Num. xv. 39 
pLvrjadTjo-ea-de naaav Tav eVroXcoi/ Kvpiov . . Koi ov biaaTpa- 
(prjafcrBe OTriua) tcov 8iavoia)v iifioov.* 

Si-av-ot^ft) ; impf. diTjvoiyov; 1 aor. 8iT]voi^a; Pass., 1 aor. 
birjvoixQr^v ; [2 aor. hirjvolyqv'] ; pf. ptcp. 8ir]voiyfievos (Acts 
vii. 56 L T Tr AVH) ; [on variations of augm. see rcff. s. v. 
dvoiyuy] ; Sept. chiefly for npD and nr^D; occasionally in 
prof. auth. fr. Plat. Lys. p. 210 a. down; to open by di- 
viding or drawing asunder (8u'i), to open thoroughly (what 
had been closed) ; 1. prop. : apoev 8iavo'iyov p.TjTpav, 
a male opening the womb (the closed matrix), i. e. the 
first-born, Lk. ii. 23 (Ex. xiii. 2, etc.) ; ovpavovs, pass.. 
Acts vii. 56 L T Tr VVH ; the ears, the eyes, i. e. to restore 
or to give hearing, sight : Mk. vii. 34, 35 R G ; Lk. xxiv. 
31, (Gen. iii. 5, 7; Is. xxxv. 5 ; 2 K. vi. 17, etc.). 2. 
trop. : TCLs ypa(f)ds, to open the sense of the Scriptures, 
explain them, Lk. xxiv. 32 ; tov voiiv tivos to open the 
mind of one, i. e. cause him to imderstand a thing, Lk. 
xxiv. 45 ; ttjv KapBlav to open one's soul, i. e. to rouse in 
one the faculty of understanding or the desire of learn- 
ing. Acts xvi. 14, (2 Mace. i. 4 ; Themist. orat. 2 de 
Constantio imp. [p. 29 ed. Harduin] biavoiyeTal pov fj Kap- 
8ia K. 8iavy€<TT€pa yivfrai tj '^v\tj) ; absol., foil, by on., to 
explain, expound sc. avTas, i. e. rds ypacpds, Acts xvii. 3. 
Cf. Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. p. 19 sq.* 

8i,a-wKT£p€V(<> ; (opp. to 8iT)p(pfv(o) ; to spend the night, 
to pass the ivhole night, [cf. Sta, C. 1] : ev tivi, in any em- 
ployment, Lk.vi. 12. (Diod. 13, 62; Antonin. 7, 66 ; Plut. 
mor. p. 950 b. ; Hdian. 1, IG, 12 [5 Bekk.] ; Joseph, antt. 
6, 13, 9 ; b. j. 2, 14, 7 [Job ii. 9 ; Phil, incorr. mund. § 2; 
in Flac. § 6] ; with ttjv vvktu added, Xen. Hell. 5, 4, 3.) * 

8i-avviw : 1 aor. ptcp. 8iavv(Tas ; to accomplish fully, bring 
quite to an end, finish : tovitXovv, Acts xxi. 7. (2 Mace, 
xii. 17; fr. Horn, down.) [Cf. Field, Otium Norv. iii. 
p. 85 sq.] ♦ 

8ia-'iravT6s, see 8id, A. H. 1. a. 

8ia-^apa-TpiPirj, -rjs, rj, constant contention, incessant 
wrangling or strife, (napaTpil^Tj attrition ; contention, 
wrangling) ; a word justly adopted in 1 Tim. vi. 5 by 
G L T Tr WH (for Rec. irapaSiaTpi^ai, ([. v.) ; not found 
elsewhere [exc. Clem. Al. etc.]: cf. W. 102 (96). Cf. 
the double compounds bianapaTTjpdv, 2 S. iii. 30 ; also 
(doubtful, it must be confessed), bianapaKxinTopai, 1 K. 
vi. 4 Aid.; 8ia7rapo^vva>, Joseph, antt. 10, 7, 5. [Steph. 
gives also Sianapdyo), (Jreg. Nyss. ii. 177 b.; 8iaTrapa- 
Xap^dvo) ; 8ia7rapa(n(oiTd(o, Joseph. Genes, p. 9 a. ; 8ia- 
napaaiipto. Schol. Lucian. ii. 796 Hemst.] * 

8i.a-ir€pd(i>, -a ; 1 aor. bitirepacra ; to pass over, cross over, 



SiaTrXeco 



141 



8iaa7ropd 



e. g. a river, a lake : Mt. ix. 1 ; xiv. 34 ; Mk. vi. 53 [here 
T WH follow with eTri rrju y^v for (to) the land (cf. K. V. 
mrg.)] ; foil, by ei? with ace. of i)lace, Mk. v. 21 ; Acts 
xxi. 2 ; Trpos with ace. of pers. Lk. xvi. 26. ([Eur.], Ar- 
stph., Xen., subseq. writ. ; Sept. for l?;'^.) * 

Sia-irXe'w : 1 aor. ptcp. bianXevaas •■, (Vim. pernavigo), 
to sail across : ne'Kayos (as often in Grk. writ.), Acts 
xxvii. 5 [W. § 52, 4, 8].* 

Sia-irovc'b) : to work out laboriously, make complete hy la- 
bor. Mid. [pres. biairovov^iai] ; with 1 aor. pass. Sten-o- 
vr]6riv (for which Attic writ. bifiTovr](Tdfir]v) ; a. to exert 
one's self, strive ; b. to manage loith pains, accomplish 
with great labor ; in prof. auth. in both senses [fr. Aeschyl. 
down], c. to be troubled, displeased, offended, pained, 
fcf. colloq. Eng. to be worked up ; W. 23 (22)] : Acts iv. 
2 ; xvi. 18. (Aquila in Gen. vi. 6 ; 1 S. xx. 30 ; Sept. in 
Eccl. x. 9 for 3:^i'.J ; Hesych. bimvovrjOels • \v7rqdfis-) * 

8ia-^op€V(<) : to cause one to pass through a place ; to car- 
ry across ; Pass., [pres. biarropevofiai ; impf . dunopevofirfvj ; 
with fut. mid. [(not found in N. T.) ; fr. Hdt. down] ; to 
journey through a place, go through : as in Grk. writ. foil, 
by 8ia with gen. of place, Mk. ii. 23 L Tr WH txt. ; Lk. 
vi. 1 ; foil, by ace. [W. § 52, 4, 8] to travel through : Acts 
xvi. 4 ; absol. : Lk. xviii. 36 ; Ro. xv. 24 ; with the addition 
Kara noXeis Koi Koifias, Lk. xiii. 22. [Syn. see fp;^o/Liat.] * 

8i-airope'w, -co : impf. dirjnopovv ; Mid., [pres. inf. 8iairo- 
puadai (Lk. xxiv. 4 R G)] ; impf. 8cr]nopovpT]v (Acts ii. 
12 TTrWH); in the Grk. Bible only in [Dan. ii. 3 
Syram. and] Luke; prop, thoroughly {di,a)diropeco (q. v.), 
to be entirely at a loss, to be in perplexity : absol. Acts ii. 
1 2 ; foil, by 8ia to with inf. Lk. ix. 7 ; nepl nvos, Lk. xxiv. 
4 (here the mid. is to be at a loss tvith one's self, for which 
L T Tr WH read the simple ciTropeio-^at) ; Acts v. 24 ; ev 
favTw foil, by indir. discourse, Acts x. 1 7. (Plat., Aristot., 
Poly'b., Diod., Philo, Plut., al.) * 

Si.a-irpa'Y)j.aTEvo(i,ai : 1 aor. dieTrpayparevcrdfirjv; thorough- 
ly, earnestly (6ia) to undertake a business, Dion. Hal. 3, 72 ; 
contextually, to undertake a business for the sake of gain : 
Lk. xix. 15. (In Plat. Phaedop. 77 d. 95 e. to examine 
thoroughly.) * 

Sia-irpiw : impf. pass. 8ieTrpinp.r]v ; to saw asunder or in 
twain, to divide by a saiv : 1 Chr. xx. 3 ; Plat, con v. p. 
193 a.; Arstph. eqq. 768, and elsewhere. Pass. trop. to 
be sawn through mentally, i. e. to be rent with vexation, 
[A. V. cut to the heart']. Acts v. 33 ; with the addition 
Tois Kapdiais avrav, Acts vii. 54 (cf. Lk. ii. 35) ; ^eyaXwy 
exoKenaivov koX bieTvpiovro Kad' rjpo}!/, Euseb. h. e. 5, 1, 6 
[15 ed. Heinich. ; cf. Gataker, Advers. misc. col. 916 g.].* 

Si-ap-ird^u : fut. BiapTrda-io ; 1 aor. [subj. 3 pers. sino". 
diapnda-T]], inf. Siapnda-ai ; to plunder : Mt. xii. 29* (where 
L T Tr WH dpTrda-m), 29" (R T Tr WH) ; Mk. iii. 27. 
[From Horn, down.] * 

8La-ppT|7vu|jii and 8iappfj<ra-(o (Lk. viii. 29 [R G ; see be- 
low]) ; 1 aor. 8uppT]^a ; impf. pass. 3 pers. sing. 8ieppriyvvTo 
(Lk. V. 6, where Lchm. txt. 8ifpriywTo and T Tr WH 
8iepf](T(TfTo (L mrg. Stepp.), also L T Tr WH 8tapfi(T(ro>v 
in Lk. viii. 29; [WH have SUprj^ev in Mt. xxvi. 65, 
and 8iapTi^as in Mk. xiv. 63 ; see their App. p. 163, and 



s. V. P, p]) ; to break asunder, burst through, rend asunder : 
TO. 8«Tpd, Lk. viii. 29 ; to 81ktvov, pass., Lk. v. 6 ; ra IfiaTia, 
XiTcovas, to rend, which was done by the elews in extreme 
indignation or in deep grief [cf. B. D. s. v. Dress, 4] : Mt. 
xxvi. 65 ; Mk. xiv. 63 ; Acts xiv. 14, cf. Gen. xxxvii. 29, 
34, etc.; 1 Mace. xi. 71 ; Joseph, b. j. 2, 15, 4. (Sept., 
[Hom.], Soph., Xen., subsecj. writ.) * 

8ia(ra<{>c'(o, -w : 1 aor. Steo-a^jjaa ; (aacf^rjs clear) ; 1. 
to make clear or plain, to explain, unfold, declare : tt/v 
7rapa/3oX)ji/, Mt. xiii. 36 L Tr txt. WH ; (Eur. Phoen. 
398 ; Plat. legg. 6, 754 a. ; al. ; Polyb. 2, 1, 1 ; 3, 52, 5). 2. 
of things done, to declare i. e. to tell, announce, narrate : 
Mt. xviii. 31 ; (2 Mace. 1, 18 ; Polyb. 1, 46, 4 ; 2, 27, 3). 
Cf. Fischer, De vitiis lexx. N. T. p. 622 sqq. ; Win. De 
verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. p. 11.* 

8ia-o-EC(o : 1 aor. St/o-ettra ; in Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. down ; 
to shake thoroughly ; trop. to make to tremble, to terrify (Job 
iv. 14 for THiin), to agitate; like concutio in juridical 
Latin, to extort from one by intimidation money or other 
property : Tiva, Lk. iii. 14 [A. V. do violence /o] ; 3 Mace, 
vii. 21 ; the Basilica; [Heinichen on Euseb. h. e. 7, 80, 7].* 

8ia-o-KopTrit(«) ; 1 aor. SiecrKopTrto-a ; Pass., pf. ptcp. Ste- 
(TKopTrtapfvos ; 1 aor. bifaKnpTriadrjv ; 1 fut. 8ucrKopni(Tdr]- 
(Topai ; often in Sept., more rarely in Grk. writ. fr. Polyb. 
1,47,4; 27, 2, 10on(cf.Zo6. adPhryn.p. 218; [W. 25]); 
to scatter abroad, disperse: Jn. xi. 52 (opp. to crvvdyu)); 
of the enemy, Lk. i. 51 ; Acts v. 37, (Num. x. 35, etc.; 
Joseph, antt. 8, 15, 4; Ael. v. h. 13, 46 (1, 6) 6 8pdK<av 
Tovs p,ev 8iea'K6pTnae, tovs 8e dneKTdve). of a flock of 
sheep: Mt. xxvi. 31 (fr. Zech. xiii. 7) ; Mk. xiv. 27; of 
property, to squander, waste : Lk. xv. 13 ; xvi. 1, (like 8ia- 
a-neipco in Soph. El. 1291). like the Hebr. n">J (Sept. 
Ezek. V. 2, 10, 12 [Aid.], etc.) of grain, to scatter i. e. to 
tvinnow (i. e. to throw the grain a considerable distance, or 
up into the air, that it may be separated from the chaff ; 
opp. to (Tvvdyco, to gather the wheat, freed from the chaff, 
into the granary [cf. BB.DD. s. v. Agriculture]) : Mt. 
XXV. 24, 26.* 

Sia-o-jrdw : Pass., [pf. inf. 8i.ea7rda6at] ; 1 aor. 8i€(nrd- 
adrjv, to rend asunder, break asunder: to? aXvareis, Mk. 
V. 4 (ras vevpds, Judg. xvi. 9) ; of a man, to tear in 
pieces : Acts xxiii. 1 0, (tovs av8pas Kpeovpyrjbov, Hdt. 3, 
13).* 

8ia-o-n-£Cp(d : 2 aor. pass. Siea-ndprjp ; to scatter abroad, 
disperse ; Pass, of those who are driven to different places, 
Acts viii. 1, 4; xi. 19. (In Grk. writ. fr. [Soph, and] 
Hdt. down ; very often in Sept.) * 

8ia-<r'7ropd, -as, fj, (8iaa-rreipa), cf. such words as dyopd, 
8ia(f)3opd), (Vulg. dispersio), a scattering, dispersion : Ato- 
p.aiv, opp. to a-vppi^isK. napd^fv^is, Plut. mor. p. 1 1 05 a. ; in 
the Sept. used of the Israelites dispersed among foreign 
nations, Deut. xxviii. 25 ; xxx. 4 ; esp. of their Babylo- 
nian exile, Jer. xli. (xxxiv.) 17; Is. xlix. 6 ; Judith v. 
19 ; abstr. for concr. of the exiles themselves, Ps. cxlvi. 
(cxlvii.) 2 (i. q. D'HIJ expelled, outcasts) ; 2 Mace. i. 27 ; 
els T. Siaa-TTopav T(bv 'EXKrjvcov unto those dispersed among 
the Greeks [W. § 30, 2 a.], Jn. vii. 35. Transferred to 
Christians [i. e. Jewish Christians (?)] scattered abroad 



BtaaTeWci) 



142 



SLaTidTjfii 



among the Gentiles : Jas. i. 1 (tv rrj diaanopa. sc. ovcri) ; 
irapeiriSrjfioi 8ia(r7ropas Tlovrov, sojourners far away from 
home, in Pontus, 1 Pet. i. 1 (see Trapt 7riS;;/ior) . [BB.DD. 
s. V. Dispersion; esp. Schiirer, N. T. Zeitgesch. § 31.]* 

8ia-o-T€'\.X.w : to (Irniii asuniler, (liviile, distuigiiis/i, dis- 
pose, order, (Plat., Polyl)., Diod., Strab., Plut. ; often in 
Sept.) ; Pass, to Siaa-rfWoufvov, tlie injunction : Heb. xii. 
20, (2 Mace. xiv. 28). Mid., [pres. diaa-TeWofiai] ; impf. 
difareWofXTjv ', 1 aor. Sif orf iXu/lit^i/ ; to open one's self i.e.. 
one's mind, to set forth distiNClli/, (Aristot., Polyb.) ; 
hence in the N. T. [so Ezek. iii. 18, 19 ; Judith xi. 12] 
to admonish, order, charge: nvl, Mk. viii. 15; Acts xv. 
24 ; foil, by Xva [cf. B. 23 7 (204)], .Mt. xvi. 20 R T Tr WH 
mrg. ; Mk. vii. 36 ; ix. 9 ; SteorciXaTo n-oXXd, Iva etc. Mk. 
T. 43.* 

Sicurrqfjia, -ror, to, [(^tafrr^i/at)], an interval, distance; 
space of time : ij aipaiv rpimv didcrr. Acts v. 7, ([eV noXXoii 
Siaa-TTjp^Tos, Aristot. de audib. p. 800'', 5 etc.] ; rerpaerfs 8. 
Polyb. 9, 1, 1 ; [crv^Tray 6 xpovos fjfiepav k- vvKTau tori Sia- 
<TTT)p.a, Philo, alleg. leg. i. § 2 etc., see Siegfried s. v. p. 
G6]).* 

Sio-o-toXt], -^f, 7;, (fitaoreXXco, cf. avarok-q), a distinction, 
difference: Ro. iii. 22; x. 12; of the difference of the 
sounds made by musical instruments, 1 Co. xiv. 7. 
([Aristot., Theophr.], Polyb., Plut., al.) * 

8ia-<rTpe<j)<o ; 1 aor. inf. biaarpii^ai.; pf. pass. ptcp. hie- 
(rTpap.pfvos [cf. WH. App. p. 1 70 s(j.] ; fr. Aeschyl. down ; 
a. to distort, turn aside : ra^ 68ovs Kvpiov ras fvddas, fig- 
uratively (Prov. X. 10), to oppose, plot against, the saving 
purposes and plans of God, Acts xiii. 10. Hence b. 
to turn aside from the right path, to pervert, corrupt: to 
fdvos, Lk. xxiii. 2 (Polyb. 5, 41, 1 ; 8, 24, 3) ; riva dno 
Tivos, to corrupt and so turn one aside from etc. Acts 
xiii. 8, (Ex. v. 4 ; voluptates animum detorquent a vir- 
tute, Cic.) ; 8iea-Tpap.p.evos perverse, corrupt, wicked: Mt. 
xvii. 17 ; Lk. ix. 41 ; Acts xx. 30 ; Phil. ii. 15.* 

Sia-<rti5" '■ 1 aor. Steo-wcra ; 1 aor. pass. Siea-adrju ; in 
Grk. writ. fr. Hdt. down ; often in Sept., esp. for £3^0 and 
^t'tJ'in ; to preserve through danger, to bring safe through ; 
to save i. e. cure one who is sick (cf. our coUoq. bring 
him through') : Lk. vii. 3 ; pass. Mt. xiv. 36 ; to save i. e. 
keep safe, keep from perishing : Acts xxvii. 43 ; to save 
out of danger, rescue : Acts xxviii. 1 ; eK Tr)s daXacra-rji, 
ibid. 4 ; — as very often in Grk. Avrit. (see exx. in Win. 
De verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. p. 9 sq.) with specification of 
the person to whom or of the place to which one is 
brought safe through : jrpos ^fj^iKa, Acts xxiii. 24 ; eVt 
TTjv y^v. Acts xxvii. 44 ; elV rt, 1 Pet. iii. 20.* 

8ia-Ta-y^, -7)9, fj, (Staracro-m), a purely bibl. [2 Esdr. iv. 
11] and eccl. word (for which the Greeks use Stara^ty), 
o disposition, arrangement, ordinance : Ro. xiii. 2 ; eXd- 
iSfTf Tov vofxov els 8iaTayds dyyeXcov, Acts vii. 53, ye re- 
ici ed the law, influenced by the authority of the ordain- 
ing angels, or because ye thought it your duty to receive 
what was enjoined by angels (at the ministration of an- 
gels [nearly i. q. as being the ordinances etc.], similar 
to fU ovofia bexfcrdat, Mt. x. 41 ; see fls, B. II. 2 d. ; [W. 
398 (372), cf. 228 (214), also B. 151 (131)]). On the 



Jewish opinion that angels were employed as God's 
assistants in the solemn proclamation of the Mosaic law, 
cf. Deut. xxxiii. 2 Sept. ; Acts vii. 38 ; Gal. iii. 19; Heb. 
ii. 2 ; Joseph, antt. 15, 5, 3 ; [Philo de somn. i. § 22; Bp. 
Lghtft. Com. on Gal. 1. c.].* 

8id-Ta'y|ia, -tos, to, (Siarda-ffo)), an injunction, mandate: 
Heb. xi. 23 [Lchm. Soypa]. (2 Esdr. vii. 11 ; Add. Esth. 
iii. 14 [in Tdf. ch. iii. fin., line 14]; Sap. xi. 8 ; Philo, 
decal. § 4; Diod. 18, 64; Plut. Marcell. c. 24 fin.; 
[al.].)* 

Sia-rapcura-a), or -tto) : 1 aor. pass. bterapdxOrjv ; to agi- 
tate greatly, trouble greatly, (Lat. perturbare) : Lk. i. 29. 
(Plat., Xen., al.) * 

Sia-rdo-o-w ; 1 aor. Stera^a; pf. inf. Siarfraxevai (Acts 
xviii. 2 [not Tdf.]) ; Pass., pf. ptcp. 8iaT(Tayp.evos ; 1 aor. 
ptcp. 8iaTaxdfLS ; 2 aor. ptcp. Siarayeis ; Mid., pres. 8ia- 
Taacropai ; fut. 8iaTd^op.ai ; 1 aor. 8i,fTa^ani]v ; (on the 
force of Std cf . Germ, verordnen, [Lat. disponere. Win. 
De verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. p. 7 sq.]) ; to arrange, ap- 
point, ordain, prescribe, give order : rivi, Mt. xi. 1 ; 1 Co. 
xvi. 1 ; foil, by ace. with inf., Lk. viii. 55 ; Acts xviii. 2 
[here T Ttrax- Tr mrg. br. 8ia- ; tivI foil, by inf. 1 Co. ix. 
14] ; tI, pass., 6 v6p.os Siarayety Si' dyyeXcov (see Starayjy) : 
Gal. iii. 19, (Hes. opp. 274); tivi tl, pass.: Lk. iii. 13; 
xvii. 9 [Rec], 10 ; Acts xxiii. 31. Mid. : 1 Co. vii. 17; 
ovro) ?iv 8iaTfTaypevos (cf. W. 262 (246) ; [B. 193 (167)]), 
Acts XX. 13 ; Tivi, Tit. i. 5 ; ri, 1 Co. xi. 34 ; rivl, foil, by 
inf. : Acts vii. 44 ; xxiv. 23. [Comp. : eTTi-8iaTda-aopai.^ * 

Sia-^eXc'o), -oi ; to bring thoroughly to an end, accomplish, 
[cf. Sid, C. 2] ; with the addition of tov ^lov, tov xpovov, 
etc., it is joined to participles or adjectives and denotes 
the continuousness of the act or state expressed by the 
ptcp. or adj. (as in Hdt. 6, 117; 7, 111 ; Plat. apol. p. 
31 a.) ; oftener, however, without the accus. it is joined 
with the same force simply to the ptcps. or adjs. : thus 
aaiToi SiareXftrf ye continue fasting, constantbj fast. Acts 
xxvii. 33 (so dacfiaXeaTepos [al. -raTos^ SiareXei, Thuc. 1, 
34; often in Xen.; W. 348 (326); [B. 304 (261)]).* 

Sia-nipew, -w ; 3 pers. sing. impf. Sieriypei ; to keep con- 
tinually or carefully (see 8id, C. 2) : Lk. ii. 51, (Gen. 
xxxvii. 11) ; efiavTov ex tivos (cf. Trjpflv e/c rivos, Jn. xvii. 
15), to keep one's self (pure) from a thing. Acts xv. 29; 
dTTo TLvos for 10^ foil, by jD, Ps. xi. (xii.) 8. (Plat., 
Dem., Polyb., al.) * 

8ia-T£, see Std, B. II. 2 a. p. 134^ 

8ia-TC0iifii : to place separately, dispose, arrange, appoint, 
[cf. 8Ld, C. 3]. In the N. T. only in Mid., pres. Siari<9f- 
pai ; 2 aor. 8if6epTjv ; fut. 8i.adT](Topai ; 1. to arrange^ 
dispose of, one's own affairs; a. ri, of something that 
belongs to one (often so in prof. auth. fr. Xen. down) ; 
with dat. of pers. added, in one's favor, to one's advan- 
tage ; hence to assign a thing to another as his possession : 
TivL ^aaiXflav (to appoint), Lk. xxii. 29. b. to dispose 
of by will, make a testament : Heb. ix. 16 sq. ; (Plat. legg. 
11 p. 924 e.; with 8ia6r]Kr]v added, ibid. p. 923 c., etc.). 
2. 8iaTidfpai8iad^Kr)VTivl (^^D r\^ r\n3 ri:<3, Jer. xxxviiL 
(xxxi.) 31 sqq.), to make a covenant, enter into cove- 
nant, with one, [cf. W. 225 (211); B. 148 (129 sq.)]: 



Biarpi^o) 



143 



Cia-xXevd^co 



Heb. viii. 10, (Gen. xv. 18) ; npos riva, Acts iii. 25 ; Ileb. 
X. 16, (Deut. vii. 2); fifrd nvos, 1 Mace. i. 11. The 
Grks. said crvvTtde^ai, npos riva, ai irpos riva avvdfJKai,, 
Xen. Cyr. 3, 1, 21. [Comp. : avTi-diaTidrjfjii..^* 

8ia-Tp(p<o ; im])f. Sierpt/3oi' ; 1 aor. Bierpf^a ; to rub 
between, rub hard, (prop. Horn. II. 11, 847, al.) ; to wear 
away, consume ; xP^^o" or fifiepai, to spend, pass time : 
Acts xiv. 3, 28 ; xvi. 12 ; xx. 6 ; xxv. 6, 14, (Lev. xiv. 8 ; 
Arstph., Xen., Plat., al.) ; simply to stay, tarry, [of. B. 
145 (127); W. 593 (552)]: Jn. iii. 22; xi. 54 [WH Tr 
txt. e/ifti/ei/]; Acts xii. 19 ; xiv. 18 (Lchm. ed. min.) ; xv. 
35 ; (Judith x. 2 ; 2 ]\Iacc. xiv. 23, and often in prof, 
auth. fr. Ilom. II. 19, 150 down).* 

8ia-Tpo4>ifi, -fjs, Tj, {8iaTpe(p(o to support), sustenance : 
1 Tim. vi. 8. (Xen. vect. 4, 49 ; Menand. ap. Stob. 
floril. 61,1 [vol. ii. 386 ed. Gaisf.] ; Diod. 19, 32 ; Epict. 
ench. 12 ; Joseph, antt. 2, 5, 7 ; 4, 8, 21 ; often in Plut. ; 
1 Mace. vi. 49.) * 

Si-avya^w : 1 aor. Sirjvyaa-a ; to shine through, (Vulg. 
elucesco), to dawn; of daylight breaking through the 
darkness of night (Polyb. 3, 104, 5, [cf. Act. Andr. 8 
p. 116 ed. Tdf.]) : 2 Pet. i. 19. [Plut. de plac. philos. 
3, 3, 2; al. (see Soph. Lex. s. v.).]* 

Siavyrjs, -er, {avyr]), translucent, transparent: Rev. xxi. 
21, for the liec. 8ia(pavT]s. ([Aristot.], Philo, ApoU. 
E.h., Lcian., Plut., Themist. ; often in the Anthol.) * 

8ia4>avTJs, -es, (8ia(j)aipoi to show through), transparent, 
translucent : Rev. xxi. 21 Rec. ; see Stauyjjy. (Hdt., 
Arstph., Plat., al.) * 

Si,a-(|>e'pa> ; 2 aor. dirjveyKov [but the subj. 3 pers. sing. 
SifveyKT] (Mk. xi. 16), the only aor. form which occurs, 
can come as well fr. 1 aor. dir]veyKa ; cf. Veitch s. v. 
<f)epa>, fin.] ; Pass., [pres. 8ta0epo/xai] ; impf. bie^epofirjv ; 
[fr. Horn. (h. Merc. 255), Pind. down] ; 1. to hear or 
carry through any place : GKevoa hia tov lepov, Mk. xi. 
16. 2. to carry different ways, i. e. a. trans, to carry 
in different directions, to different places : thus persons 
are said 8ia(f)epea-dai, who are carried hither and thither 
in a ship, driven to and fro, Acts xxvii. 27, (Strab. 3, 2, 7 
p. 144 ; cTKCLCpos liv ivavriav irvfvp.arodv 8ia(pep6p.€vov, Philo, 
migr. Abr. § 27; Lcian. liermot. 28; often in Plut.); 
metaph. to spread abroad : diecpfpero 6 \6yos roii Kvplov 
8i oXrjs rrjs ;(a)pa?, Acts xiii. 49, (dyyeAt'ay, Lcian. dial, 
deor. 24, 1 ; (j)r]fir) 8ia(f)epeTai, Plut. mor. p. 163 d.). b. 
intrans. (like the Lat. differo) to differ: SoKi^a^eti/ ra 
8ia({>epovTa to test, prove, the things that differ, i. e. to 
distinguish between good and evil, lawful and unlawful, 
Ro. ii. 18 ; Phil. i. 10, (^8idKpiais kuXov re koI kokov, Ileb. 
v. 14); cf. Thai. Com. on Rom. p. Ill ed. 5.; Theoph. 
Ant. ad Autol. p. 6 ed. Otto 8oKifidCovTfs ra 8i,a(f)€povTa, 
rJToi (f)a)s, fj (TKOTos, 17 XevKov, ^ fieXav ktX.) ; [al.. adopting a 
secondary sense of each verb in the above passages, trans- 
late (cf. A. V.) to approve the things that excel; see Mey. 
(yet cf. ed. Weiss) on Ro. 1. c. ; Ellic. on Phil. 1. c.]. 
Biacpepm rtvoi, to differ from one, i. e. to excel, surpass 
one: Mt. vi. 26; x. 31 ; xii. 12; Lk. xii. 7, 24, (often so 
in Attic auth.) ; nvos ev rivi, 1 Co. xv. 41 ; [vivos ov8€v. 
Gal. iv. 1]. c. impersonally, 5ta0ep« it makes a differ- 



ence, it matters, is of importance : ov8fv not 8ia(f>epfi. it 
matters nothing to me. Gal. ii. 6, (Plat. Prot. p. 316 b. 
rjpTiv oi8fv 8ia(j)€pfi, p. 358 e. ; de rep. 1 p. 340 c; Dem. 
124, 3 (in Phil. 3, 50) ; Polyb. 3, 21, 9 ; Ael. v. h. 1, 25 ; 
al. ; [cf. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 394 ; Wetst. on Gal. 1. c.]).* 

8i.a-(f>ev-yw : [2 aor. 8if(f)vyov2 ; fr. Hdt. down ; to Jlee 
through danger, to escape : Acts xxvii. 42, (Prov. xix. 5; 
Josh. viii. 22).* 

8ia-<t>i)p.Ct<» ; 1 aor. 8u(f)rjp.i(Ta ; 1 aor. pass. 8i.f(f)r]fiia67]i> ; 
to spread abroad, blaze ahroad : rouXoyou, Mk. i. 45 ; Mt. 
xxviii. 15 [T WH mrg. fiprj^iiird.] ; riva, to spread abroad 
his fame, verbally diffuse his renown, Mt. ix. 31 ; in Lat. 
diffamare aliquem, but in a bad sense. (Rarely in Grk. 
writ., as Arat. phaen. 221 ; Dion. Hal. 11, 46; Palaeph. 
incred. 14, 4 ; [cf. Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. p. 
14 sq.].) * 

8ia-<{>0€(pa); 1 aor. 8ucf)6€ipa; Pass., [pres. 8ia(p6fipo- 
fiai]; pf. ptcp. 8te(f)6app.fvos ; 2 aor. 8i((f)6dpT]v ; Sept. 
very often for nni^, occasionally for San ; in Grk. writ, 
fr. Horn, down ; 1. to change for the worse, to cor- 
rupt : minds, morals ; ttjv yrjv, i. e. the men that in- 
habit the earth. Rev. xi. 18 ; 8i€(})dapp.ivoi tov vovv, 1 Tim- 
vi. 5, (jrjv didvoiav, Plat. legg. 10 p. 888 a.; rr^v yvaprjv, 
Dion. Hal. antt. 5, 21 ; tovs 6(p6aXfiovs, Xen. an. 4, 5, 12). 
2. to destroy, ruin, {\jat.perd ere); a. to consume, oihodily 
vigor and strength : 6 i'^co fjficov avOparros 8ia(^6elpeTai [is 
decayingl, 2 Co. iv. 16 ; of the worm or moth that eats pro- 
visions, clothing, etc. Lk. xii. 33. b. to destroy (Lat. de- 
lere) : Rev. viii. 9 ; to kill, 8ia(f)6(ipfLv rois etc. Rev. xi. 18.* 

8ia-<)>6opd, -as, fj, {8ia^6fipai), corruption, destruction ; 
in the N. T. that destruction which is effected by the de- 
cay of the body after death: Acts ii. 27, 31 ; xiii. 34-37 
[cf. W. § 65, 10], see ei'fica, I. 5 and inroa-rpfcfxo, 2. (Sept. 
for r\r\^i ; in Grk. writ. fr. Aeschyl. down.)* 

8id-<|)opos, -01', (8La(f)fp<ii} ; 1. different, varying in 
hind, (Hdt. and sqq.) : Ro. xii. 6; Heb. ix. 10. 2. 
excellent, surpassing, ([Diod.], Polyb., Plut., al.) : corn- 
par. 8ia(f)opaiTepos, Heb. i. 4 ; viii. 6.* 

8ia-<j>v\dcro-w : 1 aor. inf. 8ia(j)vXd^ai ; fr. Hdt. down ; 
to guard carefully: rivd, Lk. iv. 10 fr. Ps. xc. (xci.) 11. 
" The seventy chose to employ this term esp. of God's 
providential care; cf. Gen. xxviii. 15; Josh. xxiv. 17; 
Ps. xl. (xii.) 3. Hence it came to pass that the later 
writers at the close of their letters used to write 8i.a(})v- 
XaTToi, 8ia(f)vXd^oi vfjids 6 Beds, cf. Theodoret. iii. pp. 800, 
818, 826, (edd. Schulze, Nosselt, etc. Hal.)." Win. De 
verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. p. 16.* 

8ia-x.€ipit<d : 1 aor. mid. 8iexfi-pi-o'dfiT]v ; to move by the use 
of the hands, take in hand, manage, administer, govern, (fr. 
[Andoc, Lys.], Xen. and Plato down). Mid. to lay hands 
on, slay, kill [with one's own hand] : Tivd (Polyb. 8, 23, 8; 
Diod. 18, 46; Joseph., Dion. Hal., Plut., Hdian.), Acts 
V. 30 ; xxvi. 21.* 

8ia-xX€wd5a) ; to deride, scoff, mock, [" deridere i. e. 
ridendo exagitare" Win.]: Acts ii. 13 G LT TrWH. 
(Plat. Ax. p. 364 b. ; Dem. p. 1221, 26 [adv. Polycl. 49 | : 
Aeschin. dial. 3, 2 ; Polyb. 1 7, 4, 4 ; al. ; eccles. writ.) Ci. 
Win. De verb. comp. etc. Pt. v. p. 1 7.* 



di,ax_(^pi^(o 



144 



dtS: 



"'Xn 



iia-\upit,a: to separate thoroughly or wholly (cf. iid, C. 
2), (Arstph., Xen., Plat., al. ; Sept.). Pass. pres. Sia- 
j^upi^Ofiat ([in reflex, sense] cf. aTrox^wpi^a)) to separate 
one's self, depart, (Gen. xiii. 9, 11, 14 ; Diod. 4, 53) : otto 
Tivos, Lk. ix. 33.* 

SiSaKTiKos, -Tj, -6v, (i. q. bibadKokiKOi in Grk. writ.), apt 
and skilful in teaching : 1 Tim. iii. 2 ; 2 Tim. ii. 24. (8t- 
buKTiKTf dperrj, the virtue which renders one teachable, 
docility, Philo, praem. et poen. § 4; [de congressu erud. 

§7].)* 

SiSaKTOs, -^, -ov, (8i8d(TK(o) ; 1. that can be taught 
(Pind., Xen., Plat., al.). 2. taught, instructed, foil, by 
gen. %one [cf. W. 189 (178); 194(182); B. 169(147)]: 
Tov d(ov, by God, Jn. vi. 45 fr. Is. liv. 13 ; irvevpaTos Ay'iov 
[G L T Tr WII om. dytov'], by the (Holy) Spirit, 1 Co. ii. 
13. (vovdeTTjpara Keivrjs SiSaicra, Soph. El. 344.) * 

SiSoo-KoXia, -as, fj, (6t5dcr«aXos), [fr. Pind. down] ; 1. 
teaching, instruction : Ro. xii. 7 ; xv. 4 {els rfjv Tjfierepav 
bidaaKoXiav, that we might be taught, [A. V. for our 
learning}); 1 Tim. iv. 13, 16; v. 17; 2 Tim. iii. 10, 16; 
Tit. ii. 7. 2. teaching i. e. that ichich is taught, doc- 
trine : Eph. iv. 14 ; 1 Tim. i. 10 ; iv. 6 ; vi. 1, 3 ; 2 Tim. iv. 
3 ; Tit. i. 9 ; ii. 1, 10 ; plur. SiSao-KoXtai teachings, precepts, 
(fr. Is. xxLx. 13), Mt. xv. 9 ; IVIk. vii. 7 ; dvdpanav, Col. ii. 
22; daipovlav, 1 Tim. iv. 1.* 

8i8d<j-Ka\os, -ov, 6, (StSatrxo)), a teacher ; in the N. T. one 
who teaches concerning the things of God, and the duties 
of man ; 1. of one who is fitted to teach, or thinks 
himself so: Heb. v. 12; Ro. ii. 20. 2. of the teachers 
of the Jewish rehgion : Lk. ii. 46 ; Jn. iii. 10 ; hence the 
Hebr. 2'\_ is rendered in Greek 8iMaKa\os : Jn. i. 38 (39) ; 
XX. 16 ; cf. below, under pa^^i, and Pressel in Ilerzog 
xii. p. 471 sq. ; \_Camphell, Dissert, on the Gospels, diss. 
vii. pt. 2]. 3. of those who by their great power as 
teachers drew crowds about them ; a. of John the Ba]> 
tist : Lk. iii. 12. b. of Jesus : Jn. i. 38 (39) ; iii. 2 ; viii. 4 ; 
xi. 28 ; xiii. 13 sq. ; xx. 16 ; often in the first three Gospels. 
4. by preeminence used of Jesus by himself, as the one 
who showed men the way of salvation : Mt. xxiii. 8 L T 
Tr WH. 5. of the apostles : 6 bibda-KoKos tSuv iOvwv, 
of Paul, 1 Tim. ii. 7; 2 Tim. i. 11. 6. of those who 
in the religious assemblies of Christians undertook the 
work of teaching, with the special assistance of the Holy 
Spirit: 1 Co. xii. 28 sq. ; Eph. iv. 11; Acts xiii. 1, cf. 
Jas. iii. 1. 7. of false teachers among Christians : 2 
Tim. iv. 3. [Hom. (h. Merc. 556). Aeschyl., al.] 

8i8da-Kw ; impf. iblbatTKOv ; fut. SiSa^co ; 1 aor. ibiba^a ; 
1 aor. pass. ibibdxBrjv, (AAQ [cf. Vanicek p. 327]) ; [fr. 
Hom. down] ; Sept. for ;^"1in, TTiin, and esp. for -\'!ph ; 
to teach ; 1. absol. a. to hold discourse with others 
in order to instruct them, deliver didactic discourses : Mt. 
iv. 23 ; xxi. 23 ; Mk. i. 21 ; vi. 6 ; xiv. 49 ; Lk. iv. 15 ; v. 
17 ; vi. 6 ; Jn. vi. 59 ; vii. 14 ; xviii. 20, and often in the 
Gospels; 1 Tim. ii. 12. b. to be a teacher (see bibd- 
o-rnXof, 6) : Ro. xii. 7. c. to discharge the office of teach- 
4" conauct one's self as a teacher: 1 Co. iv. 17. 2. in 
construction ; a. either in imitation of the Hebr. 7 TsS 
(Job xxi. 22), or by an irregular use of the later Greeks 



(of which no well-attested example remains exc. one in 
Plut. Marcell. c. 12), withdat. of person : tw BaXa<, Rev, 
ii. 14 (ace. to the reading now generally accepted for the 
Rec.be^eiz ^^^ ^^^^^ . (,£. fi. 149 (130) ; W. 223 (209), cf. 
227 (213). b. ace. to the regular use, with ace. of pers., 
to teach one : used of Jesus and the apostles uttering iu 
public what they wished their hearers to know and re- 
member, Mt. V. 2 ; Mk. i. 22 ; ii. 13 ; iv. 2 ; Lk. v. 3 ; Jn. 
viii. 2 ; Acts iv. 2 ; v. 25 ; xx. 20 ; tovs "EXXrjvas, to act 
the part of a teacher among the Greeks, Jn. vii. 35 ; used 
of those who enjoin upon others to observe some ordi- 
nance, to embrace some opinion, or to obey some pre- 
cept : Mt. V. 1 9 ; Acts xv. 1 ; Heb. viii. 1 1 ; with esp. 
reference to the addition which the teacher makes to 
the knowledge of the one he teaches, to impart instruc' 
tion, instil doctrine into one: Acts xi. 26; xxi. 28; Jn. 
ix. 34; Ro. ii. 21 ; CoL iii. 16 ; 1 Jn. ii. 27; Rev. ii. 20. 
c. the thing taught or enjoined is indicated by a folL 
ort : IVIk. viii. 31 ; 1 Co. xi. 14; by a foil, infin., Lk. xi. 
1 ; Mt. xxviii. 20; Rev. ii. 14 ; nepi tivos, 1 Jn. ii. 27; 
iv Xpiara bibaxdrjvai, to be taught in the fellowship of 
Christ, Eph. iv. 21 ; foil, by an ace. of the thing, to teach 
i. e. prescribe a thing: bibacrKoXlas, firraXpara dvdpwnav, 
precepts which are commandments of men (fr. Is. xxix. 
13), Mt. XV. 9 ; Mk. vii. 7, [B. 148 (129)] ; Trjv 6b6u rev 
6eov, Mt. xxii. 16 ; Mk. xii. 14 ; Lk. xx. 21 ; ravra, 1 Tim. 
iv. '11 ; a pfj bel, Tit. i. 11 ; to explain, expound, a thing: 
Acts xviii. 11, 25 ; xxviii. 31 ; dirooTacrlav divb Mwvo-f'ws, 
the necessity of forsaking Moses, Acts xxi. 21. d. with 
ace. of pers. and of thing, to teach one something [W. 226 
sq. (212); B. 149 (130)]: [eVeii/oy vpas bibd^ei iravra, 
Jn. xiv. 26]; tov bibdo'Keiv vnas riva rd crrotj^fta, Heb. v, 
1 2 (where R G T Tr and others read — not so well — - 
Tiva; [butcf. B. 260 (224) note, 268 (230) note]) ; irtpovs 
bibd^at, sc. avTd, 2 Tim. ii. 2 ; hence pass, bibaxd^vai ti 
[B. 188 (163); W. 229 (215)] : Gal. i. 12 (ibibdxBrjv, sc. 
avrd), 2 Th. ii. 15. 

8i8ax'^, -i]s, ff, {bibda-KU)), [fr. Hdt. down] ; 1. teach- 
ing, viz. that which is taught : Mk. i. 27 ; Jn. vii. 16 ; Acts 
xvii. 19 ; Ro. [vi. 17]; xvi. 17 ; 2 Jn. 10 ; Rev. ii. 24 ; ^ 
bib. Tivos, one's doctrine, i. e. what he teaches : Mt. vii. 
28 ; xvi. 12 ; xxii. 33 ; Mk. i. 22 ; xi. 18 ; Lk. iv. 32 ; Jn. 
xviii. 19 ; Acts v. 28; Rev. ii. 14 sq. ; rj bibaxq of God, 
Toil Kvpiov, TOV Xpiaroii, the doctrine which has God, 
Christ, the Lord, for its author and supporter : Jn. vii. 
17; Acts xiii. 12 ; 2 Jn. 9 ; with the gen. of the object, 
doctrine, teaching, concerning something: Heb. vi. 2 [W. 
187 (176); 192 (181); 551 (513)]; plur. Heb. xiii. 9. 
2. [the act of] teaching, instruction, (ci.bibaa-icaXta [on the 
supposed distinction betw. the two words and their use 
in the N. T. see Ellic. on 2 Tim. iv. 2 ; they are asso- 
ciated in 2 Tim. iv. 2, 3 ; Tit. i. 9]) : Acts ii. 42 ; 2 Tim. 
iv. 2 ; ev tjj bibaxu, while he was teaching, a phrase by 
which the Evangelist indicates that he is about to cite 
some of the many words which .Tesus spoke at that 
time, Mk. iv. 2; xii. 38; rod Kara tt/v bibax^v 7na~rov 
\6yov, the faithful word which is in accordance with the 
received (2 Tim. iii. 14) instruction, Tit. i. 9 ; in partic- 



SiSpa'x^fjiOv 



145 



^iBcofii 



ular, the teaching of the Sibda-KoXos (q. v. 6) in the relig- 
ious assemblies of Christians : XaXeii/ ev BiSaxjj to speak 
in the way of teaching, in distinction from otlier modes 
of speaking in public, 1 Co. xiv. 6 ; exio diSaxrjv, to have 
something to teach, ibid. 26.* 

8(SpaxH>'0v, -ov, to, (neut. of the adj. SiSpaxfJ^os, -ov, sc. 
fd/Ltto-fxa ; fr. bis and Spaxfif]), a didrachmon or double- 
drachma, a silver coin equal to two Attic drachmas or 
one Alexandrian, or half a shekel, [about one third of a 
dollar] (see in apyvpiov, 3) : Mt. xvii. 24. (Sept. often 
for Sp.^ ; [Poll., Galen].) * 

SCSvfxos, -»7, -ov, and -os, -ov, twofold, twain, (double, Hom. 
Od. 19, 227; as rpibvfios triple, rerpaSvpos quadruple, 
iirrdbvpos) ', hence twin (sc. irali, as rpldvpoi nalSts, vloi. 
Germ. Drill inge, three born at a birth), Hebr. Di^P, a 
surname of the apostle Thomas [cf. Luthardt on the 
first of the foil. pass. ; B. D. s. v. Thomas] : Jn. xi. 16 ; 
XX. 24 ; xxi. 2. (Hom. H. 23, 641.) * 

8l8«|jii (SiScS, Rev. iii. 9 LT WH; [8i8co Tr, yet see 
WH. App. p. 167]), 3 pers. plur. 8i86aai (Rev. xvii. 13 
[not Rec.]), impv. 8l8ov (Mt. v. 42 R G) ; impf. 3 pers. 
sing. ebiSov, 3 pers. plur. (8i8ovv (f8i8oaav, Jn. xix. 3 L T 
Tr WH [see «x'«']) ; fut. Soxrw ; 1 aor. eSwKo [2 pers. 
sing. -K€s, Jn. xvii. 7 Trmrg., 8 Trmrg. ; cf. reff. s. v. 
KO!Tia<a], subjunc. 8aj(Tr] [and duxrcapev^ fr. an imaginary 
indie, form ebaaa, [Mk. vi. 37 T Trmrg.] ; Jn. xvii. 2 (Tr 
mrg. WH acio-fO ; Rev. viii. 3 (L T Tr WH bdxrei; cf. Lob. 
ad Phryn. p. 720 sq. ; B. 36 (31) ; W. 79 (76) ; [Veitch 
s. V. 818. fin., also Soph. Lex. s. v. and esp. Intr. p. 40 ; 
WH. App. p. 172]); pf. 8e8ci}Ka [on the interchange 
between the forms of the pf. and of the aor. in this verb 
cf. B. 199 (172)]; plpf. tSfbaxeiv and without augm. 
[W. § 12, 9 ; B. 33 (29)] geSob/cfii', Mk. xiv. 44 ; and L 
txt. T Tr WH in Lk. xix. 15 ; 3 pers. plur. 8f8a)Kfiaav, Jn. 
xi. 57; 2 aor. subjunc. 3 pers. sing. 8a [^doirj, Jn. xv. 16 Tr 
mrg. ; Eph. i. 17 WH mrg. ; 2 Tim. ii. 25 L WHmrg. ; 
So'i, Mk. viii. 37 T Tr WH ; cf. B. 46 (40) ; WH. App. p. 
168 ; Kuenen and Cobet, praef. p. Ixi.], plur. 8apev, bare, 
8d>aiv, optat. 3 pers. sing. 8(ot] for 8oirj, Ro. xv. 5 ; [2 Th. 
iii. 16] ; 2 Tim. i. 16, 18 ; [ii. 25 T Tr WH txt. ; Eph. i. 
17RG; iii. 16 RG] and elsewhere among the variants 
([of. W. § 14, 1 g.; B. 46 (40), cf. § 139, 37 and G2] ; see 
IWH. App. u. s.; Tdf. Proleg. p. 122;] Lob. ad Phryn. 
p. 346 ; [Kuhner § 282 Anm. 2 ; Veitch s. v. 8i8copL ad 
fin.]), impv. 86s, 86re, inf. 8ovvai, ptcp. Sois ; Pass., pf. 
8e8opai. ; 1 aor. i866r]v ; 1 fut. 8o6f]aopai ; cf. B. 45 (39) 
sq. ; [WH u. s.]. In the Sept. times without number for 
|j"3J, sometimes for Dity ; and for Chald. DH' ; [fr. Hom. 
down] ; to give ; 

A. absolutely and generally : paicdpiov ian p.a\\ov 
8i8ovai, *] Xap^avfiv, Acts xx. 35. 

B. In construction ; I. tiv'i ti, to give something 
to some one, — in various senses; 1. of one's own ac- 
cord to give one something, to his advantage ; to bestow, 
give as a gift : Mt. iv. 9 ; Lk. i. 32 ; xii. 32, and often ; 
86paTa [cf. B. 148 (129)], Mt. vii. 11 ; Lk. xi. 13 ; Eph. 
iv. 8 (Ps. Ixvii. (Ixviii.) 19); to. vTrdpxovra what thou 
hast Tolf TTTcoxoLs, Mt. xix. 21 ; ;^pj7/iaTa, Acts xxiv. 26. 



2. to grant, give to one asking, let have : Mt. xii. 39 ; xiv. 
7 sq.; xvi. 4; xx. 23; Mk. vi. 22, 25; viii. 12; x.40; 
Lk. xi. 29 ; xv. 16 ; Jn. xi. 22 ; xiv. 16 ; xv. 16 ; xvi. 23 ; 
Acts iii. 6 ; Jas. i. 5 ; [noteworthy is 1 Jn. v. 16 fiwo-fi (sc. 
prob. 6 6e6s) avra ^ar/v roty dfiaprdvovaiv etc., where 
aiT<a seems to be an ethical dat. and t. afxap. dependent 
on the verb; see B. 133 (116) note, cf. 179 (156); W.523 
(487), cf. 530(494)]; in contradistinction from what 
one claims: Jn. iii. 27; xix. 11. 3. to supply, furnish, 
necessary things : as aprov rivi, Mt. vi. 1 1 ; Lk. xi. 3 ; Jn. 
vi. 32, 51 ; Tpo<pfjv, Mt. xxiv. 45 ; ^pwaiv, Jn. vi. 27 ; be- 
sides in Mt. XXV. 15, 28 sq. ; Mk. ii. 26 ; iv. 25 ; Lk. vi. 
4 ; viii. 18 ; xii. 42 ; xix. 24, 26 ; Jn. iv. 10, 14, 15 ; Eph. 
vi. 19. 4. to give over, deliver, i. e. a. to reach out, 

extend, present: as Mt. xiv. 19; xvii. 27; Mk. vi. 41; 
xiv. 22 sq. ; Lk. ix. 16 ; xxii. 19 ; ro y\ra>pilov, Jn. xiii. 26 ; 
TO Tt oTTjpiov, Jn. xviii. 11 ; Rev. xvi. 19 ; tos x^'^P*^^ 8186- 
vai to give one the hand, Acts ix. 41 ; Gal. ii. 9. b. of a 
writing: hiroaTdcrtov, Mt. v. 31. c. to give to one's care, 
intrust, commit; aa. something to be administered; 
univ. : iravri <a (8667) noXv, Lk. xii. 48 ; property, money, 
Mt. XXV. 15 ; Lk. xix. 13, 15 ; d/i7rfX<i5i/a, a vineyard to 
be cultivated, Mk. xii. 9 ; Lk. xx. 1 6 ; tch kXcIs [KXetSat ] 
Trjs ^acr. Mt. xvi. 19; tt^v Kplaiv, Jn. v. 22; Kp'ipa, Rev. 
XX. 4; Tr}v e^ovaiav iavTcov, Rev. xvii. 13 [not Rec.]; ra 
fpya, iva TfXeiaxTco avTa, Jn. v, 36 ; to (pyov, tva noiTjcrco, 
Jn. xvii. 4 ; to ovopa tov 6fov, to be declared, Jn. xvii. i 1 
[not Rec, 12 T Tr WH]. bb. to give or commit to some 
one something to be religiously observed : 8ia6r]KT)v irepiTo- 
prjs, Acts vii. 8 ; ttjv irepiTopfjv, the ordinance of circum- 
cision, Jn. vii. 22; tov vopov, ibid. vs. 19; Xoyia ^wvTa, 
Acts vii. 38. 5. to give what is due or obligatory, to 

pay: wages or reward, Mt. xx. 4, 14 ; xxvi. 15 ; Rev. xi. 
18; dpyvpiov, as a reward, Mk. xiv. 11 ; Lk. xxii. 5; 
taxes, tribute, tithes, etc.: Mt. xvii. 27; xxii. 17; Mk. 
xii. 14 (15) ; Lk. xx. 22 ; xxiii. 2 ; Heb. vii. 4 ; dvcrlav sc. t^ 
Kvpico, Lk. ii. 24 (dvcrlav dno8ovvai. tw 6fa>, Joseph, antt. 
7, 9, 1) ; Xoyov, render account, Ro. xiv. 12 [L txt. Trtxt. 
aTToS.]. 6. St'Sm/Lii is joined with nouns denoting an 
act or an effect ; and a. the act or effect of liim who 
gives, in such a sense that what he is said 8i86vai (either 
absolutely or with dat. of pers.) he is conceived of as